Concise dictionary of health terms

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  • Abetalipoproteinemia    a rare inherited disorder of fat metabolism; characterized by severe deficiency of beta lipoproteins and abnormal red blood cells (acanthocytes) and abnormally low cholesterol levels
  • ability    the quality of being able to perform; a quality that permits or facilitates achievement or accomplishment; possession of the qualities (especially mental qualities) required to do something or get something done
  • Ability    the quality of being able to perform; a quality that permits or facilitates achievement or accomplishment; possession of the qualities (especially mental qualities) required to do something or get something done
  • Abstinence    act or practice of refraining from indulging an appetite; the trait of abstaining (especially from alcohol)
  • academic    hypothetical or theoretical and not expected to produce an immediate or practical result; marked by a narrow focus on or display of learning especially its trivial aspects; associated with academia or an academy;  an educator who works at a college or university
  • Accessibility    the attribute of being easy to meet or deal with; the quality of being at hand when needed
  • accident    anything that happens by chance without an apparent cause; a mishap; especially one causing injury or death
  • Ace of spades    the ace in the spade suit; sometimes taken as a portent of death
  • acetate    a salt or ester of acetic acid; a fabric made from fibers of cellulose acetate
  • Achondroplasia    an inherited skeletal disorder beginning before birth; cartilage is converted to bone resulting in dwarfism
  • Acid rain    rain containing acids that form in the atmosphere when industrial gas emissions (especially sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides) combine with water
  • Acquired taste    a preference that is only acquired after considerable experience
  • Acromegaly    enlargement of bones of hands and feet and face; often accompanied by headache and muscle pain and emotional disturbances; caused by overproduction of growth hormone by the anterior pituitary gland (due to a tumor)
  • Acrosome    a process at the anterior end of a sperm cell that produces enzymes to facilitate penetration of the egg
  • Act of God    a natural and unavoidable catastrophe that interrupts the expected course of events
  • activist    advocating or engaged in activism;  a militant reformer
  • Adenitis    inflammation of a gland or lymph node
  • Adherence    faithful support for a religion or cause or political party; the property of sticking together (as of glue and wood) or the joining of surfaces of different composition
  • Adipose tissue    a kind of body tissue containing stored fat that serves as a source of energy; it also cushions and insulates vital organs
  • Admission    the act of admitting someone to enter; an acknowledgment of the truth of something; the fee charged for admission
  • Adrenaline    a catecholamine secreted by the adrenal medulla in response to stress (trade name Adrenalin); stimulates autonomic nerve action
  • Adulterant    making impure or corrupt by adding extraneous materials;  any substance that adulterates (lessens the purity or effectiveness of a substance)
  • advocate    a person who pleads for a cause or propounds an idea; a lawyer who pleads cases in court;  speak, plead, or argue in favour of; push for something
  • Aerobics    exercise that increases the need for oxygen
  • Afterdamp    a toxic mixture of gases (including carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide and nitrogen) after an explosion of firedamp in a mine
  • Agent Orange    a herbicide used in the Vietnam War to defoliate forest areas
  • Aggression    violent action that is hostile and usually unprovoked; deliberately unfriendly behavior; the act of initiating hostilities; a disposition to behave aggressively; a feeling of hostility that arouses thoughts of attack
  • Agility    the gracefulness of a person or animal that is quick and nimble
  • Aging    growing old;  the organic process of growing older and showing the effects of increasing age; acquiring desirable qualities by being left undisturbed for some time
  • Agriculture    the class of people engaged in growing food; the practice of cultivating the land or raising stock; a large scale farming enterprise; the federal department that administers programs that provide services to farmers (including research and soil conservation and efforts to stabilize the farming economy); created in 1862
  • Aid station    (military) a station located near a combat area for giving first aid to the wounded
  • Airborne    moved or conveyed by or through air
  • Alarm clock    a clock that wakes sleeper at preset time
  • Albedo    the ratio of reflected to incident light
  • Alberta    one of the three prairie provinces in western Canada; rich in oil and natural gas and minerals
  • alchemy    a pseudoscientific forerunner of chemistry in medieval times; the way two individuals relate to each other
  • Alcoholism    habitual intoxication; prolonged and excessive intake of alcoholic drinks leading to a breakdown in health and an addiction to alcohol such that abrupt deprivation leads to severe withdrawal symptoms; an intense persistent desire to drink alcoholic beverages to excess
  • alderman    a member of a municipal legislative body (as a city council)
  • Alice Hamilton    United States toxicologist known for her work on industrial poisons (1869 1970)
  • Alpha fetoprotein    an abnormally large amount of this fetoprotein in the fetus can signal an abnormality of the neural tube (as spina bifida or anencephaly)
  • alphabetical    arranged in order according to the alphabet; relating to or expressed by a writing system that uses an alphabet
  • alternative medicine    the practice of medicine without the use of drugs; may involve herbal medicines or self awareness or biofeedback or acupuncture
  • Altitude sickness    effects (as nosebleed or nausea) of oxygen deficiency in the blood and tissues at high altitudes
  • Ambrosia    (classical mythology) the food and drink of the gods; mortals who ate it became immortal; fruit dessert made of oranges and bananas with shredded coconut; any of numerous chiefly North American weedy plants constituting the genus Ambrosia that produce highly allergenic pollen responsible for much hay fever and asthma; a mixture of nectar and pollen prepared by worker bees and fed to larvae
  • Amelia    congenital absence of an arm or leg
  • Americium    a radioactive transuranic metallic element; discovered by bombarding uranium with helium atoms
  • Americium    a radioactive transuranic metallic element; discovered by bombarding uranium with helium atoms
  • Ammonia    a pungent gas compounded of nitrogen and hydrogen (NH3); a water solution of ammonia
  • Amniotic fluid    the serous fluid in which the embryo is suspended inside the amnion
  • Amniotic sac    thin innermost membranous sac enclosing the developing embryo of higher vertebrates (reptiles, birds and mammals)
  • Amygdalin    a bitter cyanogenic glucoside extracted from the seeds of apricots and plums and bitter almonds
  • anatomy    a detailed analysis; the branch of morphology that deals with the structure of animals; alternative names for the body of a human being
  • animal disease    a disease that typically does not affect human beings
  • Anovulation    the absence of ovulation due to immaturity or post maturity or pregnancy or oral contraceptive pills or dysfunction of the ovary
  • Antagonism    (biochemistry) interference in or inhibition of the physiological action of a chemical substance by another having a similar structure; an actively expressed feeling of dislike and hostility; the relation between opposing principles or forces or factors; a state of deep seated ill will
  • Anthrax    a disease of humans that is not communicable; caused by infection with Bacillus anthracis followed by septicemia; a highly infectious animal disease (especially cattle and sheep); it can be transmitted to people
  • Anthropometry    measurement and study of the human body and its parts and capacities
  • Anticipate    be a forerunner of or occur earlier than; realize beforehand; be excited or anxious about; act in advance of; deal with ahead of time; regard something as probable or likely; make a prediction about; tell in advance
  • Apgar score    an assessment of the physical condition of a newborn infant; involves heart rate and muscle tone and respiratory effort and color and reflex responsiveness
  • Aphrodisiac    exciting sexual desire;  a drug or other agent that stimulates sexual desire
  • Aplasia    failure of some tissue or organ to develop
  • Apoplexy    a sudden loss of consciousness resulting when the rupture or occlusion of a blood vessel leads to oxygen lack in the brain
  • Apoptosis    a type of cell death in which the cell uses specialized cellular machinery to kill itself; a cell suicide mechanism that enables metazoans to control cell number and eliminate cells that threaten the animal's survival
  • Appetite    a feeling of craving something
  • Apple of Discord    (classical mythology) a golden apple thrown into a banquet of the gods by Eris (goddess of discord who had not been invited); the apple had `for the fairest' written on it and Hera and Athena and Aphrodite all claimed it; when Paris (prince of Troy) awarded it to Aphrodite it began a chain of events that led to the Trojan War
  • Apprehension    the act of apprehending (especially apprehending a criminal); painful expectation; fearful expectation or anticipation; the cognitive condition of someone who understands
  • Aquifer    underground bed or layer yielding ground water for wells and springs etc
  • Argument    a variable in a logical or mathematical expression whose value determines the dependent variable; if f(x)=y, x is the independent variable; a summary of the subject or plot of a literary work or play or movie; a fact or assertion offered as evidence that something is true; a discussion in which reasons are advanced for and against some proposition or proposal; a contentious speech act; a dispute where there is strong disagreement
  • Arthritis    inflammation of a joint or joints
  • Artificial insemination    the introduction of semen into the oviduct or uterus by some means other than sexual intercourse
  • artificial intelligence    the branch of computer science that deal with writing computer programs that can solve problems creatively
  • Asbestos    a fibrous amphibole; used for making fireproof articles; inhaling fibers can cause asbestosis or lung cancer
  • Asbestosis    lung disease caused by inhaling asbestos particles
  • Asclepius    son of Apollo; a hero and the Roman god of medicine and healing; his daughters were Hygeia and Panacea
  • Ashtray    a receptacle for the ash from smokers' cigars or cigarettes
  • Assisted suicide    suicide of a terminally ill person that involves an assistant who serves to make dying as painless and dignified as possible
  • Associationism    (psychology) a theory that association is the basic principle of mental activity
  • Asterisk    a star shaped character * used in printing;  mark with an asterisk
  • Astragalus    large genus of annual or perennial herbs or shrubs of north temperate regions; largest genus in the family Leguminosae; the bone in the ankle that articulates with the leg bones to form the ankle joint
  • Astringent    tending to draw together or constrict soft organic tissue; sour or bitter in taste;  a drug that causes contraction of body tissues and canals
  • Asynergy    absence of coordination of organs or body parts that usually work together harmoniously
  • Asystole    absence of systole; failure of the ventricles of the heart to contract (usually caused by ventricular fibrillation) with consequent absence of the heart beat leading to oxygen lack and eventually to death
  • Atherosclerosis    a stage of arteriosclerosis involving fatty deposits (atheromas) inside the arterial walls
  • Athletic training    the course of practice and exercise and diet undertaken by an athlete
  • Australia    a nation occupying the whole of the Australian continent; aboriginal tribes are thought to have migrated from southeastern Asia 20,000 years ago; first Europeans were British convicts sent there as a penal colony; the smallest continent; between the South Pacific and the Indian Ocean
  • Austria Hungary    a geographical area in central and eastern Europe; broken into separate countries at the end of World War I
  • Autoimmune disease    any of a large group of diseases characterized by abnormal functioning of the immune system that causes your immune system to produce antibodies against your own tissues
  • Automatism    any reaction that occurs automatically without conscious thought or reflection (especially the undirected behavior seen in psychomotor epilepsy)
  • Autopsy    an examination and dissection of a dead body to determine cause of death or the changes produced by disease;  perform an autopsy on a dead body; do a post mortem
  • aviation    the art of operating aircraft; the operation of aircraft to provide transportation; the aggregation of a country's military aircraft; travel via aircraft
  • Babysitting    the work of a baby sitter; caring for children when their parents are not home
  • Balance    a scale for weighing; depends on pull of gravity; equality between the totals of the credit and debit sides of an account; the difference between the totals of the credit and debit sides of an account; equality of distribution; a state of equilibrium; a wheel that regulates the rate of movement in a machine; especially a wheel oscillating against the hairspring of a timepiece to regulate its beat; a weight that balances another weight; (mathematics) an attribute of a shape or relation; exact reflection of form on opposite sides of a dividing line or plane; harmonious arrangement or relation of parts or elements within a whole (as in a design); the seventh sign of the zodiac; the sun is in this sign from about September 23 to October 22; (astrology) a person who is born while the sun is in Libra; something left after other parts have been taken away;  compute credits and debits of an account; bring into balance or equilibrium; be in equilibrium; hold or carry in equilibrium
  • Balance    a scale for weighing; depends on pull of gravity; equality between the totals of the credit and debit sides of an account; the difference between the totals of the credit and debit sides of an account; equality of distribution; a state of equilibrium; a wheel that regulates the rate of movement in a machine; especially a wheel oscillating against the hairspring of a timepiece to regulate its beat; a weight that balances another weight; (mathematics) an attribute of a shape or relation; exact reflection of form on opposite sides of a dividing line or plane; harmonious arrangement or relation of parts or elements within a whole (as in a design); the seventh sign of the zodiac; the sun is in this sign from about September 23 to October 22; (astrology) a person who is born while the sun is in Libra; something left after other parts have been taken away;  compute credits and debits of an account; bring into balance or equilibrium; be in equilibrium; hold or carry in equilibrium
  • Balanitis    inflammation of the head of the penis
  • bandage    a piece of soft material that covers and protects an injured part of the body;  dress by covering or binding; wrap around with something so as to cover or enclose
  • Bangalore    an industrial city in south central India (west of Chennai)
  • Base rate    the interest rate set by the Bank of England for lending to other banks
  • Bath chair    a wheelchair usually pushed by an attendant, as at a spa
  • Bedroom    a room used primarily for sleeping
  • Bedtime    the time you go to bed
  • beekeeping    the cultivation of bees on a commercial scale for the production of honey
  • Belgium    a monarchy in northwestern Europe; headquarters for the European Union and for the North Atlantic Treaty Organization
  • Beloved    dearly loved;  a beloved person; used as terms of endearment
  • Benadryl    antihistamine (trade name Benadryl) used to treat allergic reactions involving the nasal passages (hay fever) and also to treat motion sickness
  • Benevolence    an act intending or showing kindness and good will; an inclination to do kind or charitable acts; disposition to do good
  • Benjamin Rush    physician and American Revolutionary leader; signer of the Declaration of Independence (1745 1813)
  • Benzene    a colorless liquid hydrocarbon; highly inflammable; carcinogenic; the simplest of the aromatic compounds
  • Bernstein    United States conductor and composer (1918 1990)
  • Beryllium    a light strong brittle grey toxic bivalent metallic element
  • beverage    any liquid suitable for drinking
  • biochemist    someone with special training in biochemistry
  • biochemistry    the organic chemistry of compounds and processes occuring in organisms; the effort to understand biology within the context of chemistry
  • biologist    (biology) a scientist who studies living organisms
  • biology    the science that studies living organisms; characteristic life processes and phenomena of living organisms; all the plant and animal life of a particular region
  • Bionics    application of biological principals to the study and design of engineering systems (especially electronic systems)
  • Biostatistics    a branch of biology that studies biological phenomena and observations by means of statistical analysis
  • biscuit    small round bread leavened with baking powder or soda; any of various small flat sweet cakes (`biscuit' is the British term)
  • Bitter orange    highly acidic orange used especially in marmalade; any of various common orange trees yielding sour or bitter fruit; used as grafting stock
  • Black Death    the epidemic form of bubonic plague experienced during the Middle Ages when it killed nearly half the people of western Europe
  • Black rot    a fungous disease causing darkening and decay of the leaves of fruits and vegetables
  • Blackout    a momentary loss of consciousness; the failure of electric power for a general region; darkness resulting from the extinction of lights (as in a city invisible to enemy aircraft); a suspension of radio or tv broadcasting; partial or total loss of memory
  • Blackwater    any of several human or animal diseases characterized by dark urine resulting from rapid breakdown of red blood cells
  • Bland diet    a diet of foods that are not irritating
  • Blepharitis    inflammation of the eyelids characterized by redness and swelling and dried crusts
  • Blindfold    wearing a blindfold;  a cloth used to cover the eyes;  cover the eyes of (someone) to prevent him from seeing
  • Blister    (pathology) an elevation of the skin filled with serous fluid;  get blistered; cause blisters to from on; subject to harsh criticism
  • Bloodshot    (of an eye) reddened as a result of locally congested blood vessels; inflamed
  • Blowfish    delicacy that is highly dangerous because of a potent nerve poison in ovaries and liver; any of numerous marine fishes whose elongated spiny body can inflate itself with water or air to form a globe; several species contain a potent nerve poison; closely related to spiny puffers
  • Blunt trauma    injury incurred when the human body hits or is hit by a large outside object (as a car)
  • Body odor    malodorousness resulting from a failure to bathe
  • Bodybuilding    exercise that builds muscles through tension
  • Bone age    a person's age measured by matching their bone development (as shown by X rays) with bone development of an average person of known chronological age
  • Booster dose    an additional dose that makes sure the first dose was effective
  • Bostonian    a native or resident of Boston
  • Braille    a point system of writing in which patterns of raised dots represent letters and numerals; French educator who lost his sight at the age of three and who invented a system of writing and printing for sightless people (1809 1852);  transcribe in Braille
  • Brain death    death when respiration and other reflexes are absent; consciousness is gone; organs can be removed for transplantation before the heartbeat stops
  • Breaking point    the degree of tension or stress at which something breaks; (psychology) stress at which a person breaks down or a situation becomes crucial
  • Breast cancer    cancer of the breast; one of the most common malignancies in women in the US
  • Breech birth    delivery of an infant whose feet or buttocks appear first
  • Bromate    treat with bromine; react with bromine
  • Bronchiolitis    inflammation of the membranes lining the bronchioles
  • Bruce Lee    United States actor who was an expert in kung fu and starred in martial arts films (1941 1973)
  • Brucellosis    infectious bacterial disease of human beings transmitted by contact with infected animals or infected meat or milk products; characterized by fever and headache; an infectious disease of domestic animals often resulting in spontaneous abortion; transmittable to human beings
  • Building    a structure that has a roof and walls and stands more or less permanently in one place; the occupants of a building; the act of constructing something; the commercial activity involved in repairing old structures or constructing new ones
  • Bulldog    a sturdy thickset short haired breed with a large head and strong undershot lower jaw; developed originally in England for bull baiting;  throw a steer by seizing the horns and twisting the neck, as in a rodeo; attack viciously and ferociously
  • Bundling    the act of shoving hastily; the act of binding something into a bundle; a onetime custom during courtship of unmarried couples occupying the same bed without undressing
  • Burroughs    United States novelist and author of the Tarzan stories (1875 1950); United States inventor who patented the first practical adding machine (1855 1898); United States writer noted for his works portraying the life of drug addicts (1914 1997)
  • Bursitis    inflammation of a bursa; frequently in the shoulder
  • Cadaver    the dead body of a human being
  • Cadmium    a soft bluish white ductile malleable toxic bivalent metallic element; occurs in association with zinc ores
  • CADUCEUS    an insignia used by the medical profession; modeled after the staff of Hermes
  • Caesarean section    the delivery of a fetus by surgical incision through the abdominal wall and uterus (from the belief that Julius Caesar was born that way)
  • Calcium    a white metallic element that burns with a brilliant light; the fifth most abundant element in the earth's crust; an important component of most plants and animals
  • Calculus    the branch of mathematics that is concerned with limits and with the differentiation and integration of functions; a hard lump produced by the concretion of mineral salts; found in hollow organs or ducts of the body; an incrustation that forms on the teeth and gums
  • Calisthenics    light exercises designed to promote general fitness; the practice of calisthenic exercises
  • Calmness    a feeling of calm; an absence of agitation or excitement; an absence of strong winds or rain; steadiness of mind under stress
  • Camouflage    device or stratagem for concealment or deceit; fabric dyed with splotches of green and brown and black and tan; intended to make the wearer of a garment made of this fabric hard to distinguish from the background; the act of concealing the identity of something by modifying its appearance; an outward semblance that misrepresents the true nature of something;  disguise by camouflaging; exploit the natural surroundings to disguise something
  • cannabis    the most commonly used illicit drug; considered a soft drug, it consists of the dried leaves of the hemp plant; smoked or chewed for euphoric effect; any plant of the genus Cannabis; a coarse bushy annual with palmate leaves and clusters of small green flowers; yields tough fibers and narcotic drugs
  • Canned hunt    a hunt for animals that have been raised on game ranches until they are mature enough to be killed for trophy collections
  • Capitation    a tax levied on the basis of a fixed amount per person
  • Carbohydrate    an essential structural component of living cells and source of energy for animals; includes simple sugars with small molecules as well as macromolecular substances; are classified according to the number of monosaccharide groups they contain
  • Carbon disulfide    a toxic colorless flammable liquid (CS2); used in the manufacture of rayon and cellophane and carbon tetrachloride and as a solvent for rubber
  • Carbon monoxide    an odorless very poisonous gas that is a product of incomplete combustion of carbon
  • Carbonated water    effervescent beverage artificially charged with carbon dioxide
  • Carcinogen    any substance that produces cancer
  • Cardiac arrest    absence of systole; failure of the ventricles of the heart to contract (usually caused by ventricular fibrillation) with consequent absence of the heart beat leading to oxygen lack and eventually to death
  • Caregiver    a person who is responsible for attending to the needs of a child or dependent adult; a person who helps in identifying or preventing or treating illness or disability
  • Carl Jung    Swiss psychologist (1875 1961)
  • Caroline    of or relating to the life and times of kings Charles I or Charles II of England
  • Carpal tunnel    a passageway in the wrist through which nerves and the flexor muscles of the hands pass
  • Carrion    the dead and rotting body of an animal; unfit for human food
  • Carroll    English author; Charles Dodgson was an Oxford don of mathematics who is remembered for the children's stories he wrote under the pen name Lewis Carroll (1832 1898)
  • Caseworker    someone employed to provide social services (especially to the disadvantaged)
  • Castration    surgical removal of the testes or ovaries (usually to inhibit hormone secretion in cases of breast cancer in women or prostate cancer in men); neutering a male animal by removing the testicles; the deletion of objectionable parts from a literary work
  • Castration anxiety    (psychoanalysis) anxiety resulting from real or imagined threats to your sexual functions; originally applied only to men but can in principal apply to women
  • Catalepsy    a trancelike state with loss of voluntary motion and failure to react to stimuli
  • Cataract    a large waterfall; violent rush of water over a precipice; clouding of the natural lens of the eye
  • Catarrh    inflammation of the nose and throat with increased production of mucus
  • Catatonia    extreme tonus; muscular rigidity; a common symptom in catatonic schizophrenia; a form of schizophrenia characterized by a tendency to remain in a fixed stuporous state for long periods; the catatonia may give way to short periods of extreme excitement
  • Catherine    empress of Russia who greatly increased the territory of the empire (1729 1796); first wife of Henry VIII; Henry's divorce from her was the initial step of the Reformation in England (1485 1536)
  • CAVEman    someone who lives in a cave
  • Cell death    (physiology) the normal degeneration and death of living cells (as in various epithelial cells)
  • Cellulite    lumpy deposits of body fat especially on women's thighs etc.
  • Cellulitis    an inflammation of body tissue (especially that below the skin) characterized by fever and swelling and redness and pain
  • Centrum    the main body of a vertebra
  • Cervicitis    inflammation of the uterine cervix
  • Cervix    necklike opening to the uterus; the part of an organism that connects the head to the rest of the body
  • Cesspit    a covered cistern; waste water and sewage flow into it
  • Chandler    a maker (and seller) of candles and soap and oils and paints; a retail dealer in provisions and supplies; United States writer of detective thrillers featuring the character of Philip Marlowe (1888 1959)
  • Chaperone    one who accompanies and supervises a young woman or gatherings of young people;  accompany as a chaperone
  • character    (genetics) an attribute (structural or functional) that is determined by a gene or group of genes; the inherent complex of attributes that determine a persons moral and ethical actions and reactions; an actor's portrayal of someone in a play; a formal recommendation by a former employer to a potential future employer describing the person's qualifications and dependability; a written symbol that is used to represent speech; a person of a specified kind (usually with many eccentricities); good repute; a characteristic property that defines the apparent individual nature of something; an imaginary person represented in a work of fiction (play or film or story);  engrave or inscribe characters on
  • charity    an activity or gift that benefits the public at large; a kindly and lenient attitude toward people; an institution set up to provide help to the needy; a foundation created to promote the public good (not for assistance to any particular individuals); pinnate leaved European perennial having bright blue or white flowers
  • Charles Stuart    son of James I who was King of England and Scotland and Ireland; was deposed and executed by Oliver Cromwell (1600 1649)
  • Charlotte    a mold lined with cake or crumbs and filled with fruit or whipped cream or custard; the largest city in North Carolina; located in south central North Carolina
  • Chastity    abstaining from sexual relations (as because of religious vows); morality with respect to sexual relations
  • Cheating    violating accepted standards or rules; not faithful to a spouse or lover;  a deception for profit to yourself
  • Checklist    a list of items (names or tasks etc.) to be checked or consulted
  • chemical    relating to or used in chemistry; of or made from or using substances produced by or used in reactions involving atomic or molecular changes;  produced by or used in a reaction involving changes in atoms or molecules
  • chemistry    the science of matter; the branch of the natural sciences dealing with the composition of substances and their properties and reactions; the way two individuals relate to each other
  • Chemosis    edema of the mucous membrane of the eyeball and eyelid lining
  • Chemotherapy    the use of chemical agents to treat or control disease (or mental illness)
  • Chewing    biting and grinding food in your mouth so it becomes soft enough to swallow
  • Chickenpox    an acute contagious disease caused by herpes varicella zoster virus; causes a rash of vesicles on the face and body
  • Chicory    crisp spiky leaves with somewhat bitter taste; root of the chicory plant roasted and ground to substitute for or adulterate coffee; perennial Old World herb having rayed flower heads with blue florets cultivated for its root and its heads of crisp edible leaves used in salads; the dried root of the chicory plant: used as a coffee substitute
  • Childbirth    the parturition process in human beings; having a baby; the process of giving birth to a child
  • Chile    a republic in southern South America on the western slopes of the Andes on the south Pacific coast; very hot and finely tapering pepper of special pungency
  • chimpanzee    intelligent somewhat arboreal ape of equatorial African forests
  • Chin up    an arm exercise performed by pulling yourself up on a horizontal bar until your chin is level with the bar
  • Chinese Restaurant Syndrome    headache and tingling or burning feelings and sweating caused by eating food that contains monosodium glutamate
  • Chipper    having a cheerful, lively, and self confident air
  • Chlamydia    coccoid rickettsia infesting birds and mammals; cause infections of eyes and lungs and genitourinary tract; a sexually transmitted infection caused by bacteria of the genus Chlamydia
  • Chlamydia trachomatis    bacteria responsible for the sexually transmitted diseases chlamydia and lymphogranuloma venereum
  • Chlorella    any alga of the genus Chlorella
  • Chlorine    a common nonmetallic element belonging to the halogens; best known as a heavy yellow irritating toxic gas; used to purify water and as a bleaching agent and disinfectant; occurs naturally only as a salt (as in sea water)
  • Chloroprene    derivative of butadiene used in making neoprene by polymerization
  • Choking    the act of suffocating (someone) by constricting the windpipe; a condition caused by blocking the airways to the lungs (as with food or swelling of the larynx)
  • Cholera    an acute intestinal infection caused by ingestion of contaminated water or food
  • Cholesterol    an animal sterol that is normally synthesized by the liver; the most abundant steroid in animal tissues
  • Choline    a B complex vitamin that is a constituent of lecithin; essential in the metabolism of fat
  • Chrisom    a consecrated ointment consisting of a mixture of oil and balsam
  • Chromium    a hard brittle multivalent metallic element; resistant to corrosion and tarnishing
  • Chyloderma    swelling of the scrotum resulting from chronic lymphatic obstruction
  • Cicada    stout bodied insect with large membranous wings; male has drum like organs for producing a high pitched drone
  • cigarette    finely ground tobacco wrapped in paper; for smoking
  • Cingulum    (anatomy) an encircling structure (as the ridge around the base of a tooth)
  • Circadian rhythm    a daily cycle of activity observed in many living organisms
  • circulatory    relating to circulatory system or to circulation of the blood; of or relating to circulation
  • circumcision    the act of circumcising; surgical removal of the foreskin of males; the act of circumcising performed on males eight days after birth as a Jewish and Muslim religious rite; (Roman Catholic Church and Anglican Church) feast day celebrating the circumcision of Jesus; celebrated on January 1st
  • Cirrhosis    a chronic disease interfering with the normal functioning of the liver; the major cause is chronic alcoholism
  • Civil defense    activities organized by civilians for their own protection in time of war or disaster
  • Cleanliness    diligence in keeping clean; the habit of keeping free of superficial imperfections
  • Climacteric    a period in a man's life corresponding to menopause; the time in a woman's life in which the menstrual cycle ends
  • climber    someone who climbs as a sport; especially someone who climbs mountains; a vine or climbing plant that readily grows up a support or over other plants; an iron spike attached to the shoe to prevent slipping on ice when walking or climbing; someone who ascends on foot; someone seeking social prominence by obsequious behavior
  • clinical    scientifically detached; unemotional; relating to a clinic or conducted in or as if in a clinic and depending on direct observation of patients
  • Clinical psychology    the branch of psychology concerned with the treatment of abnormal mentation and behavior
  • Clinical trial    a rigorously controlled test of a new drug or a new invasive medical device on human subjects; in the United States it is conducted under the direction of the FDA before being made available for general clinical use
  • Clinician    a practitioner (of medicine or psychology) who does clinical work instead of laboratory experiments
  • Clitoris    a female sexual organ homologous to the penis
  • Coccidia    an order in the subclass Telosporidia
  • Cochineal    a red dyestuff consisting of dried bodies of female cochineal insects; Mexican red scale insect that feeds on cacti; the source of a red dye
  • Cod liver oil    an oil obtained from the livers of cod and similar fishes; taken orally as a source of vitamins A and D
  • Cohort    a band of warriors (originally a unit of a Roman Legion); a company of companions or supporters; a group people having approximately the same age
  • Colitis    inflammation of the colon
  • Colostrum    milky fluid secreted for the first day or two after parturition
  • Comfort food    food that is simply prepared and gives a sense of wellbeing; typically food with a high sugar or carbohydrate content that is associated with childhood or with home cooking
  • Commissioner    a government administrator; a member of a commission
  • Commitment    the official act of consigning a person to confinement (as in a prison or mental hospital); the act of binding yourself (intellectually or emotionally) to a course of action; an engagement by contract involving financial obligation; a message that makes a pledge; the trait of sincere and steadfast fixity of purpose
  • Common cold    a mild viral infection involving the nose and respiratory passages (but not the lungs)
  • Companion    one paid to accompany or assist or live with another; a person who is frequently in the company of another; a traveler who accompanies you;  be a companion to somebody
  • company    an institution created to conduct business; a unit of firefighters including their equipment; a social gathering of guests or companions; organization of performers and associated personnel (especially theatrical); small military unit; usually two or three platoons; the state of being with someone; crew of a ship including the officers; the whole force or personnel of a ship; a band of people associated temporarily in some activity; a social or business visitor;  be a companion to somebody
  • Compassion    the humane quality of understanding the suffering of others and wanting to do something about it; a deep awareness of and sympathy for another's suffering
  • Compatibility    capability of existing or performing in harmonious or congenial combination; a feeling of sympathetic understanding
  • Competence    the quality of being adequately or well qualified physically and intellectually
  • Complement    something added to complete or make perfect; either of two parts that mutually complete each other; a word or phrase used to complete a grammatical construction; number needed to make up a whole force; a complete number or quantity; one of a series of enzymes in the blood serum that are part of the immune response;  make complete or perfect; supply what is wanting or form the complement to
  • composer    someone who composes music as a profession
  • Compost    a mixture of decaying vegetation and manure; used as a fertilizer;  convert to compost
  • Compounding    the act of combining things to form a new whole
  • Computing    the procedure of calculating; determining something by mathematical or logical methods; the branch of engineering science that studies (with the aid of computers) computable processes and structures
  • Conceive    become pregnant; undergo conception; judge or regard; look upon; judge; have the idea for
  • condenser    lens used to concentrate light on an object; a hollow coil that condenses by abstracting heat; an apparatus that converts vapor into liquid; an electrical device characterized by its capacity to store an electric charge
  • Condom    contraceptive device consisting of a sheath of thin rubber or latex that is worn over the penis during intercourse
  • Connecticut    a New England state; one of the original 13 colonies; one of the British colonies that formed the United States; a river in the northeastern United States; flows south from northern New Hampshire along the border between New Hampshire and Vermont and through Massachusetts and Connecticut where it empties into Long Island Sound
  • Contact dermatitis    a delayed type of allergic reaction of the skin resulting from skin contact with a specific allergen (such as poison ivy)
  • Contentment    happiness with one's situation in life
  • control    the activity of managing or exerting control over something; (physiology) regulation or maintenance of a function or action or reflex etc; a mechanism that controls the operation of a machine; power to direct or determine; the economic policy of controlling or limiting or curbing prices or wages etc.; a spiritual agency that is assumed to assist the medium during a seance; a relation of constraint of one entity (thing or person or group) by another; discipline in personal and social activities; great skillfulness and knowledge of some subject or activity; a standard against which other conditions can be compared in a scientific experiment; the state that exists when one person or group has power over another;  verify by using a duplicate register for comparison; exercise authoritative control or power over; lessen the intensity of; temper; hold in restraint; hold or keep within limits; verify or regulate by conducting a parallel experiment or comparing with another standard, of scientific experiments; have a firm understanding or knowledge of; be on top of; be careful or certain to do something; make certain of something; handle and cause to function; control (others or oneself) or influence skillfully, usually to one's advantage
  • controversy    a contentious speech act; a dispute where there is strong disagreement
  • Convalescence    gradual healing (through rest) after sickness or injury
  • Convention    the act of convening; something regarded as a normative example; (diplomacy) an international agreement; a large formal assembly; orthodoxy as a consequence of being conventional
  • Convention    the act of convening; something regarded as a normative example; (diplomacy) an international agreement; a large formal assembly; orthodoxy as a consequence of being conventional
  • conversion factor    factor by which a quantity that is expressed in one set of units must be multiplied in order to convert it into another set of units
  • Coprophagia    eating feces; in human a symptom of some kinds of insanity
  • Coronach    a song or hymn of mourning composed or performed as a memorial to a dead person
  • Coronary artery disease    a stage of arteriosclerosis involving fatty deposits (atheromas) inside the arterial walls
  • Coroner    a public official who investigates by inquest any death not due to natural causes
  • Corpus luteum    yellow endocrine tissue that forms in a ruptured Graafian follicle following the release of an ovum
  • Cortisol    an adrenal cortex hormone (trade names Hydrocortone or Cortef) that is active in carbohydrate and protein metabolism
  • Cotton wool    soft silky fibers from cotton plants in their raw state
  • country    the territory occupied by a nation; an area outside of cities and towns; the people who live in a nation or country; a politically organized body of people under a single government; a particular geographical region of indefinite boundary (usually serving some special purpose or distinguished by its people or culture or geography)
  • Cover charge    a fixed charge by a restaurant or night club over and above the charge for food and drink
  • Crab louse    infests the pubic region of the human body
  • Craving    an intense desire for some particular thing
  • Creatine    an amino acid that does not occur in proteins but is found in the muscle tissue of vertebrates both in the free form and as phosphocreatine; supplies energy for muscle contraction
  • Crohn's disease    a serious chronic and progressive inflammation of the ileum producing frequent bouts of diarrhea with abdominal pain and nausea and fever and weight loss
  • Crunch    the sound of something crunching; a critical situation that arises because of a shortage (as a shortage of time or money or resources); the act of crushing;  make crunching noises; chew noisily; press or grind with a crunching noise; reduce to small pieces or particles by pounding or abrading
  • Cryonics    the freezing of a seriously ill or recently deceased person to stop tissues from decomposing; the body is preserved until new medical cures are developed that might bring the person back to life
  • Cuisine    the practice or manner of preparing food or the food so prepared
  • Cultural    denoting or deriving from or distinctive of the ways of living built up by a group of people; relating to the raising of plants or animals; of or relating to the shared knowledge and values of a society; of or relating to the arts and manners that a group favors
  • Culture    the raising of plants or animals; (biology) the growing of microorganisms in a nutrient medium (such as gelatin or agar); the tastes in art and manners that are favored by a social group; the attitudes and behavior that are characteristic of a particular social group or organization; a particular society at a particular time and place; all the knowledge and values shared by a society; a highly developed state of perfection; having a flawless or impeccable quality
  • Curandero    a Mexican man who practices healing techniques inherited from the Mayans
  • Cyanide    an extremely poisonous salt of hydrocyanic acid; any of a class of organic compounds containing the cyano radical CN
  • Cyanide poisoning    poisoning due to ingesting or inhaling cyanide; common in smoke from fires and in industrial chemicals
  • Cystocele    hernia in which the urinary bladder protrudes through the wall of the vagina; sometimes occurs after childbirth
  • Cytopenia    a deficiency of some cellular element of the blood
  • Cytotoxicity    the degree to which something is toxic to living cells
  • Damping off    a plant disease caused by a fungus; diseased condition of seedlings in excessive moisture
  • Danube    the 2nd longest European river (after the Volga); flows from southwestern Germany to the Black Sea
  • David Livingstone    Scottish missionary and explorer who discovered the Zambezi River and Victoria Falls (1813 1873)
  • Davy lamp    an oil lamp that will not ignite flammable gases (methane)
  • Daydream    absentminded dreaming while awake;  have dreamlike musings or fantasies while awake; have a daydream; indulge in a fantasy
  • Death    the act of killing; the event of dying or departure from life; the personification of death; the permanent end of all life functions in an organism or part of an organism; the absence of life or state of being dead; the time at which life ends; continuing until dead; the time when something ends; a final state
  • Decapitation    killing by cutting off the head; execution by cutting off the victim's head
  • Decidua    the epithelial tissue of the endometrium
  • Deductible    acceptable as a deduction (especially as a tax deduction);  a clause in an insurance policy that relieves the insurer of responsibility to pay the initial loss up to a stated amount; (taxes) an amount that can be deducted (especially for the purposes of calculating income tax)
  • Deep Red    a deep and vivid red color
  • Defence mechanism    (psychiatry) an unconscious process that tries to reduce the anxiety associated with instinctive desires
  • deficiency    lack of an adequate quantity or number; the state of needing something that is absent or unavailable
  • Degeneration    passing from a more complex to a simpler biological form; the process of declining from a higher to a lower level of effective power or vitality or essential quality; the state of being degenerate in mental or moral qualities
  • Degustation    taking a small amount into the mouth to test its quality
  • Dehydration    the process of extracting moisture; depletion of bodily fluids; dryness resulting from the removal of water
  • Delicacy    subtly skillful handling of a situation; smallness of stature; refined taste; tact; lightness in movement or manner; the quality of being beautiful and delicate in appearance; lack of physical strength; something considered choice to eat
  • Dementia    mental deterioration of organic or functional origin
  • Dental school    a graduate school offering study leading to degrees in dentistry
  • Dental surgery    the branch of dentistry involving surgical procedures
  • Dentist    a person qualified to practice dentistry
  • dentistry    the branch of medicine dealing with the anatomy and development and diseases of the teeth
  • Depression    pushing down; sad feelings of gloom and inadequacy; angular distance below the horizon (especially of a celestial object); a concavity in a surface produced by pressing; a mental state characterized by a pessimistic sense of inadequacy and a despondent lack of activity; a long term economic state characterized by unemployment and low prices and low levels of trade and investment; a period during the 1930s when there was a worldwide economic depression and mass unemployment; a sunken or depressed geological formation; a state of depression and anhedonia so severe as to require clinical intervention; an air mass of lower pressure; often brings precipitation
  • Dermatomyositis    myositis characterized by weakness of limb and neck muscles and much muscle pain and selling accompanied by skin rash affecting cheeks and eyelids and neck and chest and limbs; progression and severity vary among individuals
  • Desalination    the removal of salt (especially from sea water)
  • Designated driver    the member of a party who is designated to refrain from alcohol and so is sober when it is time to drive home
  • Determination    the act of determining the properties of something; the quality of being determined to do or achieve something; the act of making up your mind about something; a position or opinion or judgment reached after consideration
  • Detoxification    treatment for poisoning by neutralizing the toxic properties (normally a function of the liver); a treatment for addiction to drugs or alcohol intended to remove the physiological effects of the addictive substances
  • Development    act of improving by expanding or enlarging or refining; (music) the section of a composition or movement (especially in sonata form) where the major musical themes are developed and elaborated; a recent event that has some relevance for the present situation; a district that has been developed to serve some purpose; processing a photosensitive material in order to make an image visible; a process in which something passes by degrees to a different stage (especially a more advanced or mature stage); a state in which things are improving; the result of developing (as in the early part of a game of chess); the act of making some area of land or water more profitable or productive or useful; (biology) the process of an individual organism growing organically; a purely biological unfolding of events involved in an organism changing gradually from a simple to a more complex level
  • Diabetes    any of several metabolic disorders marked by excessive urination and persistent thirst
  • Diabetes insipidus    a rare form of diabetes resulting from a deficiency of vasopressin (the pituitary hormone that regulates the kidneys); characterized by the chronic excretion of large amounts of pale dilute urine which results in dehydration and extreme thirst
  • Diabetic diet    a diet designed to help control the symptoms of diabetes
  • Diaphragmatic hernia    hernia resulting from the protrusion of part of the stomach through the diaphragm
  • Diarrhea    frequent and watery bowel movements; can be a symptom of infection or food poisoning or colitis or a gastrointestinal tumor
  • Diathesis    constitutional predisposition to a particular disease or abnormality
  • Diatomaceous earth    a light soil consisting of siliceous diatom remains and often used as a filtering material
  • Dieting    the act of restricting your food intake (or your intake of particular foods)
  • Dietitian    a specialist in the study of nutrition
  • Diffuser    optical device that distributes the light of a lamp evenly; baffle that distributes sound waves evenly
  • digestion    learning and coming to understand ideas and information; the organic process by which food is converted into substances that can be absorbed into the body; the process of decomposing organic matter (as in sewage) by bacteria or by chemical action or heat
  • digital    of a circuit or device that represents magnitudes in digits; relating to or performed with the fingers; displaying numbers rather than scale positions
  • Dignity    the quality of being worthy of esteem or respect; formality in bearing and appearance; high office or rank or station
  • Dilation and curettage    a surgical procedure usually performed under local anesthesia in which the cervix is dilated and the endometrial lining of the uterus is scraped with a curet; performed to obtain tissue samples or to stop prolonged bleeding or to remove small tumors or to remove fragments of placenta after childbirth or as a method of abortion
  • Dippel's oil    dark colored ill smelling oil obtained by carbonizing bone; used especially in sheep dips and in denaturing alcohol
  • Dipsomania    an intense persistent desire to drink alcoholic beverages to excess
  • Directive    showing the way by conducting or leading; imposing direction on;  a procement encouraging or banning some activity
  • Disability    the condition of being unable to perform as a consequence of physical or mental unfitness
  • disambiguation    clarification that follows from the removal of ambiguity
  • DISCERN    detect with the senses
  • discharge    the act of discharging a gun; the act of venting; the sudden giving off of energy; the pouring forth of a fluid; electrical conduction through a gas in an applied electric field; any of several bodily processes by which substances go out of the body; a substance that is emitted or released; a formal written statement of relinquishment; the termination of someone's employment (leaving them free to depart);  eliminate (substances) from the body; release from military service; pour forth or release; remove the charge from; become empty or void of its content; proce not guilty of criminal charges; cause to go off; go off or discharge; leave or unload, especially of passengers or cargo; free from obligations or duties; complete or carry out
  • Disease    an impairment of health or a condition of abnormal functioning
  • Disfigurement    an appearance that has been spoiled or is misshapen; the act of damaging the appearance or surface of something
  • Disinfectant    preventing infection by inhibiting the growth or action of microorganisms;  an agent (as heat or radiation or a chemical) that destroys microorganisms that might carry disease
  • disorder    a disturbance of the peace or of public order; condition in which there is a disturbance of normal functioning; a condition in which things are not in their expected places;  bring disorder to; disturb in mind or make uneasy or cause to be worried or alarmed
  • Dispensary    clinic where medicine and medical supplies are dispensed
  • Distraction    the act of distracting; drawing someone's attention away from something; mental turmoil; an obstacle to attention; an entertainment that provokes pleased interest and distracts you from worries and vexations
  • Distribution    the act of distributing or spreading or apportioning; the commercial activity of transporting and selling goods from a producer to a consumer; the spatial property of being scattered about over an area or volume; (statistics) an arrangement of values of a variable showing their observed or theoretical frequency of occurrence
  • Disulfiram    a drug (trade name Antabuse) used in the treatment of alcoholism; causes nausea and vomiting if alcohol is ingested
  • documentary film    a film or TV program presenting the facts about a person or event
  • Domestic violence    violence or physical abuse directed toward your spouse or domestic partner; usually violence by men against women
  • Dopamine    a monoamine neurotransmitter found in the brain and essential for the normal functioning of the central nervous system; as a drug (trade names Dopastat and Intropin) it is used to treat shock and hypotension
  • Dorothea Dix    United States social reformer who pioneered in the reform of prisons and in the treatment of the mentally ill; superintended women army nurses during the American Civil War (1802 1887)
  • Doubling    raising the stakes in a card game by a factor of 2; increase by a factor of two
  • Down syndrome    a congenital disorder caused by having an extra 21st chromosome; results in a flat face and short stature and mental retardation
  • Drink    the act of drinking alcoholic beverages to excess; a single serving of a beverage; any large deep body of water; the act of swallowing; any liquid suitable for drinking;  take in liquids; consume alcohol; drink excessive amounts of alcohol; be an alcoholic; be fascinated or spell bound by; pay close attention to; propose a toast to
  • Dry cleaning    the act of cleaning (fabrics) with a solvent other than water
  • Dwarfism    a genetic abnormality resulting in short stature
  • Eating    the act of consuming food
  • economist    an expert in the science of economics
  • Ecstasy    a state of being carried away by overwhelming emotion; a state of elated bliss; street names for methylenedioxymethamphetamine
  • education    the profession of teaching (especially at a school or college or university); the activities of educating or instructing; activities that impart knowledge or skill; the result of good upbringing (especially knowledge of correct social behavior); the gradual process of acquiring knowledge; knowledge acquired by learning and instruction; the United States federal department that administers all federal programs dealing with education (including federal aid to educational institutions and students); created 1979
  • Egg cell    the female reproductive cell; the female gamete
  • Ehrlich    German bacteriologist who found a `magic bullet' to cure syphilis and was a pioneer in the study of immunology (1854 1915)
  • Ejaculation    an abrupt emphatic exclamation expressing emotion; the discharge of semen in males
  • Ejaculatory duct    a part of the seminal duct formed by the duct from the seminal vesicle and the vas deferens; passes through the prostate gland
  • electricity    keen and shared excitement; a physical phenomenon associated with stationary or moving electrons and protons; energy made available by the flow of electric charge through a conductor
  • Electroconvulsive therapy    the administration of a strong electric current that passes through the brain to induce convulsions and coma
  • Electrocution    killing by electric shock; execution by electricity
  • element    the most favorable environment for a plant or animal; a straight line that generates a cylinder or cone; the situation in which you are happiest and most effective; one of four substances thought in ancient and medieval cosmology to constitute the physical universe; an artifact that is one of the individual parts of which a composite entity is made up; especially a part that can be separated from or attached to a system; an abstract part of something; any of the more than 100 known substances (of which 92 occur naturally) that cannot be separated into simpler substances and that singly or in combination constitute all matter
  • Elevation    drawing of an exterior of a structure; (ballet) the height of a dancer's leap or jump; distance of something above a reference point (such as sea level); the event of something being raised upward; angular distance above the horizon (especially of a celestial object); the act of increasing the wealth or prestige or power or scope of something; a raised or elevated geological formation; the highest level or degree attainable; the highest stage of development
  • Elixir of life    a hypothetical substance believed to maintain life indefinitely; once sought by alchemists
  • Emasculation    loss of power and masculinity; neutering a male animal by removing the testicles
  • Embrasure    an opening (in a wall or ship or armored vehicle) for firing through
  • Emergency    a sudden unforeseen crisis (usually involving danger) that requires immediate action; a state in which martial law applies; a brake operated by hand; usually operates by mechanical linkage
  • Empathy    understanding and entering into another's feelings
  • Empathy    understanding and entering into another's feelings
  • Empowerment    the act of conferring legality or sanction or formal warrant
  • Encephalitis    inflammation of the brain usually caused by a virus; symptoms include headache and neck pain and drowsiness and nausea and fever (`phrenitis' is no longer in scientific use)
  • Encopresis    involuntary defecation not attributable to physical defects or illness
  • Encounter    a casual meeting with a person of thing; a minor short term fight; a hostile disagreement face to face; a casual or unexpected convergence;  contend against an opponent in a sport, game, or battle; come together; come upon, as if by accident; meet with; be beset by; experience as a reaction
  • Endemic    native to or confined to a certain region; of or relating to a disease (or anything resembling a disease) constantly present to greater or lesser extent in a particular locality; originating where it is found;  a plant that is native to a certain limited area; a disease that is constantly present to a greater or lesser degree in people of a certain class or in people living in a particular location
  • Endocarditis    inflammation of the endocardium and heart valves
  • Endometritis    inflammation of the lining of the uterus (of the endometrium)
  • Endurance    the power to withstand hardship or stress; a state of surviving; remaining alive
  • Enema    injection of a liquid through the anus to stimulate evacuation; sometimes used for diagnostic purposes
  • engineer    a person who uses scientific knowledge to solve practical problems; the operator of a railway locomotive;  design as an engineer; plan and direct (a complex undertaking)
  • Enteritis    inflammation of the intestine (especially the small intestine); usually characterized by diarrhea
  • Environment    the area in which something exists or lives; the totality of surrounding conditions
  • Environment    the area in which something exists or lives; the totality of surrounding conditions
  • Eosinopenia    a decrease in the number of eosinophils in the blood
  • Eosinophilia    a symptom of allergic states; increased eosinophils in the blood
  • Ephedra    jointed and nearly leafless desert shrub having reduced scalelike leaves and reddish fleshy seeds
  • Epicondylitis    painful inflammation of the muscles and soft tissues around an epicondyle
  • epidemiology    the branch of medical science dealing with the transmission and control of disease
  • Epiphany    a divine manifestation; twelve days after Christmas; celebrates the visit of the three wise men to the infant Jesus
  • Epizootic    (of animals) epidemic among animals of a single kind within a particular region
  • Equal opportunity    the right to equivalent opportunities for employment regardless of race or color or sex or national origin
  • Equating    the act of regarding as equal
  • equestrian    of or relating to or featuring horseback riding; of or relating to or composed of knights;  a man skilled in equitation
  • Erectile dysfunction    impotence resulting from a man's inability to have or maintain an erection of his penis
  • Erection    a structure that has been erected; an erect penis; the act of building or putting up
  • Erethism    an abnormally high degree of irritability or sensitivity to stimulation of an organ or body part
  • Ergosterol    a plant sterol that is converted into vitamin D by ultraviolet radiation
  • Ergotism    poisoning by ingestion of ergot infected grain products; characterized by thirst and diarrhea and nausea and craming and vomiting and abnormal cardiac rhythms; in severe cases it can cause seizures and gangrene of the limbs
  • Erythema    abnormal redness of the skin resulting from dilation of blood vessels (as in sunburn or inflammation)
  • Esophagitis    inflammation of the esophagus; often caused by gastroesophageal reflux
  • Essence    any substance possessing to a high degree the predominant properties of a plant or drug or other natural product from which it is extracted; a toiletry that emits and diffuses a fragrant odor; the choicest or most essential or most vital part of some idea or experience; the central meaning or theme of a speech or literary work
  • Essential amino acid    an amino acid that is required by animals but that they cannot synthesize; must be supplied in the diet
  • Estradiol    the most powerful female hormone that occurs naturally; synthesized and used to treat estrogen deficiency and breast cancer
  • Estrogen    a general term for female steroid sex hormones that are secreted by the ovary and responsible for typical female sexual characteristics
  • Eudaimonia    a contented state of being happy and healthy and prosperous
  • Euphoria    a feeling of great (usually exaggerated) elation
  • Euphrosyne    (Greek mythology) one of the three Graces
  • Eurythmy    the interpretation in harmonious bodily movements of the rhythm of musical compositions; used to teach musical understanding
  • Euthanasia    the act of killing someone painlessly (especially someone suffering from an incurable illness)
  • Euthenics    the study of methods of improving human well being and efficient functioning by improving environmental conditions
  • evaluate    form a critical opinion of; place a value on; judge the worth of something
  • Evaluation    act of ascertaining or fixing the value or worth of; an appraisal of the value of something
  • evangelist    a preacher of the Christian gospel; (when capitalized) any of the spiritual leaders who are assumed to be authors of the Gospels in the New Testament: Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John
  • Exercise    the activity of exerting your muscles in various ways to keep fit; a task performed or problem solved in order to develop skill or understanding; systematic training by multiple repetitions; (usually plural) a ceremony that involves processions and speeches; the act of using;  do physical exercise; give a workout to; learn by repetition; put to use; carry out or practice; as of jobs and professions
  • Exertion    use of physical or mental energy; hard work
  • Extinction    the act of extinguishing; causing to stop burning; a conditioning process in which the reinforcer is removed and a conditioned response becomes independent of the conditioned stimulus; complete annihilation; the reduction of the intensity of radiation as a consequence of absorption and radiation; no longer in existence; no longer active; extinguished
  • Extract    a passage selected from a larger work; a solution obtained by steeping or soaking a substance (usually in water);  calculate the root of a number; remove, usually with some force or effort; also used in an abstract sense; separate (a metal) from an ore; get despite difficulties or obstacles; extract by the process of distillation; take out of a literary work in order to cite or copy; obtain from a substance, as by mechanical action; deduce (a principle) or construe (a meaning)
  • Extrusion    squeezing out by applying pressure; something that bulges out or is protuberant or projects from its surroundings
  • Eyesore    something very ugly and offensive
  • Eyewash    lotion consisting of a solution used as a cleanser for the eyes
  • Factor analysis    any of several methods for reducing correlational data to a smaller number of dimensions or factors; beginning with a correlation matrix a small number of components or factors are extracted that are regarded as the basic variable that account for the interrelations observed in the data
  • Fad diet    a reducing diet that enjoys temporary popularity
  • Falling    becoming lower or less in degree or value; decreasing in amount or degree; coming down freely under the influence of gravity
  • Fallopian tube    either of a pair of tubes conducting the egg from the ovary to the uterus
  • Fanfare    (music) a short lively tune played on brass instruments; a gaudy outward display
  • Fantasy    imagination unrestricted by reality; fiction with a large amount of imagination in it; something many people believe that is false;  indulge in fantasies
  • Farmer's lung    alveolitis caused by an allergic reaction to fungal spores in the dust that is inhaled from moldy hay
  • Fasciola hepatica    flatworm parasitic in liver and bile ducts of domestic animals and humans
  • Fasciolosis    infestation with the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica; liver damage sometimes occurs; related to liver rot
  • Fatty acid    any of a class of aliphatic monocarboxylic acids that form part of a lipid molecule and can be derived from fat by hydrolysis; fatty acids are simple molecules built around a series of carbon atoms linked together in a chain of 12 to 22 carbon atoms
  • Fauces    the passage between the back of the mouth and the pharynx
  • Fee splitting    payment (usually by doctors or lawyers) of part of the fee in return for the referral
  • feeling    the experiencing of affective and emotional states; an intuitive understanding of something; a physical sensation that you experience; the sensation produced by pressure receptors in the skin; a vague idea in which some confidence is placed; the general atmosphere of a place or situation and the effect that it has on people
  • Feminism    a doctrine that advocates equal rights for women; the movement aimed at equal rights for women
  • Fermentation    a process in which an agent causes an organic substance to break down into simpler substances; especially, the anaerobic breakdown of sugar into alcohol; a state of agitation or turbulent change or development
  • Fetal distress    an abnormal condition of a fetus; usually discovered during pregnancy and characterized by an abnormal heart rhythm
  • Fibroadenoma    benign and movable and firm and not tender tumor of the breast; common in young women and caused by high levels of estrogen
  • Fibrosis    development of excess fibrous connective tissue in an organ
  • Field hospital    a temporary military hospital near the battle lines
  • Field trial    a test of young hunting dogs to determine their skill in pointing and retrieving; a test of the performance of some new product under the conditions in which it will be used; a contest between gun dogs to determine their proficiency in pointing and retrieving
  • Filariasis    a disease caused by nematodes in the blood or tissues of the body causing blockage of lymphatic vessels
  • finance    the commercial activity of providing funds and capital; the management of money and credit and banking and investments; the branch of economics that studies the management of money and other assets;  obtain or provide money for; sell or provide on credit
  • Finger bowl    small bowl for rinsing the fingers at table
  • fire control    preparation for the delivery of shellfire on a target
  • Firedamp    a mixture of gases (mostly methane) that form in coal mines and become explosive when mixed with air
  • Firefighter    a member of a fire department who tries to extinguish fires
  • Firewater    any strong spirits (such as strong whisky or rum)
  • First aid    emergency care given before regular medical aid can be obtained
  • Fish oil    a fatty oil obtained from the livers of various fish
  • Fish oil    a fatty oil obtained from the livers of various fish
  • Fistula    an abnormal passage leading from a suppurating cavity to the body surface; a chronic inflammation of the withers of a horse
  • Fitness    the condition of being suitable; the quality of being qualified; good physical condition; being in shape or in condition; fitness to traverse the seas
  • Flashback    a transition (in literary or theatrical works or films) to an earlier event or scene that interrupts the normal chronological development of the story; an unexpected but vivid recurrence of a past experience (especially a recurrence of the effects of an hallucinogenic drug taken much earlier)
  • Flexibility    the quality of being adaptable or variable; the property of being flexible; easily bent or shaped; the trait of being easily persuaded
  • Flocculation    the process of flocculating; forming woolly cloudlike aggregations
  • FLOW    the act of flowing or streaming; continuous progression; the motion characteristic of fluids (liquids or gases); any uninterrupted stream or discharge; the amount of fluid that flows in a given time; dominant course (suggestive of running water) of successive events or ideas; the monthly discharge of blood from the uterus of nonpregnant women from puberty to menopause; something that resembles a flowing stream in moving continuously;  cover or swamp with water; move or progress freely as if in a stream; cause to flow; be abundantly present; undergo menstruation; fall or flow in a certain way; move along, of liquids
  • Foie gras    a pate made from goose liver (marinated in Cognac) and truffles
  • folklore    the unwritten literature (stories and pros and riddles and songs) of a culture
  • Food additive    an additive to food intended to improve its flavor or appearance or shelf life
  • Food and Drug Administration    a federal agency in the Department of Health and Human Services established to regulate the release of new foods and health related products
  • Food pyramid    (ecology) a hierarchy of food chains with the principal predator at the top; each level preys on the level below
  • Food waste    food that is discarded (as from a kitchen)
  • Foraging    the act of searching for food and provisions
  • Forbidden fruit    originally an apple from the tree of knowledge of good and evil in the Garden of Eden; it is now used to refer to anything that is tempting but dangerous (as sexuality)
  • Formaldehyde    a colorless poisonous gas; made by the oxidation of methanol
  • Formulary    of or relating to or of the nature of a formula;  (pharmacology) a book containing a compilation of pharmaceutical products with their formulas and methods of preparation
  • Fragmentation    the scattering of bomb fragments after the bomb explodes; (computer science) the condition of a file that is broken up and stored in many different locations on a magnetic disk; the disintegration of social norms governing behavior and thought and social relationships; separating something into fine particles
  • Francis Galton    English scientist (cousin of Charles Darwin) who explored many fields: heredity, meteorology, statistics, psychology, anthropology; founder of eugenics and first to use fingerprints for identification (1822 1911)
  • Frank Cooper    United States film actor noted for his portrayals of strong silent heroes (1901 1961)
  • Fratricide    the murder of your sibling; a person who murders their brother or sister; fire that injures or kills an ally
  • Fresh food    food that is not preserved by canning or dehydration or freezing or smoking
  • Frostbite    destruction of tissue by freezing and characterized by tingling, blistering and possibly gangrene
  • Frozen    not convertible to cash; turned into ice; affected by freezing or by long and severe cold; not thawed; absolutely still; incapable of being changed or moved or undone; e.g. "frozen prices"; (used of foods) preserved by freezing sufficiently rapidly to retain flavor and nutritional value; devoid of warmth and cordiality; expressive of unfriendliness or disdain
  • Fructose    a simple sugar found in honey and in many ripe fruits
  • Functional disorder    disorder showing symptoms for which no physiological or anatomical cause can be identified
  • Future    coming at a subsequent time or stage; (of elected officers) elected but not yet serving; yet to be or coming; effective in or looking toward the future; a tense or other formation referring to events or states that have not yet happened;  bulk commodities bought or sold at an agreed price for delivery at a specified future date; a tense that expresses actions or states in the future; the time yet to come
  • Galactocele    a cystic tumor containing milk or a milky substance (especially in the mammary glands)
  • Galactose    a simple sugar found in lactose
  • Gangrene    necrotic tissue; a mortified or gangrenous part or mass; the localized death of living cells (as from infection or the interruption of blood supply);  undergo necrosis
  • Garnish    any decoration added as a trimming or adornment; something (such as parsley) added to a dish for flavor or decoration;  decorate (food), as with parsley or other ornamental foods; take a debtor's wages on legal orders, such as for child support
  • Gas chamber    instrument of execution consisting of a sealed chamber into which poison gas is introduced; used to kill people or animals
  • Gastritis    inflammation of the lining of the stomach; nausea and loss of appetite and discomfort after eating
  • Gastroenteritis    inflammation of the stomach and intestines; can be caused by Salmonella enteritidis
  • Gastronomy    the art and practice of choosing and preparing and eating good food; a particular style of cookery (as of a region)
  • Gastrostomy    surgical creation of an opening through the abdominal wall into the stomach (as for gastrogavage)
  • Gatekeeper    someone who controls access to something; someone who guards an entrance
  • Gateway    an entrance that can be closed by a gate
  • Gelatin    a thin translucent membrane used over stage lights for color effects; an edible jelly (sweet or pungent) made with gelatin and used as a dessert or salad base or a coating for foods; a colorless water soluble glutinous protein obtained from animal tissues such as bone and skin
  • Gender    a grammatical category in inflected languages governing the agreement between s and pros and adjectives; in some languages it is quite arbitrary but in Indo European languages it is usually based on sex or animateness; the properties that distinguish organisms on the basis of their reproductive roles
  • Genital herpes    an infection caused by herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV 2) that is usually transmitted by sexual contact; marked by recurrent attacks of painful eruptions on the skin and mucous membranes of the genital area
  • Gentamicin    an antibiotic (trade name Garamycin) that is derived from an actinomycete; used in treating infections of the urinary tract
  • Geophagia    eating earth or clay or chalk; occurs in some primitive tribes or sometimes in cases of nutritional deficiency
  • Germany    a republic in central Europe; split into East German and West Germany after World War II and reunited in 1990
  • Gestalt psychology    (psychology) a theory of psychology that emphasizes the importance of configurational properties
  • Gestational age    the age of an embryo counting from the time of fertilization
  • Ghrelin    a hormone produced by stomach cells
  • Giardiasis    infection of the intestines with protozoa found in contaminated food and water; characterized by diarrhea and nausea and flatulence and abdominal discomfort
  • Gigantism    excessive largeness of stature; excessive size; usually caused by excessive secretion of growth hormone from the pituitary gland
  • Ginseng    Chinese herb with palmately compound leaves and small greenish flowers and forked aromatic roots believed to have medicinal powers; aromatic root of ginseng plants
  • Glioblastoma    a fast growing malignant brain tumor composed of spongioblasts; nearly always fatal
  • Glomerulonephritis    nephritis marked by inflammation of the glomeruli of the kidney; characterized by decreased production of urine and by the presence of blood and protein in the urine and by edema
  • Glucose    a monosaccharide sugar that has several forms; an important source of physiological energy
  • Glutamine    a crystalline amino acid occurring in proteins; important in protein metabolism
  • Gluten    a protein substance that remains when starch is removed from cereal grains; gives cohesiveness to dough
  • Gluttony    eating to excess (personified as one of the deadly sins); habitual eating to excess
  • Glycogen    one form in which body fuel is stored; stored primarily in the liver and broken down into glucose when needed by the body
  • Gold standard    a paragon of excellence; a monetary standard under which the basic unit of currency is defined by a stated quantity of gold
  • Golden Rule    a command based on Jesus' words in the Sermon on the Mount; any important rule
  • Goliath    (Old Testament) a giant Philistine warrior who was slain by David with a slingshot; someone or something that is abnormally large and powerful
  • Goniometer    direction finder that determines the angular direction of incoming radio signals
  • Goodman    United States clarinetist who in 1934 formed a big band (including Black as well as White musicians) and introduced a kind of jazz known as swing (1909 1986)
  • gorilla    largest anthropoid ape; terrestrial and vegetarian; of forests of central west Africa
  • Gourmand    a person who is devoted to eating and drinking to excess
  • Gourmet    a person devoted to refined sensuous enjoyment (especially good food and drink)
  • Gracie    United States comedienne remembered as the confused but imperturbable partner of her husband, George Burns (1906 1964)
  • Granuloma    a tumor composed of granulation tissue resulting from injury or inflammation or infection
  • Grapefruit    large yellow fruit with somewhat acid juicy pulp; usual serving consists of a half; citrus tree bearing large round edible fruit having a thick yellow rind and juicy somewhat acid pulp
  • Gratification    the act or an instance of satisfying; state of being gratified; great satisfaction
  • Gratuity    an award (as for meritorious service) given without claim or obligation; a relatively small amount of money given for services rendered (as by a waiter)
  • Gravedigger    a person who earns a living by digging graves
  • Ground    (art) the surface (as a wall or canvas) prepared to take the paint for a painting; a connection between an electrical device and a large conducting body, such as the earth (which is taken to be at zero voltage); a relatively homogeneous percept extending back of the figure on which attention is focused; a position to be won or defended in battle (or as if in battle); the first or preliminary coat of paint or size applied to a surface; the part of a scene (or picture) that lies behind objects in the foreground; a rational motive for a belief or action; the solid part of the earth's surface; material in the top layer of the surface of the earth in which plants can grow (especially with reference to its quality or use); a relation that provides the foundation for something; the loose soft material that makes up a large part of the land surface;  instruct someone in the fundamentals of a subject; connect to a ground; hit onto the ground; hit a groundball; throw to the ground in order to stop play and avoid being tackled behind the line of scrimmage; place or put on the ground; confine or restrict to the ground; hit or reach the ground; bring to the ground; use as a basis for; found on; fix firmly and stably; cover with a primer; apply a primer to
  • Gulf War syndrome    a medical condition of uncertain origin that affected many veterans of the 1991 Gulf War; characterized by fatigue and headache and dizziness and nausea and rashes and joint pain and respiratory disorders
  • Gutta percha    a whitish rubber derived from the coagulated milky latex of gutta percha trees; used for insulation of electrical cables
  • Gymkhana    a meet at which riders and horses display a range of skills and aptitudes
  • Gynaecology    the branch of medicine that deals with the diseases and hygiene of women
  • Hair care    care for the hair: the activity of washing or cutting or curling or arranging the hair
  • hamburger    a sandwich consisting of a fried cake of minced beef served on a bun, often with other ingredients; beef that has been ground
  • Hangnail    a loose narrow strip of skin near the base of a fingernail; tearing it produces a painful sore that is easily infected
  • Hangover    something that has survived from the past; disagreeable aftereffects from the use of drugs (especially alcohol); an official who remains in office after his term
  • Happiness    emotions experienced when in a state of well being; state of well being characterized by emotions ranging from contentment to intense joy
  • Harris    publisher of the first newspaper printed in America (1673 1713); British marshal of the Royal Air Force; during World War II he directed mass bombing raids against German cities that resulted in heavy civilian casualties (1892 1984); Irish writer noted for his sexually explicit but unreliable autobiography (1856 1931); United States diplomat who was instrumental in opening Japan to foreign trade (1804 1878)
  • Hatha Yoga    yogic exercises (popular in the West) that combine difficult postures (which force the mind to withdraw from the outside world) with controlled breathing
  • Haute cuisine    (French) an elaborate and skillful manner of preparing food
  • Haverhill fever    the form of ratbite fever occurring in the United States
  • Healing    tending to cure or restore to health;  the natural process by which the body repairs itself
  • Health    the general condition of body and mind; a healthy state of wellbeing free from disease
  • Health    the general condition of body and mind; a healthy state of wellbeing free from disease
  • Health and Human Services    the United States federal department that administers all federal programs dealing with health and welfare; created in 1979
  • Health care    social insurance for the ill and injured; the preservation of mental and physical health by preventing or treating illness through services offered by the health profession
  • Health care provider    a person who helps in identifying or preventing or treating illness or disability
  • Health professional    a person who helps in identifying or preventing or treating illness or disability
  • healthcare    the preservation of mental and physical health by preventing or treating illness through services offered by the health profession
  • hearing    able to perceive sound;  (law) a proceeding (usually by a court) where evidence is taken for the purpose of determining an issue of fact and reaching a decision based on that evidence; the ability to hear; the auditory faculty; a session (of a committee or grand jury) in which witnesses are called and testimony is taken; an opportunity to state your case and be heard; the act of hearing attentively; the range within which a voice can be heard
  • Heart failure    inability of the heart to pump enough blood to sustain normal bodily functions
  • Hemostasis    surgical procedure of stopping the flow of blood (as with a hemostat)
  • Hepatitis    inflammation of the liver caused by a virus or a toxin
  • Hepatitis B    an acute (sometimes fatal) form of viral hepatitis caused by a DNA virus that tends to persist in the blood serum and is transmitted by sexual contact or by transfusion or by ingestion of contaminated blood or other bodily fluids
  • Hepatitis C    a viral hepatitis clinically indistinguishable from hepatitis B but caused by a single stranded RNA virus; usually transmitted by parenteral means (as injection of an illicit drug or blood transfusion or exposure to blood or blood products)
  • Herbal medicine    the use of medicinal herbs to prevent or treat disease or promote health; a medicine made from plants and used to prevent or treat disease or promote health
  • Herbicide    a chemical agent that destroys plants or inhibits their growth
  • Herpes simplex    a herpes virus that affects the skin and nervous system; an infection caused by the herpes simples virus; affects the skin and nervous system; produces small temporary (but sometimes painful) blisters on the skin and mucous membranes
  • Hibernation    the act of retiring into inactivity; cessation from or slowing of activity during the winter; especially slowing of metabolism in some animals; the torpid or resting state in which some animals pass the winter
  • High voltage    operating on or powered by a high voltage; vigorously energetic or forceful
  • Highlander    a native of the Highlands of Scotland; a soldier in a Scottish regiment from the Highlands
  • Homicide    the killing of a human being by another human being
  • Homogenization    the act of making something homogeneous or uniform in composition
  • Homophobia    prejudice against (fear or dislike of) homosexual people and homosexuality
  • Honor killing    an ancient Muslim tradition still sometimes observed; a male member of the family kills a female relative for tarnishing the family image
  • Hormone    the secretion of an endocrine gland that is transmitted by the blood to the tissue on which it has a specific effect
  • Hospice    a program of medical and emotional care for the terminally ill; a lodging for travelers (especially one kept by a monastic order)
  • Hospital ship    a ship built to serve as a hospital; used for wounded in wartime
  • Hospital train    a military train built to transport wounded troops to a hospital
  • Hot work    roll, press, forge, or shape (metal) while hot
  • House    play in which children take the roles of father or mother or children and pretend to interact like adults; a dwelling that serves as living quarters for one or more families; a building in which something is sheltered or located; aristocratic family line; an official assembly having legislative powers; the audience gathered together in a theatre or cinema; the members of a religious community living together; the management of a gambling house or casino; a building where theatrical performances or motion picture shows can be presented; the members of a business organization that owns or operates one or more establishments; a social unit living together; (astrology) one of 12 equal areas into which the zodiac is divided;  provide housing for; contain or cover
  • Howard    Queen of England as the fifth wife of Henry VIII who was accused of adultery and executed (1520 1542); English actor of stage and screen (1893 1943)
  • Human chorionic gonadotropin    hormone produced early in pregnancy by the placenta; detection in the urine and serum is the basis for one kind of pregnancy test
  • Hunger    strong desire for something (not food or drink); a physiological need for food; the consequence of food deprivation;  feel the need to eat; be hungry; go without food; have a craving, appetite, or great desire for
  • Hunger    strong desire for something (not food or drink); a physiological need for food; the consequence of food deprivation;  feel the need to eat; be hungry; go without food; have a craving, appetite, or great desire for
  • Hunting    the pursuit and killing or capture of wild animals regarded as a sport; the work of finding and killing or capturing animals for food or pelts; the activity of looking thoroughly in order to find something or someone
  • Hunting license    a license authorizing the bearer to kill a certain type of animal during a specified period of time
  • Hunting season    the season during which it is legal to kill a particular species
  • Hyderabad    a city in south central India in Andhra Pradesh; a city in southern Pakistan on the Indus River
  • hydralazine    an antihypertensive drug (trade name Apresoline) that dilates blood vessels; used (often with a diuretic) to treat hypertension and congestive heart failure
  • hydraulic engineering    the branch of civil engineering dealing with the use and control of water in motion
  • Hydrazine    a colorless fuming corrosive liquid; a powerful reducing agent; used chiefly in rocket fuels
  • Hydrocephalus    an abnormal condition in which cerebrospinal fluid collects in the ventricles of the brain; in infants it can cause abnormally rapid growth of the head and bulging fontanelles and a small face; in adults the symptoms are primarily neurological
  • hydrology    the branch of geology that studies water on the earth and in the atmosphere: its distribution and uses and conservation
  • Hygiene    the science concerned with the prevention of illness and maintenance of health; a condition promoting sanitary practices
  • Hygiene    the science concerned with the prevention of illness and maintenance of health; a condition promoting sanitary practices
  • Hyperemesis gravidarum    hyperemesis during pregnancy; if severe it can result in damage to the brain and liver and kidney
  • Hypertension    a common disorder in which blood pressure remains abnormally high (a reading of 140/90 mm Hg or greater)
  • Hyperthermia    abnormally high body temperature; sometimes induced (as in treating some forms of cancer)
  • Hypertonia    (of muscular tissue) the state of being hypertonic
  • Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy    a disorder in which the heart muscle is so strong that it does not relax enough to fill with the heart with blood and so has reduced pumping ability
  • Hypertrophy    abnormal enlargement of a body part or organ;  undergo hypertrophy
  • Hypobetalipoproteinemia    a hereditary disorder characterized by low levels of beta lipoproteins and lipids and cholesterol
  • Hypolipoproteinemia    any of various disorders of lipoprotein and cholesterol metabolism that result in low levels of lipoprotein and cholesterol in the circulating blood
  • Hypoproteinemia    abnormally low level of protein in the blood; can indicate inadequate diet or intestinal or renal disorders
  • Hypothalamus    a basal part of the diencephalon governing autonomic nervous system
  • Hypotonia    (of muscular tissue) the state of being hypotonic
  • Hypoxia    a very strong drive resulting from a deficiency of available oxygen in the blood and bodily tissues (short of anoxia)
  • Iceland    a volcanic island in the North Atlantic near the Arctic Circle; an island republic on the island of Iceland; became independent of Denmark in 1944
  • Identity crisis    distress and disorientation (especially in adolescence) resulting from conflicting pressures and uncertainty about and one's self and one's role in society
  • illness    impairment of normal physiological function affecting part or all of an organism
  • Immortal    not subject to death;  a person (such as an author) of enduring fame; any supernatural being worshipped as controlling some part of the world or some aspect of life or who is the personification of a force
  • Immortality    the quality or state of being immortal; perpetual life after death
  • immune globulin    a class of proteins produced in lymph tissue in vertebrates and that function as antibodies in the immune response
  • Immunization    the act of making immune (especially by inoculation)
  • Impedance    a material's opposition to the flow of electric current; measured in ohms
  • Impetigo    a very contagious infection of the skin; common in children; localized redness develops into small blisters that gradually crust and erode
  • Implantation    a surgical procedure that places something in the human body; the act of planting or setting in the ground; (embryology) the organic process whereby a fertilized egg becomes implanted in the lining of the uterus of placental mammals
  • Impulse    the act of applying force suddenly; an impelling force or strength; the electrical discharge that travels along a nerve fiber; (electronics) a sharp transient wave in the normal electrical state (or a series of such transients); a sudden desire; an instinctive motive
  • Incidence    the striking of a light beam on a surface; the relative frequency of occurrence of something
  • Inclusion    the act of including; the relation of comprising something; the state of being included; any small intracellular body found within another (characteristic of certain diseases)
  • Inclusion body myositis    myositis characterized by weakness of limb muscles (especially the thighs and wrists and fingers); sometimes involves swallowing muscles; onset after 50 and slowly progressive; seen more often in men than in women
  • Incorporated    introduced into as a part of the whole; organized and maintained as a legal corporation; formed or united into a whole
  • Incubation period    the period between infection and the appearance of symptoms of the disease
  • Index case    the earliest documented case of a disease that is included in an epidemiological study
  • Indian club    a bottle shaped club used in exercises
  • Industry    the organized action of making of goods and services for sale; the people or companies engaged in a particular kind of commercial enterprise; persevering determination to perform a task
  • Infanticide    murdering an infant; a person who murders an infant
  • Infarction    localized necrosis resulting from obstruction of the blood supply
  • Infection    (international law) illegality that taints or contaminates a ship or cargo rendering it liable to seizure; moral corruption or contamination; an incident in which an infectious disease is transmitted; (medicine) the invasion of the body by pathogenic microorganisms and their multiplication which can lead to tissue damage and disease; (phonetics) the alteration of a speech sound under the influence of a neighboring sound; the pathological state resulting from the invasion of the body by pathogenic microorganisms; the communication of an attitude or emotional state among a number of people
  • Inferno    (Christianity) the abode of Satan and the forces of evil; where sinners suffer eternal punishment; a very intense and uncontrolled fire; any place of pain and turmoil
  • Infertility    the state of being unable to produce offspring; in a woman it is an inability to conceive; in a man it is an inability to impregnate
  • Inflammation    arousal to violent emotion; a response of body tissues to injury or irritation; characterized by pain and swelling and redness and heat; the act of setting something on fire; the state of being emotionally aroused and worked up
  • Influenza    an acute febrile highly contagious viral disease
  • Inquest    an inquiry into the cause of an unexpected death
  • insomniac    experiencing or accompanied by sleeplessness;  someone who cannot sleep
  • Institute    an association organized to promote art or science or education;  advance or set forth in court; set up or lay the groundwork for
  • Intelligence quotient    a measure of a person's intelligence as indicated by an intelligence test; the ratio of a person's mental age to their chronological age (multiplied by 100)
  • Interrupted    discontinued temporarily; intermittently stopping and starting
  • Intertrigo    chafing between two skin surfaces that are in contact (as in the armpit or under the breasts or between the thighs)
  • Ionizing radiation    high energy radiation capable of producing ionization in substances through which it passes
  • Irritation    the psychological state of being irritated or annoyed; (pathology) abnormal sensitivity to stimulation; the act of troubling or annoying someone; unfriendly behavior that causes anger or resentment; an uncomfortable feeling of mental painfulness or distress; a sudden outburst of anger; the neural or electrical arousal of an organ or muscle or gland
  • Islamabad    the capital of Pakistan in the north on a plateau; the site was chosen in 1959
  • Isolation    the act of isolating something; setting something apart from others; a country's withdrawal from international politics; a feeling of being disliked and alone; (psychiatry) a defense mechanism in which memory of an unacceptable act or impulse is separated from the emotion originally associated with it; a state of separation between persons or groups
  • Isometric exercise    muscle building exercises (or a system of musclebuilding exercises) involving muscular contractions against resistance without movement (the muscles contracts but the length of the muscle does not change)
  • Isomorphism    (biology) similarity or identity of form or shape or structure
  • Isothiocyanate    a family of compounds derived from horseradish and radishes and onions and mustards; source of the hotness of those plants and preparations
  • Jejunostomy    surgical creation of an opening between the jejunum and the anterior abdominal wall; will allow artificial feeding
  • Jessica Mitford    United States writer (born in England) who wrote on American culture (1917 1996)
  • jewelry    an adornment (as a bracelet or ring or necklace) made of precious metals and set with gems (or imitation gems)
  • Jogging    running at a jog trot as a form of cardiopulmonary exercise
  • John Hancock    a person's own signature; American revolutionary patriot who was president of the Continental Congress; was the first signer of the Declaration of Independence (1737 1793)
  • John Scott Haldane    Scottish physiologist and brother of Richard Haldane and Elizabeth Haldane; noted for research into industrial diseases (1860 1936)
  • Johnson    17th President of the United States; was elected vice president and succeeded Lincoln when Lincoln was assassinated; was impeached but acquitted by one vote (1808 1875); 36th President of the United States; was elected vice president and succeeded Kennedy when Kennedy was assassinated (1908 1973); English writer and lexicographer (1709 1784)
  • Jonathan    red late ripening apple; primarily eaten raw
  • journal    the part of the axle contained by a bearing; a record book as a physical object; a periodical dedicated to a particular subject; a daily written record of (usually personal) experiences and observations; a ledger in which transactions have been recorded as they occurred
  • Jumping    the act of participating in an athletic competition in which you must jump; the act of jumping; propelling yourself off the ground
  • Kaufman    United States playwright who collaborated with many other writers including Moss Hart (1889 1961)
  • Kawasaki disease    an acute disease of young children characterized by a rash and swollen lymph nodes and fever; of unknown cause
  • Kennedy    a large airport on Long Island east of New York City; 35th President of the United States; established the Peace Corps; assassinated in Dallas (1917 1963)
  • Keratitis    inflammation of the cornea causing watery painful eyes and blurred vision
  • Keratosis pilaris    keratosis characterized by hard conical elevations in the openings of sebaceous glands (especially of arms and thighs)
  • Kick the bucket    pass from physical life and lose all bodily attributes and functions necessary to sustain life
  • Kinesiology    the branch of physiology that studies the mechanics and anatomy in relation to human movement
  • Kiribati    an island republic in the west central Pacific just south of the equator
  • Kitchen    a room equipped for preparing meals
  • Klebsiella    a genus of nonmotile rod shaped Gram negative enterobacteria; some cause respiratory and other infections
  • Labyrinthitis    inflammation of the inner ear; can cause vertigo and vomiting
  • Lactation    the production and secretion of milk by the mammary glands; the period following birth during which milk is secreted; feeding an infant by giving suck at the breast
  • Lactobacillus    Gram positive rod shaped bacteria that produce lactic acid especially in milk
  • Lactose intolerance    congenital disorder consisting of an inability to digest milk and milk products; absence or deficiency of lactase results in an inability to hydrolyze lactose
  • Laryngitis    inflammation of the mucous membrane of the larynx; characterized by hoarseness or loss of voice and coughing
  • Latrine    a public toilet in a military area
  • Laughter    the activity of laughing; the manifestation of joy or mirth or scorn; the sound of laughing
  • Lauric acid    a crystalline fatty acid occurring as glycerides in natural fats and oils (especially coconut oil and palm kernel oil)
  • Lead poisoning    toxic condition produced by the absorption of excessive lead into the system
  • Learning disability    a disorder found in children of normal intelligence who have difficulties in learning specific skills
  • Legionella    the motile aerobic rod shaped Gram negative bacterium that thrives in central heating and air conditioning systems and can cause Legionnaires' disease
  • Leisure    freedom to choose a pastime or enjoyable activity; time available for ease and relaxation
  • Leonard    United States writer of thrillers (born in 1925)
  • Leukorrhea    discharge of white mucous material from the vagina; often an indication of infection
  • Liberty    freedom of choice; personal freedom from servitude or confinement or oppression; an act of undue intimacy; immunity from arbitrary exercise of authority: political independence; leave granted to a sailor or naval officer
  • Licensed practical nurse    a nurse who has enough training to be licensed by a state to provide routine care for the sick
  • Lifesize    being of the same size as an original
  • Lightning arrester    electrical device inserted in a power line to protect equipment from sudden fluctuations in current
  • Lightning rod    a metallic conductor that is attached to a high point and leads to the ground; protects the building from destruction by lightning; someone who is a frequent target of negative reactions and serves to distract attention from another
  • Linseed oil    a drying oil extracted from flax seed and used in making such things as oil paints
  • Liquefaction    the conversion of a solid or a gas into a liquid
  • Liquid diet    a diet of foods that can be served in liquid or strained form (plus custards or puddings); prescribed after certain kinds of surgery
  • Liquid oxygen    a bluish translucent magnetic liquid obtained by compressing gaseous oxygen and then cooling it below its boiling point; used as an oxidizer in rocket propellants
  • Listening    the act of hearing attentively
  • Litter    conveyance consisting of a chair or bed carried on two poles by bearers; the offspring at one birth of a multiparous mammal; rubbish carelessly dropped or left about (especially in public places); material used to provide a bed for animals;  give birth to a litter of animals; make a place messy by strewing garbage around; strew
  • Live birth    the birth of a living fetus (regardless of the length of gestation)
  • Livonia    a region on the Baltic that is divided between northern Estonia and southern Latvia
  • Lockdown    the act of confining prisoners to their cells (usually to regain control during a riot)
  • Lockout    a management action resisting employee's demands; employees are barred from entering the workplace until they agree to terms
  • Lonicera japonica    an Asiatic trailing evergreen honeysuckle with half evergreen leaves and fragrant white flowers turning yellow with age; has become a weed in some areas
  • Low voltage    subjected to or capable of operating under relative low voltage
  • Lumbar puncture    removal by centesis of fluid from the subarachnoid space of the lumbar region of the spinal cord for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes
  • Lung cancer    carcinoma of the lungs; one of the commonest forms of cancer
  • Luteal phase    the second half of the menstrual cycle after ovulation; the corpus luteum secretes progesterone which prepares the endometrium for the implantation of an embryo; if fertilization does not occur then menstrual flow begins
  • Lycopene    carotenoid that makes tomatoes red; may lower the risk of prostate cancer
  • Lymphadenopathy    chronic abnormal enlargement of the lymph nodes (usually associated with disease)
  • Lymphedema    swelling (usually in the legs) caused by lymph accumulating in the tissues
  • lymphoma    a neoplasm of lymph tissue that is usually malignant; one of the four major types of cancer
  • Madagascar    an island in the Indian Ocean off the southeastern coast of Africa; the 4th largest island in the world; a republic on the island of Madagascar; achieved independence from France in 1960
  • Madonna    United States pop singer and sex symbol during the 1980s (born in 1958); the mother of Jesus; Christians refer to her as the Virgin Mary; she is especially honored by Roman Catholics
  • magazine    a storehouse (as a compartment on a warship) where weapons and ammunition are stored; product consisting of a paperback periodic publication as a physical object; a light tight supply chamber holding the film and supplying it for exposure as required; a periodic publication containing pictures and stories and articles of interest to those who purchase it or subscribe to it; a business firm that publishes magazines; a metal frame or container holding cartridges; can be inserted into an automatic gun
  • Main course    a square mainsail; the principal dish of a meal
  • Maintenance    the unauthorized interference in a legal action by a person having no interest in it (as by helping one party with money or otherwise to continue the action) so as to obstruct justice or promote unnecessary litigation or unsettle the peace of the community; means of maintenance of a family or group; activity involved in maintaining something in good working order; the act of sustaining life by food or providing a means of subsistence; court ordered support paid by one spouse to another after they are separated
  • Malaise    physical discomfort (as mild sickness or depression)
  • Male bonding    the formation of a close personal relationship between men
  • Malingering    evading duty or work by pretending to be incapacitated
  • Malnutrition    a state of poor nutrition; can result from insufficient or excessive or unbalanced diet or from inability to absorb foods
  • Manganese    a hard brittle grey polyvalent metallic element that resembles iron but is not magnetic; used in making steel; occurs in many minerals
  • Manliness    the trait of being manly; having the characteristics of an adult male
  • Mariticide    the murder of a husband by his wife
  • Mary Mallon    United States cook who was an immune carrier of typhoid fever and who infected dozens of people (1870 1938)
  • Massachusetts    a state in New England; one of the original 13 colonies; one of the British colonies that formed the United States; the Algonquian language of the Massachuset; a member of the Algonquian people who formerly lived around Massachusetts Bay
  • Master    an original creation (i.e., an audio recording) from which copies can be made; an authority qualified to teach apprentices; directs the work of other; someone who holds a master's degree from academic institution; an officer who is licensed to command a merchant ship; key that secures entrance everywhere; presiding officer of a school; an artist of consummate skill; a person who has general authority over others; a combatant who is able to defeat rivals;  have a firm understanding or knowledge of; be on top of; be or become completely proficient or skilled in; get on top of; deal with successfully; have dominance or the power to defeat over
  • Mastitis    inflammation of a breast (or udder)
  • Matching    intentionally matched; being two identical
  • Maternity hospital    a hospital that provides care for women during pregnancy and childbirth and for newborn infants
  • Matricide    the murder of your mother; a person who murders their mother
  • Maundy    a public ceremony on Maundy Thursday when the monarch distributes Maundy money
  • Maya Lin    United States sculptor and architect whose public works include the memorial to veterans of the Vietnam War in Washington (born in 1959)
  • Measles    an acute and highly contagious viral disease marked by distinct red spots followed by a rash; occurs primarily in children
  • Mediation    the act of intervening for the purpose of bringing about a settlement; negotiation to resolve differences conducted by some impartial party
  • Medicaid    health care for the needy; a federally and state funded program
  • medical    requiring or amenable to treatment by medicine especially as opposed to surgery; relating to the study or practice of medicine; of or belonging to Aesculapius or the healing art;  a thorough physical examination; includes a variety of tests depending on the age and sex and health of the person
  • Medical    requiring or amenable to treatment by medicine especially as opposed to surgery; relating to the study or practice of medicine; of or belonging to Aesculapius or the healing art;  a thorough physical examination; includes a variety of tests depending on the age and sex and health of the person
  • Medical evacuation    the evacuation of persons (usually be air transportation) to a place where they can receive medical care
  • Medical Examination    a thorough physical examination; includes a variety of tests depending on the age and sex and health of the person
  • Medical examiner    a public official who investigates by inquest any death not due to natural causes
  • Medical record    the case history of a medical patient as recalled by the patient
  • Medicare    health care for the aged; a federally administered system of health insurance available to persons aged 65 and over
  • medication    the act of treating with medicines or remedies; (medicine) something that treats or prevents or alleviates the symptoms of disease
  • medicine    the learned profession that is mastered by graduate training in a medical school and that is devoted to preventing or alleviating or curing diseases and injuries; (medicine) something that treats or prevents or alleviates the symptoms of disease; the branches of medical science that deal with nonsurgical techniques; punishment for one's actions;  treat medicinally, treat with medicine
  • MEDLINE    the computer based telephone system of the United States National Library of Medicine that provides rapid linkage to MEDLARS
  • Megavitamin therapy    therapy based on a theory that taking very large doses of vitamins will prevent or cure physical or psychological disorders
  • Melanoma    any of several malignant neoplasms (usually of the skin) consisting of melanocytes
  • Menarche    the first occurrence of menstruation in a woman
  • Menninger    United States psychiatrist who with his sons founded a famous psychiatric clinic in Topeka (1862 1953); United States psychiatrist and son of Charles Menninger (1893 1990); United States psychiatrist and son of Charles Menninger (1899 1966)
  • Menopause    the time in a woman's life in which the menstrual cycle ends
  • Menopause    the time in a woman's life in which the menstrual cycle ends
  • Mens rea    (law) criminal intent; the thoughts and intentions behind a wrongful act (including knowledge that the act is illegal); often at issue in murder trials
  • Menstrual cycle    a recurring cycle (beginning at menarche and ending at menopause) in which the endometrial lining of the uterus prepares for pregnancy; if pregnancy does not occur the lining is shed at menstruation
  • Menstruation    the monthly discharge of blood from the uterus of nonpregnant women from puberty to menopause
  • Mental age    the level of intellectual development as measured by an intelligence test
  • Mental disorder    (psychiatry) a psychological disorder of thought or emotion; a more neutral term than mental illness
  • Mental health    the psychological state of someone who is functioning at a satisfactory level of emotional and behavioral adjustment
  • Mercury    temperature measured by a mercury thermometer; the smallest planet and the nearest to the sun; (Roman mythology) messenger of Jupiter and god of commerce; counterpart of Greek Hermes; a heavy silvery toxic univalent and bivalent metallic element; the only metal that is liquid at ordinary temperatures
  • Meromelia    congenital absence of part of an arm or leg
  • Mesothelioma    a rare form of carcinoma of the mesothelium lining lungs or abdomen or heart; usually associated with exposure to asbestos dust
  • Messenger    a person who carries a message
  • methodology    the system of methods followed in a particular discipline; the branch of philosophy that analyzes the principles and procedures of inquiry in a particular discipline
  • Michigan    a gambling card game in which chips are placed on the ace and king and queen and jack of separate suits (taken from a separate deck); a player plays the lowest card of a suit in his hand and successively higher cards are played until the sequence stops; the player who plays a card matching one in the layout wins all the chips on that card; a midwestern state in north central United States in the Great Lakes region; the 3rd largest of the Great Lakes; the largest freshwater lake entirely within the United States borders
  • microbiology    the branch of biology that studies microorganisms and their effects on humans
  • Microcyte    an abnormally small red blood cell (less than 5 microns in diameter)
  • Micronutrient    a substance needed only in small amounts for normal body function (e.g., vitamins or minerals)