List of neurological conditions and disorders

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Neurological Conditions and Disorders

A neurological disorder is a condition that affects the nervous system. These disorders can affect the central nervous system, which includes the brain and spinal cord, or the peripheral nervous system, which includes all other neural elements.

List of Neurological Conditions and Disorders

Alzheimer's disease

Pronunciation: /ˈælts.haɪ.mərz/ Etymology: Named after Alois Alzheimer, the German psychiatrist who first described it. Related terms: Dementia, Memory loss

Alzheimer's disease is a progressive disorder that causes brain cells to waste away (degenerate) and die. It's the most common cause of dementia — a continuous decline in thinking, behavioral and social skills that disrupts a person's ability to function independently.

Parkinson's disease

Pronunciation: /ˈpɑːr.kɪn.sən/ Etymology: Named after James Parkinson, the English surgeon who first described it as "the shaking palsy". Related terms: Tremor, Rigidity, Bradykinesia

Parkinson's disease is a progressive nervous system disorder that affects movement. Symptoms start gradually, sometimes starting with a barely noticeable tremor in just one hand. Tremors are common, but the disorder also commonly causes stiffness or slowing of movement.

Multiple sclerosis

Pronunciation: /ˌmʌl.tɪ.plə ˈsklɛrəʊsɪs/ Etymology: From the Latin "multi-" (many) and "sclerose" (hardening), referring to the multiple areas of scarring (sclerosis) that this disease causes in the brain and spinal cord. Related terms: Demyelination, Autoimmune disease

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a potentially disabling disease of the brain and spinal cord (central nervous system). In MS, the immune system attacks the protective sheath (myelin) that covers nerve fibers and causes communication problems between your brain and the rest of your body.


Pronunciation: /ˈɛpɪlɛpsi/ Etymology: From the Greek "epilēpsía", meaning "to seize" or "to take hold of". Related terms: Seizure, Convulsion

Epilepsy is a central nervous system (neurological) disorder in which brain activity becomes abnormal, causing seizures or periods of unusual behavior, sensations, and sometimes loss of awareness.


Pronunciation: /strəʊk/ Etymology: From the Old English "strac", meaning "stroke" or "blow". Related terms: Cerebrovascular accident, Ischemia, Hemorrhage

A stroke occurs when the blood supply to part of your brain is interrupted or reduced, depriving brain tissue of oxygen and nutrients. Within minutes, brain cells begin to die.

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