Diets

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Vegetarian diets

  • Vegan diet. A vegetarian diet is one which excludes meat. Vegetarians also avoid food containing by-products of animal slaughter, such as animal-derived rennet and gelatin.
  • Lacto vegetarianism: A vegetarian diet that includes certain types of dairy, but excludes eggs and foods which contain animal rennet. A common diet among followers of several religions, including Hinduism, Sikhism and Jainism, based on the principle of Ahimsa (non-harming).
  • Vegan diet: In addition to the abstentions of a vegetarian diet, vegans do not use any product produced by animals, such as eggs, dairy products, or honey. The vegan philosophy and lifestyle is broader than just the diet and also includes abstaining from using any products tested on animals and often campaigning for animal rights.
  • Semi-vegetarianism: A predominantly vegetarian diet, in which meat is occasionally consumed.
  • Kangatarian: A diet originating from Australia. In addition to foods permissible in a vegetarian diet, kangaroo meat is also consumed.
  • Plant-based diet: A broad term to describe diets in which animal products do not form a large proportion of the diet. Under some definitions a plant-based diet is fully vegetarian; under others it is possible to follow a plant-based diet whilst occasionally consuming meat.
  • Pollotarian: Someone who eats chicken or other poultry, but not meat from mammals, often for environmental, health or food justice reasons.
  • Pollo-pescetarian: Someone who eats both poultry and fish/seafood, though no meat from mammals.

Dieting

A desire to lose weight is a common motivation to change dietary habits, as is a desire to maintain an existing weight. Many weight loss diets are considered by some to entail varying degrees of health risk, and some are not widely considered to be effective. This is especially true of "crash" or "fad" diets.citation needed

Many of the diets listed below could fall into more than one subcategory. Where this is the case, it is noted in that diet's entry.

Low-calorie diets

  • diet: an intermittent fasting diet popularized by Michael Mosley in .
  • Body for Life: A calorie-control diet, promoted as part of the -week Body for Life program.
  • Cookie diet: A calorie control diet in which low-fat cookies are eaten to quell hunger, often in place of a meal.
  • The Hacker's Diet: A calorie-control diet from The Hacker's Diet by John Walker. The book suggests that the key to reaching and maintaining the desired weight is understanding and carefully monitoring calories consumed and used.citation needed
  • Nutrisystem diet: The dietary element of the weight-loss plan from Nutrisystem, Inc. Nutrisystem distributes low-calorie meals, with specific ratios of fats, proteins and carbohydrates.
  • Weight Watchers diet: Foods are assigned point values; dieters can eat any food with a point value provided they stay within their daily point limit.
  • Very low calorie diets A very low calorie diet is consuming fewer than calories per day. Such diets are normally followed under the supervision of a doctor. Zero-calorie diets are also included.
  • Inedia (breatharian diet): A diet in which no food is consumed, based on the belief that food is not necessary for human subsistence.
  • KE diet: A diet in which an individual feeds through a feeding tube and does not eat anything.

Low-carbohydrate diets

  • Atkins diet: A low-carbohydrate diet, popularized by nutritionist Robert Atkins in the late-th and early-st centuries. Proponents argue that this approach is a more successful way of losing weight than low-calorie diets; critics argue that a low-carb approach poses increased health risks. The Atkins diet consists of four phases (Induction, Balancing, Fine-Tuning and Maintenance) with a gradual increase in consumption of carbohydrates as the person goes through the phases.
  • Dukan Diet: A multi-step diet based on high protein and limited carbohydrate consumption. It starts with two steps intended to facilitate short term weight loss, followed by two steps intended to consolidate these losses and return to a more balanced long-term diet.
  • Kimkins: A heavily promoted diet for weight loss, found to be fraudulent.
  • South Beach Diet: Diet developed by the Miami-based cardiologist Arthur Agatston, M.D., who says that the key to losing weight quickly and getting healthy isn’t cutting all carbohydrates and fats from your diet, but choosing the right carbs and the right fats.
  • Stillman diet: A carbohydrate-restricted diet that predates the Atkins diet, allowing consumption of specific food ingredients.
  • McDougall's starch diet is a high calorie, high fiber, low fat diet that is based on starches such as potatoes, rice, and beans which excludes all animal foods and added vegetable oils. John A. McDougall draws on historical observation of how many civilizations around the world throughout time have thrived on starch foods.

Crash diet and fad diet are general terms. They describe diet plans which involve making extreme, rapid changes to food consumption, but are also used as disparaging terms for common eating habits which are considered unhealthy. Both types of diet are often considered to pose health risks. Many of the diets listed here are weight-loss diets which would also fit into other sections of this list. Where this is the case, it will be noted in that diet's entry.

  • Beverly Hills Diet: An extreme diet which has only fruits in the first days, gradually increasing the selection of foods up to the sixth week.
  • Cabbage soup diet: A low-calorie diet based on heavy consumption of cabbage soup. Considered a fad diet.
  • Grapefruit diet: A fad diet, intended to facilitate weight loss, in which grapefruit is consumed in large quantities at meal times.
  • Monotrophic diet: A diet that involves eating only one food item, or one type of food, for a period of time to achieve a desired weight reduction.
  • Subway diet: A crash diet in which a person consumes Subway sandwiches in place of higher calorie fast foods. Made famous by former obese student Jared Fogle, who lost pounds after replacing his meals with Subway sandwiches as part of an effort to lose weight.
  • Western dietary pattern: A diet consisting of food which is most commonly consumed in developed countries. Examples include meat, white bread, milk and puddings. The name is a reference to the Western world.
  • Detox diets involve either not consuming or attempting to flush out substances that are considered unhelpful or harmful. Examples include restricting food consumption to foods without colorings or preservatives, taking supplements, or drinking large amounts of water. The latter practice in particular has drawn criticism, as drinking significantly more water than recommended levels can cause hyponatremia.
  • Juice fasting: A form of detox diet, in which nutrition is obtained solely from fruit and vegetable juices. The health implications of such diets are disputed.

Belief-based diets

Some people's dietary choices are influenced by their religious, spiritual or philosophical beliefs.

  • Buddhist diet: While Buddhism does not have specific dietary rules, some buddhists practice vegetarianism based on a strict interpretation of the first of the Five Precepts.
  • Hindu and Jain diets: Followers of Hinduism and Jainism may follow lacto vegetarian diets (though most do not, as some Hindu festivals require meat to be eaten), based on the principle of ahimsa (non-harming).
  • Islamic dietary laws: Muslims follow a diet consisting solely of food that is halal – permissible in Islam. The opposite of halal is haraam, food that is Islamically Impermissible. Haraam substances include alcohol, pork, and any meat from an animal which was not killed through the Islamic method of ritual slaughter (Dhabiha).
  • I-tal: A set of principles which influences the diet of many members of the Rastafari movement. One principle is that natural foods should be consumed. Some Rastafarians interpret I-tal to advocate vegetarianism or veganism.
  • Kosher diet: Food permissible under Kashrut, the set of Jewish dietary laws, is said to be Kosher. Some foods and food combinations are non-Kosher, and failure to prepare food in accordance with Kashrut can make otherwise permissible foods non-Kosher.
  • Seventh-day Adventist: Seventh-day Adventists combine the Kosher rules of Judaism with prohibitions against alcohol and caffeinated beverages and an emphasis on whole foods. About half of Adventists are lacto-ovo-vegetarians.
  • Word of Wisdom: The name of a section of the Doctrine and Covenants, a book of scripture accepted by members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Dietary advice includes () wholesome plants "in the season thereof", () eating meat sparingly and only "in times of winter, or of cold, or famine", and () grain as the "staff of life".

Diets followed for medical reasons

People's dietary choices are sometimes affected by intolerance or allergy to certain types of food. There are also dietary patterns that might be recommended, prescribed or administered by medical professionals for people with specific medical needs.

  • Diabetic diet: An umbrella term for diets recommended to people with diabetes. There is considerable disagreement in the scientific community as to what sort of diet is best for people with diabetes.citation needed
  • DASH diet (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension): A recommendation that those with high blood pressure consume large quantities of fruits, vegetables, whole-grains and low fat dairy foods as part of their diet, and avoid sugar sweetened foods, red meat and fats. Promoted by the US Department of Health and Human Services, a United States government organisation.
  • Elemental diet: A medical, liquid-only diet, in which liquid nutrients are consumed for ease of ingestion.
  • Elimination diet: A method of identifying foods which cause a person adverse effects, by process of elimination.
  • Gluten-free diet: A diet which avoids the protein gluten, which is found in barley, rye and wheat. It is a medical treatment for gluten-related disorders, which include coeliac disease, non-celiac gluten sensitivity, gluten ataxia, dermatitis herpetiformis and wheat allergy.
  • Gluten-free, casein-free diet: A gluten-free diet which also avoids casein, a protein commonly found in milk and cheese. This diet has been researched for efficacy in treatment of autism spectrum disorder.
  • Healthy kidney diet: This diet is for those impacted with chronic kidney disease, those with only one kidney who have a kidney infection and those who may be suffering from some other kidney failure. This diet is not the dialysis diet, which is something completely different. The healthy kidney diet restricts large amounts of protein which are hard for the kidney to break down but especially limits potassium and phosphorus-rich foods and beverages. Liquids are often restricted as well—not forbidden, just less of.
  • Ketogenic diet: A high-fat, low-carb diet, in which dietary and body fat is converted into energy. It is used as a medical treatment for refractory epilepsy.
  • Liquid diet: A diet in which only liquids are consumed. May be administered by clinicians for medical reasons, such as after a gastric bypass or to prevent death through starvation from a hunger strike.
  • Low-FODMAP diet: A diet that consists in the global restriction of all fermentable carbohydrates (FODMAPs).
  • Specific carbohydrate diet: A diet that aims to restrict the intake of complex carbohydrates such as found in grains and complex sugars. It is promoted as a way of reducing the symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, coeliac disease, and autism.citation needed.
  • Alkaline diet: The avoidance of relatively acidic foods – foods with low pH levels – such as grains, dairy, meat, sugar, alcohol, caffeine and fungi. Proponents believe such a diet may have health benefits; critics consider the arguments to have no scientific basis.
  • Blood type diet: A diet based on a belief that people's diets should reflect their blood types.

Clean eating

  • Eat-clean diet: Focusses on eating foods without preservatives, and on mixing lean proteins with complex carbohydrates.
  • Fit for Life diet: Recommendations include not combining protein and carbohydrates, not drinking water at meal time, and avoiding dairy foods.
  • Food combining diet: A nutritional approach where certain food types are deliberately consumed together or separately. For instance, some weight control diets suggest that proteins and carbohydrates should not be consumed in the same meal.
  • Gerson therapy: A form of alternative medicine, the diet is low salt, low fat and vegetarian, and also involves taking specific supplements. It was developed by Max Gerson, who claimed the therapy could cure cancer and chronic, degenerative diseases. These claims have not been scientifically proven, and they can cause serious illness and death.
  • The Graham Diet: A vegetarian diet which promotes whole-wheat flour and discourages the consumption of stimulants such as alcohol and caffeine. Developed by Sylvester Graham in the th century.
  • Hay diet: A food-combining diet developed by William Howard Hay in the s. Divides foods into separate groups, and suggests that proteins and carbohydrates should not be consumed in the same meal.
  • High-protein diet: A diet in which high quantities of protein are consumed with the intention of building muscle. Not to be confused with low-carb diets, where the intention is to lose weight by restricting carbohydrates.
  • High residue diet: A diet in which high quantities of dietary fiber are consumed. High-fiber foods include certain fruits, vegetables, nuts and grains.
  • Inuit diet: Inuit people traditionally consume food that is fished, hunted or gathered locally; predominantly meat and fish.
  • Jenny Craig: A weight-loss program from Jenny Craig, Inc. It includes weight counselling among other elements. The dietary aspect involves the consumption of pre-packaged food produced by the company.
  • Locavore diet: a neologism describing the eating of food that is locally produced, and not moved long distances to market. An example of this was explored in the book -Mile Diet, in which the authors only consumed food grown within miles of their residence for a year. People who follow this type of diet are sometimes known as locavores.
  • Low carbon diet: Consuming food which has been produced, prepared and transported with a minimum of associated greenhouse gas emissions.
  • Low-sulfur diet. An assortment of foods on a worktop. They are: tofu, wheat miso, bancha tea, umeboshi prumes brown rice, sea salt and nori. Some common macrobiotic ingredients
  • Macrobiotic diet: A diet in which processed food is avoided. Common components include grains, beans and vegetables.
  • Mediterranean diet: A diet based on habits of some southern European countries. One of the more distinct features is that olive oil is used as the primary source of fat.
  • MIND diet: combines the portions of the DASH diet and the Mediterranean diet. The diet is intended to reduce neurological deterioration such as Alzheimer's disease.
  • Montignac diet: A weight-loss diet characterised by consuming carbohydrates with a low glycemic index.
  • Negative calorie diet: A claim by many weight-loss diets that some foods take more calories to digest than they provide, such as celery. The basis for this claim is disputed.
  • Okinawa diet: A low-calorie diet based on the traditional eating habits of people from the Ryukyu Islands.
  • Omnivore: An omnivore consumes both plant and animal-based food.
  • Organic food diet: A diet consisting only of food which is organic – it has not been produced with modern inputs such as synthetic fertilizers, genetic modification, irradiation, or synthetic food additives.
  • Paleolithic diet: Can refer either to the eating habits of humans during the Paleolithic era, or of modern dietary plans purporting to be based on these habits.
  • Prison loaf: A meal replacement served in some United States prisons to inmates who are not trusted to use cutlery. Its composition varies between institutions and states, but as a replacement for standard food, it is intended to provide inmates with all their dietary needs.
  • Raw foodism: A diet which centres on the consumption of uncooked and unprocessed food. Often associated with a vegetarian diet, although some raw food dieters do consume raw meat.
  • Sonoma diet: A diet based on portion control and centered around consuming “power foods”
  • Sugar Busters!: Focuses on restricting the consumption of refined carbohydrates, particularly sugars.
  • Zone diet: A diet in which a person attempts to split calorie intake from carbohydrates, proteins and fats in a 40:30:30 ratio.

Glossary of diets

  • abelmoschus moschatus -  bushy herb of tropical Asia grown for its yellow or pink to scarlet blooms that resemble the hibiscus
  • abronia fragrans -  taller than Abronia elliptica and having night-blooming flowers
  • abstinence -  act or practice of refraining from indulging an appetite;  the trait of abstaining (especially from alcohol)
  • achillea millefolium -  ubiquitous strong-scented mat-forming Eurasian herb of wasteland, hedgerow or pasture having narrow serrate leaves and small usually white florets; widely naturalized in North America
  • achillea ptarmica -  Eurasian herb having loose heads of button-shaped white flowers and long grey-green leaves that cause sneezing when powdered
  • acorus calamus -  perennial marsh plant having swordlike leaves and aromatic roots
  • actinidia chinensis -  climbing vine native to China; cultivated in New Zealand for its fuzzy edible fruit with green meat
  • actinidia polygama -  ornamental vine of eastern Asia having yellow edible fruit and leaves with silver-white markings
  • activist - adj. advocating or engaged in activism;   a militant reformer
  • acupressure -  treatment of symptoms by applying pressure with the fingers to specific pressure points on the body
  • acupuncture -  treatment of pain or disease by inserting the tips of needles at specific points on the skin
  • adenanthera pavonina -  East Indian tree with racemes of yellow-white flowers; cultivated as an ornamental
  • adonis annua -  Eurasian herb cultivated for its deep red flowers with dark centers
  • advent -  arrival that has been awaited (especially of something momentous);  the season including the four Sundays preceding Christmas;  (Christian theology) the reappearance of Jesus as judge for the Last Judgment
  • aesculus hippocastanum -  tree having palmate leaves and large clusters of white to red flowers followed by brown shiny inedible seeds
  • agave -  tropical American plants with basal rosettes of fibrous sword-shaped leaves and flowers in tall spikes; some cultivated for ornament or for fiber
  • agrimonia -  a plant of the genus Agrimonia having spikelike clusters of small yellow flowers
  • agrostemma githago -  European annual having large trumpet-shaped reddish-purple flowers and poisonous seed; a common weed in grainfields and beside roadways; naturalized in America
  • ajuga reptans -  low rhizomatous European carpeting plant having spikes of blue flowers; naturalized in parts of United States
  • albizia julibrissin -  attractive domed or flat-topped Asiatic tree having bipinnate leaves and flowers with long silky stamens
  • albizia lebbeck -  large spreading Old World tree having large leaves and globose clusters of greenish-yellow flowers and long seed pods that clatter in the wind
  • alcea rosea -  plant with terminal racemes of showy white to pink or purple flowers; the English cottage garden hollyhock
  • aldous huxley -  English writer; grandson of Thomas Huxley who is remembered mainly for his depiction of a scientifically controlled utopia (1894-1963)
  • alfalfa -  leguminous plant grown for hay or forage;  important European leguminous forage plant with trifoliate leaves and blue-violet flowers grown widely as a pasture and hay crop
  • allium sativum -  bulbous herb of southern Europe widely naturalized; bulb breaks up into separate strong-flavored cloves
  • allspice -  ground dried berrylike fruit of a West Indian allspice tree; suggesting combined flavors of cinnamon and nutmeg and cloves;  deciduous shrubs having aromatic bark; eastern China; southwestern and eastern United States;  aromatic West Indian tree that produces allspice berries
  • aloe -  succulent plants having rosettes of leaves usually with fiber like hemp and spikes of showy flowers; found chiefly in Africa
  • alpinia officinarum -  Chinese perennial with pyramidal racemes of white flowers and pungent aromatic roots used medicinally and as flavoring
  • alternative medicine -  the practice of medicine without the use of drugs; may involve herbal medicines or self-awareness or biofeedback or acupuncture
  • althaea -  any of various plants of the genus Althaea; similar to but having smaller flowers than genus Alcea
  • amaranthus spinosus -  erect annual of tropical central Asia and Africa having a pair of divergent spines at most leaf nodes
  • american ginseng -  North American woodland herb similar to and used as substitute for the Chinese ginseng
  • americana -  any artifact (such as books or furniture or art) that is distinctive of America
  • anacyclus pyrethrum -  small Mediterranean plant containing a volatile oil once used to relieve toothache
  • anadenanthera colubrina -  Brazilian shrub having twice-pinnate leaves and small spicate flowers followed by flat or irregularly torulose pods; sometimes placed in genus Piptadenia
  • anagallis arvensis -  herb with scarlet or white or purple blossoms that close at approach of rainy weather
  • angelica -  aromatic stems or leaves or roots of Angelica Archangelica;  candied stalks of the angelica plant;  any of various tall and stout herbs of the genus Angelica having pinnately compound leaves and small white or greenish flowers in compound umbels
  • angelica archangelica -  a biennial cultivated herb; its stems are candied and eaten and its roots are used medicinally
  • angostura -  the bitter bark of a South American tree; used in medicines and liqueurs and bitters
  • anise -  liquorice-flavored seeds or oil used in cookies or cakes or pickles;  native to Egypt but cultivated widely for its aromatic seeds and the oil from them used medicinally and as a flavoring in cookery
  • anthyllis vulneraria -  perennial Eurasian herb having heads of red or yellow flowers and common in meadows and pastures; formerly used medicinally for kidney disorders
  • antonius -  Roman general under Julius Caesar in the Gallic wars; repudiated his wife for the Egyptian queen Cleopatra; they were defeated by Octavian at Actium (83-30 BC)
  • apocynum androsaemifolium -  North American perennial having pinkish flowers in loose cymes; used in folk medicine for pain or inflammation in joints
  • appetizer -  food or drink to stimulate the appetite (usually served before a meal or as the first course)
  • aquilegia vulgaris -  common European columbine having variously colored (white or blue to purple or red) short-spurred flowers; naturalized in United States
  • arak -  any of various strong liquors distilled from the fermented sap of toddy palms or from fermented molasses
  • arctium lappa -  burdock having heart-shaped leaves found in open woodland, hedgerows and rough grassland of Europe (except extreme N) and Asia Minor; sometimes cultivated for medicinal and culinary use
  • areca catechu -  southeastern Asian palm bearing betel nuts (scarlet or orange single-seeded fruit with a fibrous husk)
  • areca nut -  seed of betel palm; chewed with leaves of the betel pepper and lime as a digestive stimulant and narcotic in southeastern Asia
  • aristolochia clematitis -  creeping plant having curving flowers thought to resemble fetuses; native to Europe; naturalized Great Britain and eastern North America
  • arnica -  an ointment used in treating bruises;  any of various rhizomatous usually perennial plants of the genus Arnica;  used especially in treating bruises
  • arnica montana -  herb of pasture and open woodland throughout most of Europe and western Asia having orange-yellow daisylike flower heads that when dried are used as a stimulant and to treat bruises and swellings
  • artemisia -  any of various composite shrubs or herbs of the genus Artemisia having aromatic green or greyish foliage
  • artemisia abrotanum -  shrubby European wormwood naturalized in North America; sometimes used in brewing beer
  • artemisia absinthium -  aromatic herb of temperate Eurasia and North Africa having a bitter taste used in making the liqueur absinthe
  • artemisia vulgaris -  European tufted aromatic perennial herb having hairy red or purple stems and dark green leaves downy white below and red-brown florets
  • artichoke -  a thistlelike flower head with edible fleshy leaves and heart;  Mediterranean thistlelike plant widely cultivated for its large edible flower head
  • arum maculatum -  common European arum with lanceolate spathe and short purple spadix; emerges in early spring; source of a starch called arum
  • asafoetida -  the brownish gum resin of various plants; has strong taste and odor; formerly used as an antispasmodic
  • asclepias incarnata -  densely branching perennial of the eastern United States with white to crimson or purple flowers
  • ash wednesday -  the 7th Wednesday before Easter; the first day of Lent; the day following Mardi Gras (`fat Tuesday'); a day of fasting and repentance
  • asimina triloba -  small tree native to the eastern United States having oblong leaves and fleshy fruit
  • aspalathus linearis -  South African shrub having flat acuminate leaves and yellow flowers; leaves are aromatic when dried and used to make an herbal tea
  • asparagus -  edible young shoots of the asparagus plant;  plant whose succulent young shoots are cooked and eaten as a vegetable
  • aspen -  any of several trees of the genus Populus having leaves on flattened stalks so that they flutter in the lightest wind
  • astragalus -  large genus of annual or perennial herbs or shrubs of north temperate regions; largest genus in the family Leguminosae;  the bone in the ankle that articulates with the leg bones to form the ankle joint
  • atropa belladonna -  perennial Eurasian herb with reddish bell-shaped flowers and shining black berries; extensively grown in United States; roots and leaves yield atropine
  • austin -  state capital of Texas on the Colorado River; site of the University of Texas
  • author -  someone who originates or causes or initiates something;  writes (books or stories or articles or the like) professionally (for pay);   be the author of
  • avicenna -  Arabian physician and influential Islamic philosopher; his interpretation of Aristotle influenced St. Thomas Aquinas; writings on medicine were important for almost 500 years (980-1037)
  • azadirachta indica -  large semi-evergreen tree of the East Indies; trunk exudes a tenacious gum; bitter bark used as a tonic; seeds yield an aromatic oil; sometimes placed in genus Melia
  • babka -  a coffee cake flavored with orange rind and raisins and almonds
  • baccharis halimifolia -  a shrub of salt marshes of eastern and south central North America and West Indies; fruit is surrounded with white plumelike hairy tufts
  • bagel -  (Yiddish) glazed yeast-raised doughnut-shaped roll with hard crust
  • bailey -  the outer defensive wall that surrounds the outer courtyard of a castle;  the outer courtyard of a castle;  English lexicographer who was the first to treat etymology consistently; his work was used as a reference by Samuel Johnson (died in 1742);  United States singer (1918-1990)
  • baklava -  rich Middle Eastern cake made of thin layers of flaky pastry filled with nuts and honey
  • ballota nigra -  ill-smelling European herb with rugose leaves and whorls of dark purple flowers
  • bambusa vulgaris -  extremely vigorous bamboo having thin-walled culms striped green and yellow; so widely cultivated that native area is uncertain
  • barbarea vulgaris -  noxious cress with yellow flowers; sometimes placed in genus Sisymbrium
  • barbecue -  a rack to hold meat for cooking over hot charcoal usually out of doors;  a cookout in which food is cooked over an open fire; especially a whole animal carcass roasted on a spit;  meat that has been barbecued or grilled in a highly seasoned sauce;   cook outdoors on a barbecue grill
  • basil -  leaves of the common basil; used fresh or dried;  (Roman Catholic Church) the bishop of Caesarea who defended the Roman Catholic Church against the heresies of the 4th century; a saint and Doctor of the Church (329-379);  any of several Old World tropical aromatic annual or perennial herbs of the genus Ocimum
  • bearberry -  chiefly evergreen subshrubs of northern to arctic areas;  deciduous shrub of southeastern and central United States;  shrubby tree of the Pacific coast of the United States; yields cascara sagrada
  • beard -  hairy growth on or near the face of certain mammals;  the hair growing on the lower part of a man's face;  a person who diverts suspicion from someone (especially a woman who accompanies a male homosexual in order to conceal his homosexuality);  a tuft or growth of hairs or bristles on certain plants such as iris or grasses;  tuft of strong filaments by which e.g. a mussel makes itself fast to a fixed surface;   go along the rim, like a beard around the chin
  • beck -  a beckoning gesture
  • beer -  a general name for alcoholic beverages made by fermenting a cereal (or mixture of cereals) flavored with hops
  • bellis perennis -  low-growing Eurasian plant with yellow central disc flowers and pinkish-white outer ray flowers
  • berberis -  large genus of shrubs of temperate zones of New and Old Worlds
  • berberis vulgaris -  upright deciduous European shrub widely naturalized in United States having clusters of juicy berries
  • bernstein -  United States conductor and composer (1918-1990)
  • beta vulgaris -  biennial Eurasian plant usually having a swollen edible root; widely cultivated as a food crop
  • betel -  Asian pepper plant whose dried leaves are chewed with betel nut (seed of the betel palm) by southeast Asians
  • betula lenta -  common birch of the eastern United States having spicy brown bark yielding a volatile oil and hard dark wood used for furniture
  • beverage -  any liquid suitable for drinking
  • bialy -  flat crusty-bottomed onion roll
  • bilberry -  blue-black berries similar to American blueberries;  erect blueberry of western United States having solitary flowers and somewhat sour berries;  erect European blueberry having solitary flowers and blue-black berries
  • biologist -  (biology) a scientist who studies living organisms
  • birch - adj. consisting of or made of wood of the birch tree;   a switch consisting of a twig or a bundle of twigs from a birch tree; used to hit people as punishment;  any betulaceous tree or shrub of the genus Betula having a thin peeling bark;  hard close-grained wood of any of various birch trees; used especially in furniture and interior finishes and plywood;   whip with a birch twig
  • birmingham -  a city in central England; 2nd largest English city and an important industrial and transportation center;  the largest city in Alabama; located in northeastern Alabama
  • biryani -  an Indian dish made with highly seasoned rice and meat or fish or vegetables
  • bitter orange -  highly acidic orange used especially in marmalade;  any of various common orange trees yielding sour or bitter fruit; used as grafting stock
  • black pepper -  pepper that is ground from whole peppercorns with husks on;  climber having dark red berries (peppercorns) when fully ripe; southern India and Sri Lanka; naturalized in northern Burma and Assam
  • blackberry -  large sweet black or very dark purple edible aggregate fruit of any of various bushes of the genus Rubus;  bramble with sweet edible black or dark purple berries that usually do not separate from the receptacle;   pick or gather blackberries
  • bland diet -  a diet of foods that are not irritating
  • blini -  Russian pancake of buckwheat flour and yeast; usually served with caviar and sour cream
  • blintz -  (Judaism) thin pancake folded around a filling and fried or baked
  • blueberry -  sweet edible dark-blue berries of either low-growing or high-growing blueberry plants;  any of numerous shrubs of the genus Vaccinium bearing blueberries
  • bolo -  long heavy knife with a single edge; of Philippine origin;  a cord fastened around the neck with an ornamental clasp and worn as a necktie
  • bombyx mori -  stocky creamy-white Asiatic moth found almost entirely under human care; the source of most of the silk of commerce
  • book of job -  a book in the Old Testament containing Job's pleas to God about his afflictions and God's reply
  • book of lamentations -  an Old Testament book lamenting the desolation of Judah after the destruction of Jerusalem in 586 BC; traditionally attributed to the prophet Jeremiah
  • borage -  leaves flavor sauces and punches; young leaves eaten in salads or cooked;  hairy blue-flowered European annual herb long used in herbal medicine and eaten raw as salad greens or cooked like spinach
  • boris pasternak -  Russian writer whose best known novel was banned by Soviet authorities but translated and published abroad (1890-1960)
  • borscht -  a Russian soup usually containing beet juice as a foundation
  • boswellia serrata -  East Indian tree yielding a resin used medicinally and burned as incense
  • botanist -  a biologist specializing in the study of plants
  • boysenberry -  large raspberry-flavored fruit; cross between blackberries and raspberries;  cultivated hybrid bramble of California having large dark wine-red fruit with a flavor resembling raspberries
  • brassica nigra -  widespread Eurasian annual plant cultivated for its pungent seeds; a principal source of table mustard
  • bread -  food made from dough of flour or meal and usually raised with yeast or baking powder and then baked;  informal terms for money;   cover with bread crumbs
  • brisket -  a cut of meat from the breast or lower chest especially of beef
  • broadcaster -  a mechanical device for scattering something (seed or fertilizer or sand etc.) in all directions;  someone who broadcasts on radio or television
  • broussonetia papyrifera -  shrubby Asiatic tree having bark (tapa) that resembles cloth; grown as a shade tree in Europe and America; male flowers are pendulous catkins and female are urn-shaped followed by small orange-red aggregate berries
  • bruch -  German composer (1838-1920)
  • bruckner -  Austrian organist and composer of romantic music (1824-1896)
  • brugmansia -  includes some plants often placed in the genus Datura: angel's trumpets
  • bryonia dioica -  bryony having fleshy roots pale green flowers and very small red berries; Europe; North Africa; western Asia
  • buddhist - adj. of or relating to or supporting Buddhism;   one who follows the teachings of Buddha
  • bulgur -  parched crushed wheat
  • buxus sempervirens -  large slow-growing evergreen shrub or small tree with multiple stems; extensively used for hedges or borders and topiary figures
  • cabbage -  any of various types of cabbage;  any of various cultivars of the genus Brassica oleracea grown for their edible leaves or flowers;  informal terms for money;   make off with belongings of others
  • caesalpinia pulcherrima -  tropical shrub or small tree having showy yellow to orange-red flowers; sometimes placed in genus Poinciana
  • cake -  a block of solid substance (such as soap or wax);  made from or based on a mixture of flour and sugar and eggs;  small flat mass of chopped food;   form a coat over
  • calendula -  any of numerous chiefly annual herbs of the genus Calendula widely cultivated for their yellow or orange flowers; often used for medicinal and culinary purposes
  • caltha palustris -  swamp plant of Europe and North America having bright yellow flowers resembling buttercups
  • calvary -  any experience that causes intense suffering;  a hill near Jerusalem where Jesus was crucified
  • camel -  cud-chewing mammal used as a draft or saddle animal in desert regions
  • camellia sinensis -  a tropical evergreen shrub or small tree extensively cultivated in e.g. China and Japan and India; source of tea leaves
  • camphor -  a resin obtained from the camphor tree; used in making celluloid and liniment
  • cananga odorata -  evergreen Asian tree with aromatic greenish-yellow flowers yielding a volatile oil; widely grown in the tropics as an ornamental
  • candy -  a rich sweet made of flavored sugar and often combined with fruit or nuts;   coat with something sweet, such as a hard sugar glaze
  • canellaceae -  one genus: aromatic tropical trees of eastern Africa and Florida to West Indies
  • canfield -  a form of solitaire that involves gambling
  • cannabis -  the most commonly used illicit drug; considered a soft drug, it consists of the dried leaves of the hemp plant; smoked or chewed for euphoric effect;  any plant of the genus Cannabis; a coarse bushy annual with palmate leaves and clusters of small green flowers; yields tough fibers and narcotic drugs
  • cannabis sativa -  a strong-smelling plant from whose dried leaves a number of euphoriant and hallucinogenic drugs are prepared
  • caper -  a playful leap or hop;  a crime (especially a robbery);  pickled flower buds used as a pungent relish in various dishes and sauces;  any of numerous plants of the genus Capparis;  a ludicrous or grotesque act done for fun and amusement;  gay or light-hearted recreational activity for diversion or amusement;   jump about playfully
  • caragana sinica -  shrub with dark-green glossy foliage and solitary pale yellow flowers; northern China
  • caraway -  leaves used sparingly in soups and stews;  a Eurasian plant with small white flowers yielding caraway seed
  • cardamom -  aromatic seeds used as seasoning like cinnamon and cloves especially in pickles and barbecue sauces;  rhizomatous herb of India having aromatic seeds used as seasoning
  • cardiologist -  a specialist in cardiology; a specialist in the structure and function and disorders of the heart
  • cardiospermum halicacabum -  woody perennial climbing plant with large ornamental seed pods that resemble balloons; tropical India and Africa and America
  • carduus crispus -  European biennial introduced in North America having flower heads in crowded clusters at ends of branches
  • carlina acaulis -  stemless perennial having large flowers with white or purple-brown florets nestled in a rosette of long spiny leaves hairy beneath; of alpine regions of southern and eastern Europe
  • carter -  someone whose work is driving carts;  39th President of the United States (1924-);  Englishman and Egyptologist who in 1922 discovered and excavated the tomb of Tutankhamen (1873-1939)
  • cashew -  kidney-shaped nut edible only when roasted;  tropical American evergreen tree bearing kidney-shaped nuts that are edible only when roasted
  • cassia fistula -  deciduous or semi-evergreen tree having scented sepia to yellow flowers in drooping racemes and pods whose pulp is used medicinally; tropical Asia and Central and South America and Australia
  • cassia roxburghii -  East Indian tree having long pods containing a black cathartic pulp used as a horse medicine
  • castanea sativa -  wild or cultivated throughout southern Europe, northwestern Africa and southwestern Asia
  • castor oil -  a purgative extracted from the seed of the castor plant; used in paint and varnish as well as medically
  • catharanthus roseus -  commonly cultivated Old World woody herb having large pinkish to red flowers
  • cayenne pepper -  a long and often twisted hot red pepper;  ground pods and seeds of pungent red peppers of the genus Capsicum;  plant bearing very hot and finely tapering long peppers; usually red
  • cedrus deodara -  tall East Indian cedar having spreading branches with nodding tips; highly valued for its appearance as well as its timber
  • celery -  stalks eaten raw or cooked or used as seasoning;  widely cultivated herb with aromatic leaf stalks that are eaten raw or cooked
  • celtis occidentalis -  large deciduous shade tree of southern United States with small deep purple berries
  • centaurea cyanus -  an annual Eurasian plant cultivated in North America having showy heads of blue or purple or pink or white flowers
  • cesar chavez -  United States labor leader who organized farm workers (born 1927)
  • challah -  (Judaism) a loaf of white bread containing eggs and leavened with yeast; often formed into braided loaves and glazed with eggs before baking
  • chamomile -  Eurasian plant apple-scented foliage and white-rayed flowers and feathery leaves used medicinally; in some classification systems placed in genus Anthemis
  • cheesecake -  a photograph of an attractive woman in minimal attire;  made with sweetened cream cheese and eggs and cream baked in a crumb crust
  • chef -  a professional cook
  • chelidonium majus -  perennial herb with branched woody stock and bright yellow flowers
  • chemist -  a scientist who specializes in chemistry;  a health professional trained in the art of preparing and dispensing drugs
  • chen -  wild goose having white adult plumage
  • chenopodium vulvaria -  European goosefoot with strong-scented foliage; adventive in eastern North America
  • chervil -  fresh ferny parsley-like leaves used as a garnish with chicken and veal and omelets and green salads and spinach;  aromatic annual Old World herb cultivated for its finely divided and often curly leaves for use especially in soups and salads
  • chicago -  largest city in Illinois; a bustling Great Lakes port that extends 26 miles along the southwestern shoreline of Lake Michigan;  a gambling card game in which chips are placed on the ace and king and queen and jack of separate suits (taken from a separate deck); a player plays the lowest card of a suit in his hand and successively higher cards are played until the sequence stops; the player who plays a card matching one in the layout wins all the chips on that card
  • chickpea -  large white roundish Asiatic legume; usually dried;  Asiatic herb cultivated for its short pods with one or two edible seeds;  the seed of the chickpea plant
  • chicory -  crisp spiky leaves with somewhat bitter taste;  root of the chicory plant roasted and ground to substitute for or adulterate coffee;  perennial Old World herb having rayed flower heads with blue florets cultivated for its root and its heads of crisp edible leaves used in salads;  the dried root of the chicory plant: used as a coffee substitute
  • chili pepper -  very hot and finely tapering pepper of special pungency;  plant bearing very hot and finely tapering long peppers; usually red
  • chinese alligator -  small alligator of the Yangtze valley of China having unwebbed digits
  • chiococca alba -  evergreen climbing shrub of southern Florida and West Indies grown for its racemes of fragrant white to creamy flowers followed by globose white succulent berries
  • chipper - adj. having a cheerful, lively, and self-confident air
  • chives -  cylindrical leaves used fresh as a mild onion-flavored seasoning;  perennial having hollow cylindrical leaves used for seasoning
  • christmas cake -  a rich fruitcake (usually covered with icing and marzipan) and eaten at Christmas
  • chrysanthemum -  any of numerous perennial Old World herbs having showy brightly colored flower heads of the genera Chrysanthemum, Argyranthemum, Dendranthema, Tanacetum; widely cultivated;  the flower of a chrysanthemum plant
  • cibotium -  in some classification systems placed in family Cyatheaceae: ornamental tree ferns with coarse gracefully drooping fronds
  • cinchona -  any of several trees of the genus Cinchona;  medicinal bark of cinchona trees; source of quinine and quinidine
  • cinchona calisaya -  Peruvian shrub or small tree having large glossy leaves and cymes of fragrant yellow to green or red flowers; cultivated for its medicinal bark
  • cinchona officinalis -  Peruvian shrub or small tree having large glossy leaves and cymes of fragrant yellow to green or red flowers; cultivated for its medicinal bark
  • cinchona pubescens -  small tree of Ecuador and Peru having very large glossy leaves and large panicles of fragrant pink flowers; cultivated for its medicinal bark
  • cinnabar - adj. of a vivid red to reddish-orange color;   large red-and-black European moth; larvae feed on leaves of ragwort; introduced into United States to control ragwort;  a heavy reddish mineral consisting of mercuric sulfide; the chief source of mercury
  • cinnamomum camphora -  large evergreen tree of warm regions whose aromatic wood yields camphor
  • cinnamomum cassia -  Chinese tree with aromatic bark; yields a less desirable cinnamon than Ceylon cinnamon
  • cinnamon -  spice from the dried aromatic bark of the Ceylon cinnamon tree; used as rolled strips or ground;  tropical Asian tree with aromatic yellowish-brown bark; source of the spice cinnamon;  aromatic bark used as a spice
  • citron -  large lemonlike fruit with thick aromatic rind; usually preserved;  thorny evergreen small tree or shrub of India widely cultivated for its large lemonlike fruits that have thick warty rind
  • claviceps purpurea -  a fungus that infects various cereal plants forming compact black masses of branching filaments that replace many grains of the plant; source of medicinally important alkaloids and of lysergic acid
  • clematis vitalba -  vigorous deciduous climber of Europe to Afghanistan and Lebanon having panicles of fragrant green-white flowers in summer and autumn
  • clove -  spice from dried unopened flower bud of the clove tree; used whole or ground;  one of the small bulblets that can be split off of the axis of a larger garlic bulb;  moderate sized very symmetrical red-flowered evergreen widely cultivated in the tropics for its flower buds which are source of cloves;  aromatic flower bud of a clove tree; yields a spice
  • cnicus -  one species: blessed thistle
  • coach -  a carriage pulled by four horses with one driver;  a person who gives private instruction (as in singing or acting);  (sports) someone in charge of training an athlete or a team;  a vehicle carrying many passengers; used for public transport;  a railcar where passengers ride;   teach and supervise (someone); act as a trainer or coach (to), as in sports;  drive a coach
  • coca -  dried leaves of the coca plant (and related plants that also contain cocaine); chewed by Andean people for their simulating effect;  United States comedienne who starred in early television shows with Sid Caesar (1908-2001);  a South American shrub whose leaves are chewed by natives of the Andes; a source of cocaine
  • coca cola -  Coca Cola is a trademarked cola
  • cocoa bean -  seed of the cacao tree; ground roasted beans are source of chocolate
  • coconut -  large hard-shelled oval nut with a fibrous husk containing thick white meat surrounding a central cavity filled (when fresh) with fluid or milk;  the edible white meat a coconut; often shredded for use in e.g. cakes and curries;  tall palm tree bearing coconuts as fruits; widely planted throughout the tropics
  • coffee -  a beverage consisting of an infusion of ground coffee beans;  any of several small trees and shrubs native to the tropical Old World yielding coffee beans;  a medium brown to dark-brown color;  a seed of the coffee tree; ground to make coffee
  • coffee cake -  a cake or sweet bread usually served with coffee
  • colchicum -  chiefly fall-blooming perennial cormous herbs; sometimes placed in family Colchicaceae
  • colchicum autumnale -  bulbous autumn-flowering herb with white, purple or lavender-and-white flowers; native to western and central Europe
  • coleus amboinicus -  an aromatic fleshy herb of India and Ceylon to South Africa; sometimes placed in genus Plectranthus
  • collation -  careful examination and comparison to note points of disagreement;  assembling in proper numerical or logical sequence;  a light informal meal
  • college -  a complex of buildings in which an institution of higher education is housed;  British slang for prison;  the body of faculty and students of a college;  an institution of higher education created to educate and grant degrees; often a part of a university
  • combretum -  any of numerous shrubs or small trees of the genus Combretum having spikes of small flowers
  • come -  the thick white fluid containing spermatozoa that is ejaculated by the male genital tract;   come to pass; arrive, as in due course;  be found or available;  happen as a result;  reach or enter a state, relation, condition, use, or position;  have a certain priority;  cover a certain distance;  move toward, travel toward something or somebody or approach something or somebody;  be received;  experience orgasm;  to be the product or result;  develop into;  extend or reach;  exist or occur in a certain point in a series;  come to one's mind; suggest itself;  reach a destination; arrive by movement or progress;  proceed or get along;  add up in number or quantity;  come under, be classified or included;  come from; be connected by a relationship of blood, for example;  be a native of;  come forth
  • common wheat -  widely cultivated in temperate regions in many varieties for its commercially important grain
  • company -  an institution created to conduct business;  a unit of firefighters including their equipment;  a social gathering of guests or companions;  organization of performers and associated personnel (especially theatrical);  small military unit; usually two or three platoons;  the state of being with someone;  crew of a ship including the officers; the whole force or personnel of a ship;  a band of people associated temporarily in some activity;  a social or business visitor;   be a companion to somebody
  • compote -  dessert of stewed or baked fruit
  • condiment -  a preparation (a sauce or relish or spice) to enhance flavor or enjoyment
  • confection -  the act of creating something (a medicine or drink or soup etc.) by compounding or mixing a variety of components;  a food rich in sugar;   make into a confection
  • congee -  a Chinese rice gruel eaten for breakfast;   perform a ceremonious bow;  depart after obtaining formal permission
  • convolvulus arvensis -  weakly climbing European perennial with white or pink flowers; naturalized in North America and an invasive weed
  • convolvulus scammonia -  twining plant of Asia Minor having cream to purple flowers and long thick roots yielding a cathartic resin
  • cookbook -  a book of recipes and cooking directions
  • cookie -  a short line of text that a web site puts on your computer's hard drive when you access the web site;  any of various small flat sweet cakes (`biscuit' is the British term);  the cook on a ranch or at a camp
  • cooper -  a craftsman who makes or repairs wooden barrels or tubs;  United States novelist noted for his stories of American Indians and the frontier life (1789-1851);  United States film actor noted for his portrayals of strong silent heroes (1901-1961);  United States industrialist who built the first American locomotive; founded Cooper Union in New York City to offer free courses in the arts and sciences (1791-1883);   make barrels and casks
  • coptis -  small genus of low perennial herbs having yellow rhizomes and white or yellow flowers
  • coriander -  parsley-like herb used as seasoning or garnish;  dried coriander seeds used whole or ground;  Old World herb with aromatic leaves and seed resembling parsley
  • cornus florida -  deciduous tree; celebrated for its large white or pink bracts and stunning autumn color that is followed by red berries
  • corporation -  a business firm whose articles of incorporation have been approved in some state;  slang for a paunch
  • corydalis -  annual or perennial herbs of Himalayan China and South Africa;  a plant of the genus Corydalis with beautiful compound foliage and spurred tubular flowers;  type genus of the Corydalidae
  • couperin -  French composer of music for organ and a member of a family of distinguished organists (1668-1733)
  • couscous -  a pasta made in northern Africa of crushed and steamed semolina;  a spicy dish that originated in northern Africa; consists of pasta steamed with a meat and vegetable stew
  • crataegus -  thorny shrubs and small trees: hawthorn; thorn; thorn apple
  • crataegus monogyna -  European hawthorn having deeply cleft leaves and bright red fruits; widely cultivated in many varieties and often grown as impenetrable hedges; established as an escape in eastern North America
  • crocus sativus -  Old World crocus having purple or white flowers with aromatic pungent orange stigmas used in flavoring food
  • croton -  tropical Asiatic shrub; source of croton oil;  grown in many varieties for their brightly colored foliage; widely cultivated as a houseplant
  • cumin -  aromatic seeds of the cumin herb of the carrot family;  dwarf Mediterranean annual long cultivated for its aromatic seeds
  • curtiss -  United States industrialist and aviation pioneer (1878-1930)
  • cynoglossum officinale -  biennial shrub of Europe and western Asia having coarse tongue-shaped leaves and dark reddish-purple flowers
  • cyperus rotundus -  a widely distributed perennial sedge having small edible nutlike tubers
  • cypripedium reginae -  pale pink wild orchid of northeastern America having an inflated pouchlike lip
  • daphne -  (Greek mythology) a nymph who was transformed into a laurel tree to escape the amorous Apollo;  any of several ornamental shrubs with shiny mostly evergreen leaves and clusters of small bell-shaped flowers
  • datura stramonium -  intensely poisonous tall coarse annual tropical weed having rank-smelling foliage, large white or violet trumpet-shaped flowers and prickly fruits
  • daucus carota -  a widely naturalized Eurasian herb with finely cut foliage and white compound umbels of small white or yellowish flowers and thin yellowish roots
  • decoction -  (pharmacology) the extraction by boiling of water-soluble drug substances
  • deity -  any supernatural being worshipped as controlling some part of the world or some aspect of life or who is the personification of a force
  • delicatessen -  a shop selling ready-to-eat food products;  ready-to-eat food products
  • delphinium -  any plant of the genus Delphinium having palmately divided leaves and showy spikes of variously colored spurred flowers; some contain extremely poisonous substances
  • detoxification -  treatment for poisoning by neutralizing the toxic properties (normally a function of the liver);  a treatment for addiction to drugs or alcohol intended to remove the physiological effects of the addictive substances
  • dewey -  United States pragmatic philosopher who advocated progressive education (1859-1952);  a United States naval officer remembered for his victory at Manila Bay in the Spanish-American War;  United States librarian who founded the decimal system of classification (1851-1931)
  • diabetic diet -  a diet designed to help control the symptoms of diabetes
  • dianthus barbatus -  Eurasian pink widely cultivated for its flat-topped dense clusters of varicolored flowers
  • dictamnus -  a dicotyledonous genus of the family Rutaceae
  • diervilla lonicera -  spreading bush of northeastern United States having small clusters of fragrant green and yellow flowers
  • diet -  the act of restricting your food intake (or your intake of particular foods);  the usual food and drink consumed by an organism (person or animal);  a prescribed selection of foods;  a legislative assembly in certain countries (e.g., Japan);   eat sparingly, for health reasons or to lose weight;  follow a regimen or a diet, as for health reasons
  • dieting -  the act of restricting your food intake (or your intake of particular foods)
  • dietitian -  a specialist in the study of nutrition
  • digitalis -  a powerful cardiac stimulant obtained from foxglove;  any of several plants of the genus Digitalis
  • digitalis purpurea -  tall leafy European biennial or perennial having spectacular clusters of large tubular pink-purple flowers; leaves yield drug digitalis and are poisonous to livestock
  • dill -  aromatic threadlike foliage of the dill plant used as seasoning;  aromatic Old World herb having aromatic threadlike foliage and seeds used as seasoning
  • dish -  a piece of dishware normally used as a container for holding or serving food;  directional antenna consisting of a parabolic reflector for microwave or radio frequency radiation;  a particular item of prepared food;  the quantity that a dish will hold;  an activity that you like or at which you are superior;  a very attractive or seductive looking woman;   make concave; shape like a dish;  provide (usually but not necessarily food)
  • doctor -  children take the roles of physician or patient or nurse and pretend they are at the physician's office;  a licensed medical practitioner;  a person who holds Ph.D. degree (or the equivalent) from an academic institution;  (Roman Catholic Church) a title conferred on 33 saints who distinguished themselves through the orthodoxy of their theological teaching;   give medical treatment to;  restore by replacing a part or putting together what is torn or broken;  alter and make impure, as with the intention to deceive
  • domine -  a clergyman; especially a settled minister or parson
  • dorian -  a member of one of the four divisions of the prehistoric Greeks
  • dottle -  the residue of partially burnt tobacco left caked in the bowl of a pipe after smoking
  • doughnut -  a small ring-shaped friedcake;  a toroidal shape
  • drink -  the act of drinking alcoholic beverages to excess;  a single serving of a beverage;  any large deep body of water;  the act of swallowing;  any liquid suitable for drinking;   take in liquids;  consume alcohol;  drink excessive amounts of alcohol; be an alcoholic;  be fascinated or spell-bound by; pay close attention to;  propose a toast to
  • drug -  a substance that is used as a medicine or narcotic;   administer a drug to;  use recreational drugs
  • duke -  a British peer of the highest rank;  a nobleman (in various countries) of high rank
  • dumpling -  dessert made by baking fruit wrapped in pastry;  small balls or strips of boiled or steamed dough
  • durian -  huge fruit native to southeastern Asia `smelling like Hell and tasting like Heaven'; seeds are roasted and eaten like nuts;  tree of southeastern Asia having edible oval fruit with a hard spiny rind
  • durio zibethinus -  tree of southeastern Asia having edible oval fruit with a hard spiny rind
  • earth -  the abode of mortals (as contrasted with heaven or hell);  the 3rd planet from the sun; the planet we live on;  the loose soft material that makes up a large part of the land surface;  once thought to be one of four elements composing the universe (Empedocles);  a connection between an electrical device and a large conducting body, such as the earth (which is taken to be at zero voltage);  the concerns of this life as distinguished from heaven and the afterlife;  the solid part of the earth's surface;   connect to the earth;  hide in the earth like a hunted animal
  • egg cream -  made of milk and flavored syrup with soda water
  • eggplant -  egg-shaped vegetable having a shiny skin typically dark purple but occasionally white or yellow;  hairy upright herb native to southeastern Asia but widely cultivated for its large glossy edible fruit commonly used as a vegetable
  • elecampane -  tall coarse Eurasian herb having daisylike yellow flowers with narrow petals whose rhizomatous roots are used medicinally
  • entrepreneur -  someone who organizes a business venture and assumes the risk for it
  • ephedra -  jointed and nearly leafless desert shrub having reduced scalelike leaves and reddish fleshy seeds
  • ephedrine -  white odorless powdered or crystalline alkaloid from plants of the genus Ephedra (especially Ephedra sinica) or made synthetically; used as a bronchodilator to treat bronchitis and asthma
  • epimedium -  herbaceous perennials of Mediterranean to India and eastern Asia
  • epimedium grandiflorum -  slow-growing creeping plant with semi-evergreen leaves on erect wiry stems; used as ground cover
  • equisetum -  horsetails; coextensive with the family Equisetaceae
  • ergot -  a fungus that infects various cereal plants forming compact black masses of branching filaments that replace many grains of the plant; source of medicinally important alkaloids and of lysergic acid;  a plant disease caused by the ergot fungus
  • eryngium maritimum -  European evergreen eryngo with twisted spiny leaves naturalized on United States east coast; roots formerly used as an aphrodisiac
  • erythrina -  any of various shrubs or shrubby trees of the genus Erythrina having trifoliate leaves and racemes of scarlet to coral red flowers and black seeds; cultivated as an ornamental
  • erythrina lysistemon -  small semi-evergreen tree of South Africa having dense clusters of clear scarlet flowers and red seeds
  • eschatology -  the branch of theology that is concerned with such final things as death and judgment; heaven and hell; the end of the world
  • eucalyptus globulus -  tall fast-growing timber tree with leaves containing a medicinal oil; young leaves are bluish
  • eupatorium -  large genus of chiefly tropical herbs having heads of white or purplish flowers
  • eupatorium perfoliatum -  perennial herb of southeastern United States having white-rayed flower heads; formerly used as in folk medicine
  • euphorbia -  type genus of the Euphorbiaceae: very large genus of diverse plants all having milky juice
  • euphorbia lathyris -  poisonous Old World spurge; adventive in America; seeds yield a purgative oil
  • euphorbia peplus -  an Old World spurge introduced as a weed in the eastern United States
  • extract -  a passage selected from a larger work;  a solution obtained by steeping or soaking a substance (usually in water);   calculate the root of a number;  remove, usually with some force or effort; also used in an abstract sense;  separate (a metal) from an ore;  get despite difficulties or obstacles;  extract by the process of distillation;  take out of a literary work in order to cite or copy;  obtain from a substance, as by mechanical action;  deduce (a principle) or construe (a meaning)
  • fad diet -  a reducing diet that enjoys temporary popularity
  • falafel -  small croquette of mashed chick peas or fava beans seasoned with sesame seeds
  • falun gong -  a spiritual movement that began in China in the latter half of the 20th century and is based on Buddhist and Taoist teachings and practices
  • fast day -  a day designated for fasting
  • fast of esther -  (Judaism) a minor fast day on Adar 13 commemorates three days that Esther fasted before approaching the Persian king on behalf of the Jewish people; the fast is connected with Purim
  • fast of the firstborn -  (Judaism) a minor fast day on Nissan 14 that is observed only by firstborn males; it is observed on the day before Passover
  • fennel -  fennel seeds are ground and used as a spice or as an ingredient of a spice mixture;  leaves used for seasoning;  aromatic bulbous stem base eaten cooked or raw in salads;  any of several aromatic herbs having edible seeds and leaves and stems
  • fenugreek -  aromatic seeds used as seasoning especially in curry;  annual herb or southern Europe and eastern Asia having off-white flowers and aromatic seeds used medicinally and in curry
  • ficus deltoidea -  shrub or small tree often grown as a houseplant having foliage like mistletoe
  • ficus religiosa -  fig tree of India noted for great size and longevity; lacks the prop roots of the banyan; regarded as sacred by Buddhists
  • film -  a thin coating or layer;  photographic material consisting of a base of celluloid covered with a photographic emulsion; used to make negatives or transparencies;  a thin sheet of (usually plastic and usually transparent) material used to wrap or cover things;  a medium that disseminates moving pictures;  a form of entertainment that enacts a story by a sequence of images giving the illusion of continuous movement;   make a film or photograph of something;  record in film
  • fire -  the act of firing weapons or artillery at an enemy;  a fireplace in which a relatively small fire is burning;  intense adverse criticism;  the event of something burning (often destructive);  a severe trial;  the process of combustion of inflammable materials producing heat and light and (often) smoke;  once thought to be one of four elements composing the universe (Empedocles);  feelings of great warmth and intensity;   bake in a kiln so as to harden;  cause to go off;  go off or discharge;  drive out or away by or as if by fire;  terminate the employment of;  destroy by fire;  start firing a weapon;  call forth (emotions, feelings, and responses);  provide with fuel
  • fitness -  the condition of being suitable;  the quality of being qualified;  good physical condition; being in shape or in condition;  fitness to traverse the seas
  • food -  any substance that can be metabolized by an organism to give energy and build tissue;  anything that provides mental stimulus for thinking;  any solid substance (as opposed to liquid) that is used as a source of nourishment
  • foreleg -  the front limb of a quadruped
  • fortress -  a fortified defensive structure
  • fraxinus americana -  spreading American ash with leaves pale green or silvery beneath and having hard brownish wood
  • fumaria officinalis -  delicate European herb with greyish leaves and spikes of purplish flowers; formerly used medicinally
  • galangal -  southeastern Asian perennial with aromatic roots;  European sedge having rough-edged leaves and spikelets of reddish flowers and aromatic roots
  • galax -  tufted evergreen perennial herb having spikes of tiny white flowers and glossy green round to heart-shaped leaves that become coppery to maroon or purplish in fall
  • galega officinalis -  tall bushy European perennial grown for its pinnate foliage and slender spikes of blue flowers; sometimes used medicinally
  • galen -  Greek anatomist whose theories formed the basis of European medicine until the Renaissance (circa 130-200)
  • galeopsis tetrahit -  coarse bristly Eurasian plant with white or reddish flowers and foliage resembling that of a nettle; common as a weed in United States
  • galium aparine -  annual having the stem beset with curved prickles; North America and Europe and Asia
  • galium odoratum -  Old World fragrant stoloniferous perennial having small white flowers and narrow leaves used as flavoring and in sachets; widely cultivated as a ground cover; in some classifications placed in genus Asperula
  • ganja -  the most commonly used illicit drug; considered a soft drug, it consists of the dried leaves of the hemp plant; smoked or chewed for euphoric effect;  a strong-smelling plant from whose dried leaves a number of euphoriant and hallucinogenic drugs are prepared
  • garcinia -  evergreen trees and shrubs: mangosteens
  • gardenia jasminoides -  evergreen shrub widely cultivated for its large fragrant waxlike white flowers and glossy leaves
  • gari -  cassava with long tuberous edible roots and soft brittle stems; used especially to make cassiri (an intoxicating drink) and tapioca
  • garland -  a city in northeastern Texas (suburb of Dallas);  United States singer and film actress (1922-1969);  flower arrangement consisting of a circular band of foliage or flowers for ornamental purposes;  an anthology of short literary pieces and poems and ballads etc.;   adorn with bands of flowers or leaves
  • garlic -  aromatic bulb used as seasoning;  bulbous herb of southern Europe widely naturalized; bulb breaks up into separate strong-flavored cloves
  • gefilte fish -  well-seasoned balls of ground fish and eggs and crushed crumbs simmered in fish stock
  • gelsemium sempervirens -  poisonous woody evergreen vine of southeastern United States having fragrant yellow funnel-shaped flowers
  • genista tinctoria -  small Eurasian shrub having clusters of yellow flowers that yield a dye; common as weed in England and United States; sometimes grown as an ornamental
  • gentiana lutea -  robust European perennial having clusters of yellow flowers
  • genus -  a general kind of something;  (biology) taxonomic group containing one or more species
  • geranium robertianum -  a sticky low herb with small reddish-purple flowers; widespread in the northern hemisphere
  • ginger - adj. (used especially of hair or fur) having a bright orange-brown color;   pungent rhizome of the common ginger plant; used fresh as a seasoning especially in Oriental cookery;  dried ground gingerroot;  perennial plants having thick branching aromatic rhizomes and leafy reedlike stems;  liveliness and energy;   add ginger to in order to add flavor
  • ginger beer -  carbonated slightly alcoholic drink flavored with fermented ginger
  • ginger snap -  a crisp round cookie flavored with ginger
  • gingerol -  derived from ginger; source of the hotness of ginger
  • ginkgo biloba -  deciduous dioecious Chinese tree having fan-shaped leaves and fleshy yellow seeds; exists almost exclusively in cultivation especially as an ornamental street tree
  • ginseng -  Chinese herb with palmately compound leaves and small greenish flowers and forked aromatic roots believed to have medicinal powers;  aromatic root of ginseng plants
  • glasgow -  largest city in Scotland; a port on the Clyde in west central Scotland; one of the great shipbuilding centers of the world
  • gloriosa -  any plant of the genus Gloriosa of tropical Africa and Asia; a perennial herb climbing by means of tendrils at leaf tips having showy yellow to red or purple flowers; all parts are poisonous
  • gloriosa superba -  any plant of the genus Gloriosa of tropical Africa and Asia; a perennial herb climbing by means of tendrils at leaf tips having showy yellow to red or purple flowers; all parts are poisonous
  • gnetum -  small tropical tree with tiered branches and divaricate branchlets having broad glossy dark green leaves; exploited for its edible young leaves and seeds that provide a fine flour
  • gomphrena globosa -  tropical American herb having rose to red or purple flowers that can be dried without losing color
  • gondi -  a Dravidian language spoken by the Gond in south central India
  • gratitude -  a feeling of thankfulness and appreciation
  • grifola frondosa -  large greyish-brown edible fungus forming a mass of overlapping caps that somewhat resembles a hen at the base of trees
  • grill -  a framework of metal bars used as a partition or a grate;  a restaurant where food is cooked on a grill;   cook over a grill
  • guaiacum -  small genus of evergreen resinous trees or shrubs of warm and tropical America;  medicinal resin from the lignum vitae tree;  hard greenish-brown wood of the lignum vitae tree and other trees of the genus Guaiacum
  • gymnopilus validipes -  a poisonous fungus with a dry cap and a cortina that does not leave much of a ring on the robust stalk
  • hadrian -  Roman Emperor who was the adoptive son of Trajan; travelled throughout his empire to strengthen its frontiers and encourage learning and architecture; on a visit to Britain in 122 he ordered the construction of Hadrian's Wall (76-138)
  • haematoxylum campechianum -  spiny shrub or small tree of Central America and West Indies having bipinnate leaves and racemes of small bright yellow flowers and yielding a hard brown or brownish-red heartwood used in preparing a black dye
  • halal - adj. conforming to dietary laws;  proper or legitimate;   (Islam) meat from animals that have been slaughtered in the prescribed way according to the shariah
  • hamelia patens -  handsome shrub with showy orange to scarlet or crimson flowers; Florida and West Indies to Mexico and Brazil
  • haoma -  leafless East Indian vine; its sour milky juice formerly used to make an intoxicating drink
  • hare -  swift timid long-eared mammal larger than a rabbit having a divided upper lip and long hind legs; young born furred and with open eyes;  flesh of any of various rabbits or hares (wild or domesticated) eaten as food;   run quickly, like a hare
  • harry -  make a pillaging or destructive raid on (a place), as in wartimes;  annoy continually or chronically
  • hawk -  diurnal bird of prey typically having short rounded wings and a long tail;  an advocate of an aggressive policy on foreign relations;  a square board with a handle underneath; used by masons to hold or carry mortar;   hunt with hawks;  clear mucus or food from one's throat;  sell or offer for sale from place to place
  • healer -  a person skilled in a particular type of therapy
  • heart -  a playing card in the major suit that has one or more red hearts on it;  an inclination or tendency of a certain kind;  the courage to carry on;  the hollow muscular organ located behind the sternum and between the lungs; its rhythmic contractions move the blood through the body;  the locus of feelings and intuitions;  a firm rather dry variety meat (usually beef or veal);  a plane figure with rounded sides curving inward at the top and intersecting at the bottom; conventionally used on playing cards and valentines;  the choicest or most essential or most vital part of some idea or experience;  a positive feeling of liking;  an area that is approximately central within some larger region
  • hedera helix -  Old World vine with lobed evergreen leaves and black berrylike fruits
  • heel -  the bottom of a shoe or boot; the back part of a shoe or boot that touches the ground and provides elevation;  (golf) the part of the clubhead where it joins the shaft;  the lower end of a ship's mast;  the back part of the human foot;  one of the crusty ends of a loaf of bread;  someone who is morally reprehensible;   put a new heel on;  strike with the heel of the club;  perform with the heels;  follow at the heels of a person;  tilt to one side
  • helleborus foetidus -  digitate-leaved hellebore with an offensive odor and irritant qualities when taken internally
  • hepatica -  a common liverwort;  any of several plants of the genus Hepatica having three-lobed leaves and white or pinkish flowers in early spring; of moist and mossy subalpine woodland areas of north temperate regions
  • herb -  aromatic potherb used in cookery for its savory qualities;  a plant lacking a permanent woody stem; many are flowering garden plants or potherbs; some having medicinal properties; some are pests
  • herbal - adj. of or relating to herbs;   tea-like drink made of leaves of various herbs
  • herbal medicine -  the use of medicinal herbs to prevent or treat disease or promote health;  a medicine made from plants and used to prevent or treat disease or promote health
  • herbalist -  a therapist who heals by the use of herbs
  • hershey bar -  a bar of milk chocolate made by the Hershey company
  • heuchera americana -  plant with basal leaves mottled with white and flowers in lax panicles on erect stems
  • hibiscus -  any plant of the genus Hibiscus
  • hibiscus syriacus -  Asiatic shrub or small shrubby tree having showy bell-shaped rose or purple or white flowers and usually three-lobed leaves; widely cultivated in temperate North America and Europe
  • hillel -  Palestinian rabbi and interpreter of Judaic law
  • holiday -  a day on which work is suspended by law or custom;  leisure time away from work devoted to rest or pleasure;   spend or take a vacation
  • holly -  United States rock star (1936-1959);  any tree or shrub of the genus Ilex having red berries and shiny evergreen leaves with prickly edges
  • holy of holies -  (Judaism) sanctuary comprised of the innermost chamber of the Tabernacle in the temple of Solomon where the Ark of the Covenant was kept;  (figurative) something regarded as sacred or inviolable
  • holy saturday -  the Saturday before Easter; the last day of Lent
  • holy thursday -  the Thursday before Easter; commemorates the Last Supper
  • homeopathy -  a method of treating disease with small amounts of remedies that, in large amounts in healthy people, produce symptoms similar to those being treated
  • hops -  twining perennials having cordate leaves and flowers arranged in conelike spikes; the dried flowers of this plant are used in brewing to add the characteristic bitter taste to beer
  • horseradish -  grated horseradish root;  coarse Eurasian plant cultivated for its thick white pungent root;  the root of the horseradish plant; it is grated or ground and used for seasoning
  • hospital -  a health facility where patients receive treatment;  a medical institution where sick or injured people are given medical or surgical care
  • hottonia palustris -  featherfoil of Europe and western Asia having submerged and floating leaves and violet flowers
  • hummus -  a thick spread made from mashed chickpeas, tahini, lemon juice and garlic; used especially as a dip for pita; originated in the Middle East
  • humulus -  hops: hardy perennial vines of Europe, North America and central and eastern Asia producing a latex sap; in some classifications included in the family Urticaceae
  • hunger -  strong desire for something (not food or drink);  a physiological need for food; the consequence of food deprivation;   feel the need to eat;  be hungry; go without food;  have a craving, appetite, or great desire for
  • hunger strike -  a voluntary fast undertaken as a means of protest
  • hyoscyamus niger -  poisonous fetid Old World herb having sticky hairy leaves and yellow-brown flowers; yields hyoscyamine and scopolamine
  • hypericum perforatum -  yellow-flowered perennial common in fields and waste places but a weed in rangelands
  • hyssopus officinalis -  a European mint with aromatic and pungent leaves used in perfumery and as a seasoning in cookery; often cultivated as a remedy for bruises; yields hyssop oil
  • iberis -  Old World herbs and subshrubs: candytuft
  • ice cream -  frozen dessert containing cream and sugar and flavoring
  • illicium verum -  small tree of China and Vietnam bearing anise-scented star-shaped fruit used in food and medicinally as a carminative
  • ipomoea purpurea -  pantropical annual climbing herb with funnel-shaped blue, purple, pink or white flowers
  • ipomoea tricolor -  annual or perennial climbing herb of Central America having sky-blue flowers; most commonly cultivated morning glory
  • iris pseudacorus -  common yellow-flowered iris of Europe and North Africa, naturalized in United States and often cultivated
  • isatis tinctoria -  European biennial formerly grown for the blue coloring matter yielded by its leaves
  • jacaranda -  an important Brazilian timber tree yielding a heavy hard dark-colored wood streaked with black
  • jackson -  a town in south central Michigan;  capital of the state of Mississippi on the Pearl River;  a town in western Tennessee;  a town in western Wyoming;  7th president of the US; successfully defended New Orleans from the British in 1815; expanded the power of the presidency (1767-1845);  general in the Confederate Army during the American Civil War whose troops at the first Battle of Bull Run stood like a stone wall (1824-1863);  United States writer of romantic novels about the unjust treatment of Native Americans (1830-1885);  United States civil rights leader who led a national campaign against racial discrimination and ran for presidential nomination (born in 1941);  United States singer who did much to popularize gospel music (1911-1972);  United States singer who began singing with his four brothers and later became a highly successful star during the 1980s (born in 1958);  English film actress who later became a member of British Parliament (born in 1936)
  • jainism -  religion founded in the 6th century BC as a revolt against Hinduism; emphasizes asceticism and immortality and transmigration of the soul; denies existence of a perfect or supreme being;  sect founded in the 6th century BC as a revolt against Hinduism
  • jasminum officinale -  a climbing deciduous shrub with fragrant white or yellow or red flowers used in perfume and to flavor tea
  • jazz -  a style of dance music popular in the 1920s; similar to New Orleans jazz but played by large bands;  a genre of popular music that originated in New Orleans around 1900 and developed through increasingly complex styles;  empty rhetoric or insincere or exaggerated talk;   play something in the style of jazz;  have sexual intercourse with
  • jesuit's bark -  medicinal bark of cinchona trees; source of quinine and quinidine
  • jewish rye bread -  (Judaism) bread made with rye flour; usually contains caraway seeds
  • job's tears -  hard pearly seeds of an Asiatic grass; often used as beads
  • journal -  the part of the axle contained by a bearing;  a record book as a physical object;  a periodical dedicated to a particular subject;  a daily written record of (usually personal) experiences and observations;  a ledger in which transactions have been recorded as they occurred
  • judaism -  the monotheistic religion of the Jews having its spiritual and ethical principles embodied chiefly in the Torah and in the Talmud;  Jews collectively who practice a religion based on the Torah and the Talmud
  • juglans -  type genus of the Juglandaceae
  • juglans cinerea -  North American walnut tree having light-brown wood and edible nuts; source of a light-brown dye
  • juglans regia -  Eurasian walnut valued for its large edible nut and its hard richly figured wood; widely cultivated
  • jujube -  chewy fruit-flavored jellied candy (sometimes medicated to soothe a sore throat);  dark red plumlike fruit of Old World buckthorn trees;  spiny tree having dark red edible fruits
  • juncus effusus -  tall rush with soft erect or arching stems found in Eurasia, Australia, New Zealand, and common in North America
  • juniper berry -  berrylike fruit of a plant of the genus Juniperus especially the berrylike cone of the common juniper
  • kasha -  boiled or baked buckwheat
  • kava -  an alcoholic drink made from the aromatic roots of the kava shrub
  • kebab -  cubes of meat marinated and cooked on a skewer usually with vegetables
  • khat -  the leaves of the shrub Catha edulis which are chewed like tobacco or used to make tea; has the effect of a euphoric stimulant
  • kidney -  either of two bean-shaped excretory organs that filter wastes (especially urea) from the blood and excrete them and water in urine
  • knish -  (Yiddish) baked or fried turnover filled with potato or meat or cheese; often eaten as a snack
  • kol nidre -  the opening prayer on the eve of Yom Kippur
  • kola nut -  bitter brown seed containing caffein; source of cola extract;  tree bearing large brown nuts containing e.g. caffeine; source of cola extract
  • kudzu -  fast-growing vine from eastern Asia having tuberous starchy roots and hairy trifoliate leaves and racemes of purple flowers followed by long hairy pods containing many seeds; grown for fodder and forage and root starch; widespread in the southern United States
  • lactuca serriola -  European annual wild lettuce having prickly stems; a troublesome weed in parts of United States
  • lagerstroemia speciosa -  native to Asia, Australia, and East Indies, where it provides timber called pyinma; used elsewhere as an ornamental for its large showy flowers
  • large intestine -  beginning with the cecum and ending with the rectum; includes the cecum and the colon and the rectum; extracts moisture from food residues which are later excreted as feces
  • latakia -  aromatic Turkish tobacco;  a seaport on the western coast of Syria
  • lathyrus sativus -  European annual grown for forage; seeds used for food in India and for stock elsewhere
  • latke -  made of grated potato and egg with a little flour
  • laurus nobilis -  small Mediterranean evergreen tree with small blackish berries and glossy aromatic leaves used for flavoring in cooking; also used by ancient Greeks to crown victors
  • lavandula angustifolia -  aromatic Mediterranean shrub widely cultivated for its lilac flowers which are dried and used in sachets
  • lavandula latifolia -  Mediterranean plant with pale purple flowers that yields spike lavender oil
  • lemon balm -  lemony leaves used for a tisane or in soups or fruit punches;  bushy perennial Old World mint having small white or yellowish flowers and fragrant lemon-flavored leaves; a garden escapee in northern Europe and North America
  • lent -  a period of 40 weekdays from Ash Wednesday to Holy Saturday
  • lentil soup -  made of stock and lentils with onions carrots and celery
  • leo tolstoy -  Russian author remembered for two great novels (1828-1910)
  • leonotis nepetifolia -  pantropical herb having whorls of striking lipped flowers; naturalized in United States
  • leonurus cardiaca -  bitter Old World herb of hedgerows and woodland margins having toothed leaves and white or pale pink flowers
  • lewis -  English critic and novelist; author of theological works and of books for children (1898-1963);  United States novelist who satirized middle-class America in his novel Main Street (1885-1951);  United States labor leader who was president of the United Mine Workers of America from 1920 to 1960 and president of the Congress of Industrial Organizations from 1935 to 1940 (1880-1969);  United States explorer and soldier who lead led an expedition from St. Louis to the mouth of the Columbia River (1774-1809);  United States athlete who won gold medals at the Olympics for his skill in sprinting and jumping (born in 1961);  United States rock star singer and pianist (born in 1935)
  • ligustrum lucidum -  erect evergreen treelike shrub of China and Korea and Japan having acuminate leaves and flowers in long erect panicles; resembles Japanese privet
  • lilium lancifolium -  east Asian perennial having large reddish-orange black-spotted flowers with reflexed petals
  • lily of the valley -  low-growing perennial plant having usually two large oblong lanceolate leaves and a raceme of small fragrant nodding bell-shaped flowers followed by scarlet berries
  • linaria vulgaris -  common European perennial having showy yellow and orange flowers; a naturalized weed in North America
  • linguist -  a person who speaks more than one language;  a specialist in linguistics
  • liqueur -  strong highly flavored sweet liquor usually drunk after a meal
  • liquid diet -  a diet of foods that can be served in liquid or strained form (plus custards or puddings); prescribed after certain kinds of surgery
  • liquorice -  a black candy flavored with the dried root of the licorice plant;  deep-rooted coarse-textured plant native to the Mediterranean region having blue flowers and pinnately compound leaves; widely cultivated in Europe for its long thick sweet roots
  • liriope muscari -  Asiatic perennial tufted herb with grasslike evergreen foliage and clusters of dark mauve grapelike flowers; grown as ground cover
  • liturgical - adj. of or relating to or in accord with liturgy
  • liver - adj. having a reddish-brown color;   large and complicated reddish-brown glandular organ located in the upper right portion of the abdominal cavity; secretes bile and functions in metabolism of protein and carbohydrate and fat; synthesizes substances involved in the clotting of the blood; synthesizes vitamin A; detoxifies poisonous substances and breaks down worn-out erythrocytes;  liver of an animal used as meat;  someone who lives in a place;  a person who has a special life style
  • lobelia -  any plant or flower of the genus Lobelia
  • lolium temulentum -  weedy annual grass often occurs in grainfields and other cultivated land; seeds sometimes considered poisonous
  • long-ago - adj. belonging to time long gone
  • long pepper -  slender tropical climber of the eastern Himalayas;  plant bearing very hot and finely tapering long peppers; usually red
  • lonicera japonica -  an Asiatic trailing evergreen honeysuckle with half-evergreen leaves and fragrant white flowers turning yellow with age; has become a weed in some areas
  • loquat -  yellow olive-sized semitropical fruit with a large free stone and relatively little flesh; used for jellies;  evergreen tree of warm regions having fuzzy yellow olive-sized fruit with a large free stone; native to China and Japan
  • louis -  United States prizefighter who was world heavyweight campion for 12 years (1914-1981)
  • lovage -  stalks eaten like celery or candied like angelica; seeds used for flavoring or pickled like capers;  herb native to southern Europe; cultivated for its edible stalks and foliage and seeds
  • lucy -  incomplete skeleton of female found in eastern Ethiopia in 1974
  • lung -  either of two saclike respiratory organs in the chest of vertebrates; serves to remove carbon dioxide and provide oxygen to the blood
  • lycium barbarum -  deciduous erect or spreading shrub with spiny branches and violet-purple flowers followed by orange-red berries; southeastern Europe to China
  • lycopus virginicus -  a mildly narcotic and astringent aromatic herb having small whitish flowers; eastern United States
  • macaroon -  chewy cookie usually containing almond paste
  • magnolia -  any shrub or tree of the genus Magnolia; valued for their longevity and exquisite fragrant blooms;  dried bark of various magnolias; used in folk medicine
  • magnolia grandiflora -  evergreen tree of southern United States having large stiff glossy leaves and huge white sweet-smelling flowers
  • mahatma gandhi -  political and spiritual leader during India's struggle with Great Britain for home rule; an advocate of passive resistance (1869-1948)
  • malus fusca -  small tree or shrub of western United States having white blossoms and tiny yellow or red fruit
  • mammea americana -  tropical American tree having edible fruit with a leathery rind
  • mandelbrot -  French mathematician (born in Poland) noted for inventing fractals (born in 1924)
  • mandragora officinarum -  a plant of southern Europe and North Africa having purple flowers, yellow fruits and a forked root formerly thought to have magical powers
  • mandrake -  a plant of southern Europe and North Africa having purple flowers, yellow fruits and a forked root formerly thought to have magical powers;  the root of the mandrake plant; used medicinally or as a narcotic
  • mango -  large oval tropical fruit having smooth skin, juicy aromatic pulp, and a large hairy seed;  large evergreen tropical tree cultivated for its large oval fruit
  • marijuana -  a strong-smelling plant from whose dried leaves a number of euphoriant and hallucinogenic drugs are prepared;  the most commonly used illicit drug; considered a soft drug, it consists of the dried leaves of the hemp plant; smoked or chewed for euphoric effect
  • marjoram -  pungent leaves used as seasoning with meats and fowl and in stews and soups and omelets;  aromatic Eurasian perennial
  • marrubium vulgare -  European aromatic herb with hairy leaves and numerous white flowers in axillary cymes; leaves yield a bitter extract use medicinally and as flavoring
  • mars -  a small reddish planet that is the 4th from the sun and is periodically visible to the naked eye; minerals rich in iron cover its surface and are responsible for its characteristic color;  (Roman mythology) Roman god of war and agriculture; father of Romulus and Remus; counterpart of Greek Ares
  • martynia -  sprawling annual or perennial herb of Central America and West Indies having creamy-white to red-purple bell-shaped flowers followed by unusual horned fruit
  • mason -  a craftsman who works with stone or brick;  English writer (1865-1948);  English film actor (1909-1984);  American Revolutionary leader from Virginia whose objections led to the drafting of the Bill of Rights (1725-1792);  a member of a widespread secret fraternal order pledged to mutual assistance and brotherly love
  • mastic -  an evergreen shrub of the Mediterranean region that is cultivated for its resin;  a pasty cement used as an adhesive or filler;  an aromatic exudate from the mastic tree; used chiefly in varnishes
  • mate -  South American tea-like drink made from leaves of a South American holly called mate;  the officer below the master on a commercial ship;  informal term for a friend of the same sex;  the partner of an animal (especially a sexual partner);  South American holly; leaves used in making a drink like tea;  a chess move constituting an inescapable and indefensible attack on the opponent's king;  an exact duplicate;  a person's partner in marriage;  a fellow member of a team;   place an opponent's king under an attack from which it cannot escape and thus ending the game;  bring two objects, ideas, or people together;  make love
  • materia medica -  the science or study of drugs: their preparation and properties and uses and effects
  • matricaria chamomilla -  annual Eurasian herb similar in fragrance and medicinal uses to chamomile though taste is more bitter and effect is considered inferior
  • matzah ball -  a Jewish dumpling made of matzo meal; usually served in soup
  • matzo -  brittle flat bread eaten at Passover
  • maundy thursday -  the Thursday before Easter; commemorates the Last Supper
  • meal -  coarsely ground foodstuff; especially seeds of various cereal grasses or pulse;  the food served and eaten at one time;  any of the occasions for eating food that occur by custom or habit at more or less fixed times
  • medical history -  the case history of a medical patient as recalled by the patient
  • medication -  the act of treating with medicines or remedies;  (medicine) something that treats or prevents or alleviates the symptoms of disease
  • melilotus -  erect annual or biennial plant grown extensively especially for hay and soil improvement
  • melilotus officinalis -  biennial yellow-flowered Eurasian plant having aromatic leaves used as carminative or flavoring agent; widely cultivated especially as green manure or cover crop
  • mentha pulegium -  Eurasian perennial mint have small lilac-blue flowers and ovate leaves; yields an aromatic oil
  • menyanthes -  the type genus of the Menyanthaceae; one species: bogbeans
  • meridian - adj. of or happening at noon;  being at the best stage of development;   an imaginary great circle on the surface of the earth passing through the north and south poles at right angles to the equator;  a town in eastern Mississippi;  the highest level or degree attainable; the highest stage of development
  • metal - adj. containing or made of or resembling or characteristic of a metal;   a mixture containing two or more metallic elements or metallic and nonmetallic elements usually fused together or dissolving into each other when molten;  any of several chemical elements that are usually shiny solids that conduct heat or electricity and can be formed into sheets etc.;   cover with metal
  • milky - adj. resembling milk in color or cloudiness; not clear
  • mimosa pudica -  prostrate or semi-erect subshrub of tropical America, and Australia; heavily armed with recurved thorns and having sensitive soft grey-green leaflets that fold and droop at night or when touched or cooled
  • minimum - adj. the least possible;   the point on a curve where the tangent changes from negative on the left to positive on the right;  the smallest possible quantity
  • minister -  the job of a head of a government department;  a diplomat representing one government to another; ranks below ambassador;  a person appointed to a high office in the government;  a person authorized to conduct religious worship;   work as a minister;  attend to the wants and needs of others
  • mirabilis multiflora -  wildflower having vibrant deep pink tubular evening-blooming flowers; found in sandy and desert areas from southern California to southern Colorado and into Mexico
  • mistletoe -  shrub of central and southeastern Europe; partially parasitic on beeches, chestnuts and oaks;  Old World parasitic shrub having branching greenish stems with leathery leaves and waxy white glutinous berries; the traditional mistletoe of Christmas;  American plants closely resembling Old World mistletoe
  • mitchell -  United States dancer who formed the first Black classical ballet company (born in 1934);  United States labor leader; president of the United Mine Workers of America from 1898 to 1908 (1870-1919);  United States writer noted for her novel about the South during the American Civil War (1900-1949);  United States astronomer who studied sunspots and nebulae (1818-1889);  United States aviator and general who was an early advocate of military air power (1879-1936);  English aeronautical engineer (1895-1937)
  • mitchella repens -  creeping woody plant of eastern North America with shiny evergreen leaves and scarlet berries
  • mogen david -  a six-pointed star formed from two equilateral triangles; an emblem symbolizing Judaism
  • moke -  British informal
  • moore -  British sculptor whose works are monumental organic forms (1898-1986);  United States poet noted for irony and wit (1887-1872);  Irish poet who wrote nostalgic and patriotic verse (1779-1852);  English philosopher (1873-1958);  English actor and comedian who appeared on television and in films (born in 1935);  United States composer of works noted for their use of the American vernacular (1893-1969)
  • morning glory -  any of various twining vines having funnel-shaped flowers that close late in the day
  • morus -  type genus of the Moraceae: mulberries
  • morus alba -  Asiatic mulberry with white to pale red fruit; leaves used to feed silkworms
  • moussaka -  casserole of eggplant and ground lamb with onion and tomatoes bound with white sauce and beaten eggs
  • mucuna -  any of several erect or climbing woody plants of the genus Mucuna; widespread in tropics of both hemispheres
  • mugwort -  any of several weedy composite plants of the genus Artemisia
  • mushroom -  fleshy body of any of numerous edible fungi;  a large cloud of rubble and dust shaped like a mushroom and rising into the sky after an explosion (especially of a nuclear bomb);  any of various fleshy fungi of the subdivision Basidiomycota consisting of a cap at the end of a stem arising from an underground mycelium;  common name for an edible agaric (contrasting with the inedible toadstool);   grow and spread fast;  pick or gather mushrooms
  • musician -  artist who composes or conducts music as a profession;  someone who plays a musical instrument (as a profession)
  • myrrh -  aromatic resin that is burned as incense and used in perfume
  • myrtus -  type genus of the Myrtaceae
  • namer -  a person who gives a name or names
  • narcissus -  (Greek mythology) a beautiful young man who fell in love with his own reflection;  bulbous plant having erect linear leaves and showy yellow or white flowers either solitary or in clusters
  • nash -  United States writer noted for his droll epigrams (1902-1971)
  • naturopath -  a therapist who practices naturopathy
  • naturopathy -  a method of treating disease using food and exercise and heat to assist the natural healing process
  • nelumbo nucifera -  native to eastern Asia; widely cultivated for its large pink or white flowers
  • nerium -  one species: oleander
  • nicotiana -  American and Asiatic aromatic herbs and shrubs with viscid foliage
  • nicotiana alata -  South American ornamental perennial having nocturnally fragrant greenish-white flowers
  • nicotiana glauca -  evergreen South American shrub naturalized in United States; occasionally responsible for poisoning livestock
  • nicotiana tabacum -  tall erect South American herb with large ovate leaves and terminal clusters of tubular white or pink flowers; cultivated for its leaves
  • nigella damascena -  European garden plant having finely cut leaves and white or pale blue flowers
  • nigella sativa -  herb of the Mediterranean region having pungent seeds used like those of caraway
  • nougat -  nuts or fruit pieces in a sugar paste
  • nuphar advena -  common water lily of eastern and central North America, having broad leaves and globe-shaped yellow flowers; in sluggish fresh or slightly brackish water
  • nuremberg -  a city in southeastern Germany; site of Allied trials of Nazi war criminals (1945-46)
  • nutmeg -  hard aromatic seed of the nutmeg tree used as spice when grated or ground;  East Indian tree widely cultivated in the tropics for its aromatic seed; source of two spices: nutmeg and mace
  • nutrition -  the scientific study of food and drink (especially in humans);  (physiology) the organic process of nourishing or being nourished; the processes by which an organism assimilates food and uses it for growth and maintenance;  a source of materials to nourish the body
  • nymphaea -  the type genus of the family Nymphaeaceae; any of a variety of water lilies
  • oenothera -  chiefly North American herbs with usually nocturnal flowers
  • oenothera biennis -  a coarse biennial of eastern North America with yellow flowers that open in the evening; naturalized in Europe
  • okra -  tall coarse annual of Old World tropics widely cultivated in southern United States and West Indies for its long mucilaginous green pods used as basis for soups and stews; sometimes placed in genus Hibiscus;  long green edible beaked pods of the okra plant;  long mucilaginous green pods; may be simmered or sauteed but used especially in soups and stews
  • olive - adj. of a yellow-green color similar to that of an unripe olive;   a yellow-green color of low brightness and saturation;  one-seeded fruit of the European olive tree usually pickled and used as a relish;  hard yellow often variegated wood of an olive tree; used in cabinetwork;  evergreen tree cultivated in the Mediterranean region since antiquity and now elsewhere; has edible shiny black fruits;  small ovoid fruit of the European olive tree; important food and source of oil
  • onion roll -  yeast-raised roll flavored with onion
  • ononis spinosa -  Eurasian plant having loose racemes of pink or purple flowers and spiny stems and tough roots
  • opium -  an addictive narcotic extracted from seed capsules of the opium poppy
  • opuntia -  large genus of cactuses native to America: prickly pears
  • oregano -  aromatic Eurasian perennial;  pungent leaves used as seasoning with meats and fowl and in stews and soups and omelets
  • ornithogalum umbellatum -  common Old World herb having grasslike leaves and clusters of star-shaped white flowers with green stripes; naturalized in the eastern United States
  • oxalis acetosella -  Eurasian plant with heart-shaped trifoliate leaves and white purple-veined flowers
  • page -  one side of one leaf (of a book or magazine or newspaper or letter etc.) or the written or pictorial matter it contains;  in medieval times a youth acting as a knight's attendant as the first stage in training for knighthood;  a youthful attendant at official functions or ceremonies such as legislative functions and weddings;  a boy who is employed to run errands;  United States diplomat and writer about the Old South (1853-1922);  English industrialist who pioneered in the design and manufacture of aircraft (1885-1962);   call out somebody's name over a P.A. system;  work as a page;  number the pages of a book or manuscript
  • panax -  perennial herbs of eastern North America and Asia having aromatic tuberous roots: ginseng
  • panax pseudoginseng -  Chinese herb with palmately compound leaves and small greenish flowers and forked aromatic roots believed to have medicinal powers
  • pandanus -  any of various Old World tropical palmlike trees having huge prop roots and edible conelike fruits and leaves like pineapple leaves;  fiber from leaves of the pandanus tree; used for woven articles (such as mats)
  • papaver rhoeas -  annual European poppy common in grain fields and often cultivated
  • papaver somniferum -  southwestern Asian herb with greyish leaves and white or reddish flowers; source of opium
  • papaya -  large oval melon-like tropical fruit with yellowish flesh;  tropical American shrub or small tree having huge deeply palmately cleft leaves and large oblong yellow fruit
  • paper mulberry -  shrubby Asiatic tree having bark (tapa) that resembles cloth; grown as a shade tree in Europe and America; male flowers are pendulous catkins and female are urn-shaped followed by small orange-red aggregate berries
  • paprika -  a mild powdered seasoning made from dried pimientos;  plant bearing large mild thick-walled usually bell-shaped fruits; the principal salad peppers
  • pareve - adj. containing no meat or milk (or their derivatives) and thus eatable with both meat and dairy dishes according to the dietary laws of Judaism
  • parsley -  aromatic herb with flat or crinkly leaves that are cut finely and used to garnish food;  annual or perennial herb with aromatic leaves
  • parsnip -  whitish edible root; eaten cooked;  a strong-scented plant cultivated for its edible root;  the whitish root of cultivated parsnip
  • pastrami -  highly seasoned cut of smoked beef
  • patchouli -  a heavy perfume made from the patchouli plant;  small East Indian shrubby mint; fragrant oil from its leaves is used in perfumes
  • pathologist -  a doctor who specializes in medical diagnosis
  • patio -  usually paved outdoor area adjoining a residence
  • payday -  the day on which you receive pay for your work
  • pelargonium -  geraniums native chiefly to South Africa; widely cultivated
  • pelargonium graveolens -  any of several southern African geraniums having fragrant three-lobed to five-lobed leaves and pink flowers
  • penguin -  short-legged flightless birds of cold southern especially Antarctic regions having webbed feet and wings modified as flippers
  • penicillium -  genus of fungi commonly growing as green or blue molds on decaying food; used in making cheese and as a source of penicillin
  • penstemon -  large genus of subshrubs or herbs having showy blue or purple or red or yellow or white flowers; mostly western North America
  • peppermint -  a candy flavored with peppermint oil;  herb with downy leaves and small purple or white flowers that yields a pungent oil used as a flavoring;  red gum tree of Tasmania
  • pericardium -  a serous membrane with two layers that surrounds the heart
  • perilla -  small genus of Asiatic herbs
  • persea borbonia -  small tree of southern United States having dark red heartwood
  • persimmon -  orange fruit resembling a plum; edible when fully ripe;  any of several tropical trees of the genus Diospyros
  • petasites -  genus of rhizomatous herbs of north temperate regions: butterbur; sweet coltsfoot
  • peyote -  the hallucinatory alkaloid that is the active agent in mescal buttons;  a small spineless globe-shaped cactus; source of mescal buttons
  • phalaris -  a genus of grasses with broad leaves and a dense spike of flowers
  • phalaris aquatica -  perennial grass of Australia and South Africa; introduced in North America as forage grass
  • phalaris arundinacea -  perennial grass of marshy meadows and ditches having broad leaves; Europe and North America
  • pharmacist -  a health professional trained in the art of preparing and dispensing drugs
  • phellodendron -  small genus of aromatic deciduous trees of east Asia often having thick corky bark
  • phellodendron amurense -  deciduous tree of China and Manchuria having a turpentine aroma and handsome compound leaves turning yellow in autumn and deeply fissured corky bark
  • phleum pratense -  grass with long cylindrical spikes frown in northern United States and Europe for hay
  • photographer -  someone who takes photographs professionally
  • phragmites -  reeds of marshes and riversides in tropical or temperate regions
  • physalis alkekengi -  Old World perennial cultivated for its ornamental inflated papery orange-red calyx
  • physician -  a licensed medical practitioner
  • pickled herring -  herring preserved in a pickling liquid (usually brine or vinegar)
  • pilaf -  rice cooked in well-seasoned broth with onions or celery and usually poultry or game or shellfish and sometimes tomatoes
  • pilosella officinarum -  European hawkweed having soft hairy leaves; sometimes placed in genus Hieracium
  • pineapple -  large sweet fleshy tropical fruit with a terminal tuft of stiff leaves; widely cultivated;  a tropical American plant bearing a large fleshy edible fruit with a terminal tuft of stiff leaves; widely cultivated in the tropics
  • piper cubeba -  tropical southeast Asian shrubby vine bearing spicy berrylike fruits
  • pirozhki -  small fruit or meat turnover baked or fried
  • pita -  usually small round bread that can open into a pocket for filling
  • pithecellobium dulce -  common thorny tropical American tree having terminal racemes of yellow flowers followed by sickle-shaped or circinate edible pods and yielding good timber and a yellow dye and mucilaginous gum
  • plant -  a living organism lacking the power of locomotion;  buildings for carrying on industrial labor;  something planted secretly for discovery by another;  an actor situated in the audience whose acting is rehearsed but seems spontaneous to the audience;   put firmly in the mind;  place something or someone in a certain position in order to secretly observe or deceive;  put or set (seeds, seedlings, or plants) into the ground;  place into a river;  fix or set securely or deeply;  set up or lay the groundwork for
  • plantago -  type genus of the family Plantaginaceae; large cosmopolitan genus of mostly small herbs
  • plantago lanceolata -  an Old World plantain with long narrow ribbed leaves widely established in temperate regions
  • plantago major -  common European perennial naturalized worldwide; a troublesome weed
  • plantago media -  widely distributed Old World perennial naturalized in North America having finely hairy leaves and inconspicuous white fragrant flowers
  • plum - adv. completely; used as intensifiers;  exactly;   a highly desirable position or assignment;  any of numerous varieties of small to medium-sized round or oval fruit having a smooth skin and a single pit;  any of several trees producing edible oval fruit having a smooth skin and a single hard stone
  • poke -  tall coarse perennial American herb having small white flowers followed by blackish-red berries on long drooping racemes; young fleshy stems are edible; berries and root are poisonous;  (boxing) a blow with the fist;  a sharp hand gesture (resembling a blow);  a bag made of paper or plastic for holding customer's purchases;  someone who takes more time than necessary; someone who lags behind;   make a hole by poking;  stir by poking;  poke or thrust abruptly;  hit hard with the hand, fist, or some heavy instrument;  search or inquire in a meddlesome way
  • polygala senega -  eastern North American plant having a terminal cluster of small white flowers and medicinal roots
  • polygonatum -  sometimes placed in subfamily Convallariaceae
  • polygonatum biflorum -  North American perennial herb with smooth foliage and drooping tubular greenish flowers
  • pomelo -  large pear-shaped fruit similar to grapefruit but with coarse dry pulp;  southeastern Asian tree producing large fruits resembling grapefruits
  • populus -  a genus of trees of the family Salicaceae that is found in the northern hemisphere; poplars
  • portulaca oleracea -  weedy trailing mat-forming herb with bright yellow flowers cultivated for its edible mildly acid leaves eaten raw or cooked especially in Indian and Greek and Middle Eastern cuisine; cosmopolitan
  • potato -  an edible tuber native to South America; a staple food of Ireland;  annual native to South America having underground stolons bearing edible starchy tubers; widely cultivated as a garden vegetable; vines are poisonous
  • primula elatior -  Eurasian primrose with yellow flowers clustered in a one-sided umbel
  • primula veris -  early spring flower common in British isles having fragrant yellow or sometimes purple flowers
  • prince -  a male member of a royal family other than the sovereign (especially the son of a sovereign)
  • processing -  preparing or putting through a prescribed procedure
  • prosopis -  genus of tropical or subtropical branching shrubs or trees: mesquite
  • prunella -  type genus of the Prunellidae;  small genus of perennial mostly Eurasian having terminal spikes of small purplish or white flowers
  • prunella vulgaris -  decumbent blue-flowered European perennial thought to possess healing properties; naturalized throughout North America
  • prunus padus -  small European cherry tree closely resembling the American chokecherry
  • pseudowintera colorata -  evergreen shrub or small tree whose foliage is conspicuously blotched with red and yellow and having small black fruits
  • psyllium -  plantain of Mediterranean regions whose seeds swell and become gelatinous when moist and are used as a mild laxative
  • pterocarpus -  genus of tropical trees or climbers having usually broadly winged pods
  • pudding -  any of various soft sweet desserts thickened usually with flour and baked or boiled or steamed;  (British) the dessert course of a meal (`pud' is used informally);  any of various soft thick unsweetened baked dishes
  • pulsatilla -  includes a group of plants that in some classifications are included in the genus Anemone: pasqueflowers
  • pure - adj. in a state of sexual virginity;  concerned with theory and data rather than practice; opposed to applied;  free from discordant qualities;  (used of persons or behaviors) having no faults; sinless;  free of extraneous elements of any kind;  (of color) being chromatically pure; not diluted with white or grey or black;  without qualification; used informally as (often pejorative) intensifiers
  • pyrola rotundifolia -  evergreen with rounded leaves and very fragrant creamy-white flowers; widely distributed in northern parts of Old and New Worlds
  • qiang -  the Tibeto-Burman language spoken in Sichuan
  • quark -  (physics) hypothetical truly fundamental particle in mesons and baryons; there are supposed to be six flavors of quarks (and their antiquarks), which come in pairs; each has an electric charge of +2/3 or -1/3;  fresh unripened cheese of a smooth texture made from pasteurized milk, a starter, and rennet
  • quassia amara -  handsome South American shrub or small tree having bright scarlet flowers and yielding a valuable fine-grained yellowish wood; yields the bitter drug quassia from its wood and bark
  • quince -  aromatic acid-tasting pear-shaped fruit used in preserves;  small Asian tree with pinkish flowers and pear-shaped fruit; widely cultivated
  • rabbi -  a Hebrew title of respect for a Jewish scholar or teacher;  spiritual leader of a Jewish congregation; qualified to expound and apply Jewish law
  • ramadan -  (Islam) a fast (held from sunrise to sunset) that is carried out during the Islamic month of Ramadan;  the ninth month of the Islamic calendar; the month of fasting; the holiest period for the Islamic faith
  • rambutan -  pleasantly acid bright red oval Malayan fruit covered with soft spines;  Malayan tree bearing spiny red fruit
  • ranunculus acris -  perennial European buttercup with yellow spring flowers widely naturalized especially in eastern North America
  • ranunculus bulbosus -  perennial Old World buttercup with golden to sulphur yellow flowers in late spring to early summer; naturalized in North America
  • rapeseed -  seed of rape plants; source of an edible oil
  • ratibida columnifera -  plant similar to the Mexican hat coneflower; from British Columbia to New Mexico
  • rauvolfia -  any shrub or small tree of the genus Rauwolfia having leaves in whorls and cymose flowers; yield substances used medicinally especially as emetics or purgatives or antihypertensives
  • rhododendron -  any shrub of the genus Rhododendron: evergreen shrubs or small shrubby trees having leathery leaves and showy clusters of campanulate (bell-shaped) flowers
  • rhubarb -  plants having long green or reddish acidic leafstalks growing in basal clumps; stems (and only the stems) are edible when cooked; leaves are poisonous;  long pinkish sour leafstalks usually eaten cooked and sweetened
  • rhus glabra -  common nonpoisonous shrub of eastern North America with waxy compound leaves and green paniculate flowers followed by red berries
  • ricinus communis -  large shrub of tropical Africa and Asia having large palmate leaves and spiny capsules containing seeds that are the source of castor oil and ricin; widely naturalized throughout the tropics
  • ritual - adj. of or relating to or employed in social rites or rituals;  of or relating to or characteristic of religious rituals;   stereotyped behavior;  any customary observance or practice;  the prescribed procedure for conducting religious ceremonies
  • roach -  European freshwater food fish having a greenish back;  the butt of a marijuana cigarette;  a roll of hair brushed back from the forehead;  any of numerous chiefly nocturnal insects; some are domestic pests;  street names for flunitrazepan;   cut the mane off (a horse);  comb (hair) into a roach
  • robinia pseudoacacia -  large thorny tree of eastern and central United States having pinnately compound leaves and drooping racemes of white flowers; widely naturalized in many varieties in temperate regions
  • rooibos -  South African shrub having flat acuminate leaves and yellow flowers; leaves are aromatic when dried and used to make an herbal tea
  • rosa -  large genus of erect or climbing prickly shrubs including roses
  • rosa canina -  prickly wild rose with delicate pink or white scentless flowers; native to Europe
  • rosa chinensis -  shrubby Chinese rose; ancestor of many cultivated garden roses
  • rose - adj. of something having a dusty purplish pink color;   a dusty pink color;  any of many shrubs of the genus Rosa that bear roses;  pinkish table wine from red grapes whose skins were removed after fermentation began
  • roselle -  East Indian sparsely prickly annual herb or perennial subshrub widely cultivated for its fleshy calyxes used in tarts and jelly and for its bast fiber
  • rosemary -  extremely pungent leaves used fresh or dried as seasoning for especially meats;  widely cultivated for its fragrant grey-green leaves used in cooking and in perfumery
  • rubia -  type genus of the Rubiaceae; Old World herbs and subshrubs grown for their medicinal properties and for dye substances extracted from their roots
  • rubia cordifolia -  perennial East Indian creeping or climbing herb used for dye in the orient
  • rubus occidentalis -  raspberry native to eastern North America having black thimble-shaped fruit
  • rugelach -  pastry made with a cream cheese dough and different fillings (as raisins and walnuts and cinnamon or chocolate and walnut and apricot preserves)
  • rumex acetosella -  small plant having pleasantly acid-tasting arrow-shaped leaves; common in dry places
  • ruta -  type genus of the Rutaceae; strong-scented Eurasian herbs
  • ruta graveolens -  European strong-scented perennial herb with grey-green bitter-tasting leaves; an irritant similar to poison ivy
  • safflower -  thistlelike Eurasian plant widely grown for its red or orange flower heads and seeds that yield a valuable oil
  • salix alba -  large willow tree of Eurasia and North Africa having greyish canescent leaves and grey bark
  • salix nigra -  North American shrubby willow having dark bark and linear leaves growing close to streams and lakes
  • salix purpurea -  Eurasian osier having reddish or purple twigs and bark rich in tannin
  • salvadora persica -  glabrous or pubescent evergreen shrub or tree of the genus Salvadora; twigs are fibrous and in some parts of the world are bound together in clusters and used as a toothbrush; shoots are used as camel fodder; plant ash provides salt
  • salvia -  any of various plants of the genus Salvia; a cosmopolitan herb
  • salvia divinorum -  an herb from Oaxaca that has a powerful hallucinogenic effect; the active ingredient is salvinorin
  • salvia officinalis -  shrubby plant with aromatic greyish-green leaves used as a cooking herb
  • salvia sclarea -  aromatic herb of southern Europe; cultivated in England as a potherb and widely as an ornamental
  • sambucus canadensis -  common elder of central and eastern North America bearing purple-black berries; fruit used in wines and jellies
  • sambucus ebulus -  dwarf herbaceous elder of Europe having pink flowers and a nauseous odor
  • sambucus nigra -  a common shrub with black fruit or a small tree of Europe and Asia; fruit used for wines and jellies
  • samosa -  small turnover of Indian origin filled with vegetables or meat and fried and served hot
  • sanctuary -  a consecrated place where sacred objects are kept;  area around the altar of a church for the clergy and choir; often enclosed by a lattice or railing;  a shelter from danger or hardship
  • sansevieria -  grown as a houseplant for its mottled fleshy sword-shaped leaves or as a source of fiber
  • santalum album -  parasitic tree of Indonesia and Malaysia having fragrant close-grained yellowish heartwood with insect repelling properties and used, e.g., for making chests
  • saponaria officinalis -  plant of European origin having pink or white flowers and leaves yielding a detergent when bruised
  • sashimi -  very thinly sliced raw fish
  • sassafras -  dried root bark of the sassafras tree;  yellowwood tree with brittle wood and aromatic leaves and bark; source of sassafras oil; widely distributed in eastern North America
  • sassafras albidum -  yellowwood tree with brittle wood and aromatic leaves and bark; source of sassafras oil; widely distributed in eastern North America
  • sauce -  flavorful relish or dressing or topping served as an accompaniment to food;   add zest or flavor to, make more interesting;  dress (food) with a relish;  behave saucy or impudently towards
  • saururus cernuus -  North American herbaceous perennial of wet places having slender curled racemes of small white flowers
  • saussurea -  genus of herbs of temperate and cool regions of Eurasia
  • saussurea costus -  annual herb of the eastern Himalayas (Kashmir) having purple florets and a fragrant root that yields a volatile oil used in perfumery and for preserving furs
  • sawyer -  any of several beetles whose larvae bore holes in dead or dying trees especially conifers;  one who is employed to saw wood
  • saxon - adj. of or relating to or characteristic of the early Saxons or Anglo-Saxons and their descendents (especially the English or Lowland Scots) and their language;   a member of a Germanic people who conquered England and merged with the Angles and Jutes to become Anglo-Saxons; dominant in England until the Norman conquest
  • scapegoat -  someone punished for the errors of others
  • schinus molle -  small Peruvian evergreen with broad rounded head and slender pendant branches with attractive clusters of greenish flowers followed by clusters of rose-pink fruits
  • schmaltz -  (Yiddish) excessive sentimentality in art or music
  • schmear -  (Yiddish) a batch of things that go together
  • schnitzel -  deep-fried breaded veal cutlets
  • scutellaria -  an asterid dicot genus that includes the skullcaps
  • scutellaria lateriflora -  an American mint that yields a resinous exudate used especially formerly as an antispasmodic
  • sedum -  any of various plants of the genus Sedum
  • sedum acre -  mossy European creeping sedum with yellow flowers; widely introduced as a ground cover
  • seer -  an observer who perceives visually;  an authoritative person who divines the future;  a person with unusual powers of foresight
  • selaginella lepidophylla -  densely tufted fern ally of southwestern United States to Peru; curls up in a tight ball when dry and expands and grows under moist conditions
  • selenicereus grandiflorus -  tropical American climbing cactus having triangular branches; often cultivated for its large showy night-blooming flowers followed by yellow red-streaked fruits
  • semolina -  milled product of durum wheat (or other hard wheat) used in pasta
  • senna alexandrina -  erect shrub having racemes of tawny yellow flowers; the dried leaves are used medicinally as a cathartic; sometimes placed in genus Cassia
  • senna auriculata -  evergreen Indian shrub with vivid yellow flowers whose bark is used in tanning; sometimes placed in genus Cassia
  • senna obtusifolia -  cosmopolitan tropical herb or subshrub with yellow flowers and slender curved pods; a weed; sometimes placed in genus Cassia
  • sesame -  East Indian annual erect herb; source of sesame seed or benniseed and sesame oil
  • shag -  a lively dance step consisting of hopping on each foot in turn;  a fabric with long coarse nap;  a matted tangle of hair or fiber;  a strong coarse tobacco that has been shredded;  slang for sexual intercourse;   dance the shag
  • shiatsu -  treatment of symptoms by applying pressure with the fingers to specific pressure points on the body
  • shiitake -  edible east Asian mushroom having a golden or dark brown to blackish cap and an inedible stipe
  • shish kebab -  cubes of meat marinated and cooked on a skewer usually with vegetables
  • shiva -  (Judaism) a period of seven days of mourning after the death of close relative;  the destroyer; one of the three major divinities in the later Hindu pantheon
  • sida rhombifolia -  herb widely distributed in tropics and subtropics used for forage and medicinally as a demulcent and having a fine soft bast stronger than jute; sometimes an aggressive weed
  • silphium -  tall North American perennial herbs
  • silybum -  small genus of east African herbs
  • silybum marianum -  tall Old World biennial thistle with large clasping white-blotched leaves and purple flower heads; naturalized in California and South America
  • singapore -  an island south of the Malay Peninsula;  a country in southeastern Asia on the island of Singapore; achieved independence from Malaysia in 1965;  the capital of Singapore; one of the world's biggest ports
  • sisymbrium officinale -  stiffly branching Old World annual with pale yellow flowers; widely naturalized in North America; formerly used medicinally
  • sium latifolium -  large stout white-flowered perennial found wild in shallow fresh water; Europe
  • small intestine -  the longest part of the alimentary canal; where digestion is completed
  • smetana -  Czech composer (1824-1884)
  • smith -  someone who works metal (especially by hammering it when it is hot and malleable);  someone who works at something specified;  Scottish economist who advocated private enterprise and free trade (1723-1790);  English explorer who helped found the colony at Jamestown, Virginia; was said to have been saved by Pocahontas (1580-1631);  religious leader who founded the Mormon Church in 1830 (1805-1844);  United States blues singer (1894-1937);  United States suffragist who refused to pay taxes until she could vote (1792-1886);  United States singer noted for her rendition of patriotic songs (1909-1986);  United States sculptor (1906-1965);  Rhodesian statesman who declared independence of Zimbabwe from Great Britain (born in 1919)
  • smoking - adj. emitting smoke in great volume;   the act of smoking tobacco or other substances;  a hot vapor containing fine particles of carbon being produced by combustion
  • snack -  a light informal meal;   eat a snack; eat lightly
  • snuff - adj. snuff colored; of a greyish to yellowish brown;   finely powdered tobacco for sniffing up the nose;  a pinch of smokeless tobacco inhaled at a single time;  the charred portion of a candlewick;  sensing an odor by inhaling through the nose;   inhale audibly through the nose;  sniff or smell inquiringly
  • soft diet -  a diet that does not require chewing; advised for those with intestinal disorders
  • soft drink -  nonalcoholic beverage (usually carbonated)
  • solanum -  type genus of the Solanaceae: nightshade; potato; eggplant; bittersweet
  • solanum aviculare -  Australian annual sometimes cultivated for its racemes of purple flowers and edible yellow egg-shaped fruit
  • solanum carolinense -  coarse prickly weed having pale yellow flowers and yellow berrylike fruit; common throughout southern and eastern United States
  • solanum crispum -  hardy climbing shrub of Chile grown as an ornamental for its fragrant flowers; not a true potato
  • solanum dulcamara -  poisonous perennial Old World vine having violet flowers and oval coral-red berries; widespread weed in North America
  • solanum elaeagnifolium -  weedy nightshade with silvery foliage and violet or blue or white flowers; roundish berry widely used to curdle milk; central United States to South America
  • solanum jamesii -  erect or spreading perennial of southwestern United States and Mexico bearing small pale brown to cream tubers resembling potatoes
  • solanum melongena -  hairy upright herb native to southeastern Asia but widely cultivated for its large glossy edible fruit commonly used as a vegetable
  • solanum nigrum -  Eurasian herb naturalized in America having white flowers and poisonous hairy foliage and bearing black berries that are sometimes poisonous but sometimes edible
  • solanum pseudocapsicum -  small South American shrub cultivated as a houseplant for its abundant ornamental but poisonous red or yellow cherry-sized fruit
  • solanum quitoense -  small perennial shrub cultivated in uplands of South America for its edible bright orange fruits resembling tomatoes or oranges
  • solanum rostratum -  North American nightshade with prickly foliage and racemose yellow flowers
  • solanum tuberosum -  annual native to South America having underground stolons bearing edible starchy tubers; widely cultivated as a garden vegetable; vines are poisonous
  • soma -  personification of a sacred intoxicating drink used in Vedic ritual;  leafless East Indian vine; its sour milky juice formerly used to make an intoxicating drink;  alternative names for the body of a human being
  • sonchus oleraceus -  annual Eurasian sow thistle with soft spiny leaves and rayed yellow flower heads
  • sorrel - adj. of a light brownish color;   a horse of a brownish orange to light brown color;  large sour-tasting arrowhead-shaped leaves used in salads and sauces;  East Indian sparsely prickly annual herb or perennial subshrub widely cultivated for its fleshy calyxes used in tarts and jelly and for its bast fiber;  any of certain coarse weedy plants with long taproots, sometimes used as table greens or in folk medicine;  any plant or flower of the genus Oxalis
  • spear -  a long pointed rod used as a weapon;  an implement with a shaft and barbed point used for catching fish;   pierce with a spear;  thrust up like a spear
  • spittoon -  a receptacle for spit (usually in a public place)
  • spleen -  a large dark-red oval organ on the left side of the body between the stomach and the diaphragm; produces cells involved in immune responses;  a feeling of resentful anger
  • sponge cake -  a light porous cake made with eggs and flour and sugar without shortening
  • spontaneous combustion -  ignition of a substance (as oily rags) resulting from an internal oxidation process
  • sprouting -  the process whereby seeds or spores sprout and begin to grow
  • stations of the cross -  (Roman Catholic Church) a devotion consisting of fourteen prayers said before a series of fourteen pictures or carvings representing successive incidents during Jesus' passage from Pilate's house to his crucifixion at Calvary
  • steak tartare -  ground beef mixed with raw egg and e.g. onions and capers and anchovies; eaten raw
  • stellaria media -  a common low-growing annual garden weed with small white flowers; cosmopolitan; so-called because it is eaten by chickens
  • stevia -  any plant of the genus Piqueria or the closely related genus Stevia;  any plant of the genus Stevia or the closely related genus Piqueria having glutinous foliage and white or purplish flowers; Central and South America
  • stew -  food prepared by stewing especially meat or fish with vegetables;  agitation resulting from active worry;   cook slowly and for a long time in liquid;  bear a grudge; harbor ill feelings;  be in a huff; be silent or sullen
  • stomach -  an enlarged and muscular saclike organ of the alimentary canal; the principal organ of digestion;  an appetite for food;  an inclination or liking for things involving conflict or difficulty or unpleasantness;  the region of the body of a vertebrate between the thorax and the pelvis;   bear to eat;  put up with something or somebody unpleasant
  • stomachic - adj. relating to or involving the stomach
  • strasbourg -  city on the Rhine in eastern France near the German border; an inland port
  • strongman -  a powerful political figure who rules by the exercise of force or violence;  a man who performs feats of strength at a fair or circus
  • strudel -  thin sheet of filled dough rolled and baked
  • student -  a learner who is enrolled in an educational institution;  a learned person (especially in the humanities); someone who by long study has gained mastery in one or more disciplines
  • stuffed peppers -  parboiled green peppers stuffed usually with rice and meat and baked briefly
  • stuttgart -  a city in southwestern Germany famous for innovative architecture
  • styrax -  any shrub or small tree of the genus Styrax having fragrant bell-shaped flowers that hang below the dark green foliage
  • suffragette -  a woman advocate of women's right to vote (especially a militant advocate in the United Kingdom at the beginning of the 20th century)
  • suffragist -  an advocate of the extension of voting rights (especially to women)
  • surgery -  a room where a doctor or dentist can be consulted;  the branch of medical science that treats disease or injury by operative procedures;  a medical procedure involving an incision with instruments; performed to repair damage or arrest disease in a living body;  a room in a hospital equipped for the performance of surgical operations
  • sushi -  rice (with raw fish) wrapped in seaweed
  • symbol -  something visible that by association or convention represents something else that is invisible;  an arbitrary sign (written or printed) that has acquired a conventional significance
  • symplocarpus foetidus -  deciduous perennial low-growing fetid swamp plant of eastern North America having minute flowers enclosed in a mottled greenish or purple cowl-shaped spathe
  • syringa vulgaris -  large European lilac naturalized in North America having heart-shaped ovate leaves and large panicles of highly fragrant lilac or white flowers
  • tabbouleh -  a finely chopped salad with tomatoes and parsley and mint and scallions and bulgur wheat
  • tagetes erecta -  a stout branching annual with large yellow to orange flower heads; Mexico and Central America
  • tahini -  a thick Middle Eastern paste made from ground sesame seeds
  • tai chi -  a Chinese system of slow meditative physical exercise designed for relaxation and balance and health
  • tamarillo -  South American arborescent shrub having pale pink blossoms followed by egg-shaped reddish-brown edible fruit somewhat resembling a tomato in flavor
  • tamarind -  large tropical seed pod with very tangy pulp that is eaten fresh or cooked with rice and fish or preserved for curries and chutneys;  long-lived tropical evergreen tree with a spreading crown and feathery evergreen foliage and fragrant flowers yielding hard yellowish wood and long pods with edible chocolate-colored acidic pulp
  • tanacetum parthenium -  bushy aromatic European perennial herb having clusters of buttonlike white-rayed flower heads; valued traditionally for medicinal uses; sometimes placed in genus Chrysanthemum
  • tanner -  a craftsman who tans skins and hides;  a small coin of the United Kingdom worth six pennies; not minted since 1970
  • tansy -  common perennial aromatic herb native to Eurasia having buttonlike yellow flower heads and bitter-tasting pinnate leaves sometimes used medicinally
  • taraxacum -  an asterid dicot genus of the family Compositae including dandelions
  • taraxacum officinale -  Eurasian plant widely naturalized as a weed in North America; used as salad greens and to make wine
  • taro -  tropical starchy tuberous root;  herb of the Pacific islands grown throughout the tropics for its edible root and in temperate areas as an ornamental for its large glossy leaves;  edible starchy tuberous root of taro plants
  • tarragon -  fresh leaves (or leaves preserved in vinegar) used as seasoning;  aromatic perennial of southeastern Russia
  • taxus baccata -  predominant yew in Europe; extraordinarily long-lived and slow growing; one of the oldest species in the world
  • taxus brevifolia -  small or medium irregularly branched tree of the Pacific coast of North America; yields fine hard close-grained wood
  • taylor -  12th President of the United States; died in office (1784-1850);  United States film actress (born in England) who was a childhood star; as an adult she often co-starred with Richard Burton (born in 1932);  United States composer and music critic (1885-1966)
  • terefah - adj. not conforming to dietary laws
  • teucrium chamaedrys -  European perennial subshrub with red-purple or bright rose flowers with red and white spots
  • teucrium scorodonia -  European germander with one-sided racemes of yellow flowers; naturalized in North America
  • thermopsis -  genus of American and Asiatic showy rhizomatous herbs: bush peas
  • thomas -  the Apostle who would not believe the resurrection of Jesus until he saw Jesus with his own eyes;  Welsh poet (1914-1953);  a radio broadcast journalist during World War I and World War II noted for his nightly new broadcast (1892-1981);  United States socialist who was a candidate for president six times (1884-1968);  United States clockmaker who introduced mass production (1785-1859)
  • thuja occidentalis -  small evergreen of eastern North America having tiny scalelike leaves on flattened branchlets
  • thyme -  leaves can be used as seasoning for almost any meat and stews and stuffings and vegetables;  any of various mints of the genus Thymus
  • thymus serpyllum -  aromatic dwarf shrub common on banks and hillsides in Europe; naturalized in United States
  • thymus vulgaris -  common aromatic garden perennial native to the western Mediterranean; used in seasonings and formerly as medicine
  • tilia -  deciduous trees with smooth usually silver-grey bark of North America and Europe and Asia: lime trees; lindens; basswood
  • tipper -  a person who leaves a tip;  truck whose contents can be emptied without handling; the front end of the platform can be pneumatically raised so that the load is discharged by gravity
  • tisha b'av -  (Judaism) a major fast day on the Jewish calendar commemorating the destruction of the temples in Jerusalem
  • tobacco -  leaves of the tobacco plant dried and prepared for smoking or ingestion;  aromatic annual or perennial herbs and shrubs
  • tofu -  cheeselike food made of curdled soybean milk
  • tomato -  mildly acid red or yellow pulpy fruit eaten as a vegetable;  native to South America; widely cultivated in many varieties
  • toxicodendron radicans -  climbing plant common in eastern and central United States with ternate leaves and greenish flowers followed by white berries; yields an irritating oil that causes a rash on contact
  • trifoliate orange -  small fast-growing spiny deciduous Chinese orange tree bearing sweetly scented flowers and decorative but inedible fruit: used as a stock in grafting and for hedges
  • trifolium repens -  creeping European clover having white to pink flowers and bright green leaves; naturalized in United States; widely grown for forage
  • tropaeolum -  a tropical American genus of dicotyledonous climbing or diffuse pungent herbs constituting the family Tropaeolaceae
  • turkish coffee -  drink made from pulverized coffee beans; usually sweetened
  • turmeric -  ground dried rhizome of the turmeric plant used as seasoning;  widely cultivated tropical plant of India having yellow flowers and a large aromatic deep yellow rhizome; source of a condiment and a yellow dye
  • tussilago -  genus of low creeping yellow-flowered perennial herbs of north temperate regions: coltsfoots; in some classifications includes species often placed in other genera especially Homogyne and Petasites
  • ulex -  genus of Eurasian spiny shrubs: gorse
  • ulmus rubra -  North American elm having rough leaves that are red when opening; yields a hard wood
  • urtica dioica -  perennial Eurasian nettle established in North America having broad coarsely toothed leaves with copious stinging hairs
  • vaccine -  immunogen consisting of a suspension of weakened or dead pathogenic cells injected in order to stimulate the production of antibodies
  • valerian -  a plant of the genus Valeriana having lobed or dissected leaves and cymose white or ink flowers
  • vegetarian -  eater of fruits and grains and nuts; someone who eats no meat or fish or (often) any animal products
  • veratrum -  a genus of coarse poisonous perennial herbs; sometimes placed in subfamily Melanthiaceae
  • veratrum viride -  North American plant having large leaves and yellowish green flowers growing in racemes; yields a toxic alkaloid used medicinally
  • ascum -  genus of coarse herbs and subshrubs mostly with woolly leaves
  • ascum thapsus -  tall-stalked very woolly mullein with densely packed yellow flowers; ancient Greeks and Romans dipped the stalks in tallow for funeral torches
  • ena -  any of numerous tropical or subtropical American plants of the genus ena grown for their showy spikes of variously colored flowers
  • veronica arvensis -  erect or procumbent blue-flowered annual found in waste places of Europe and America
  • veronica beccabunga -  European plant having low-lying stems with blue flowers; sparsely naturalized in North America
  • veronica officinalis -  common hairy European perennial with pale blue or lilac flowers in axillary racemes
  • viburnum opulus -  deciduous thicket-forming Old World shrub with clusters of white flowers and small bright red berries
  • vicia faba -  Old World upright plant grown especially for its large flat edible seeds but also as fodder
  • vinca minor -  widely cultivated as a groundcover for its dark green shiny leaves and usually blue-violet flowers
  • viola -  a bowed stringed instrument slightly larger than a violin, tuned a fifth lower;  large genus of flowering herbs of temperate regions;  any of the numerous plants of the genus Viola
  • viola odorata -  European violet typically having purple to white flowers; widely naturalized
  • viola tricolor -  a common and long cultivated European herb from which most common garden pansies are derived
  • viscum album -  Old World parasitic shrub having branching greenish stems with leathery leaves and waxy white glutinous berries; the traditional mistletoe of Christmas
  • vodka -  unaged colorless liquor originating in Russia
  • walker -  an enclosing framework on casters or wheels; helps babies learn to walk;  a light enclosing framework (trade name Zimmer) with rubber castors or wheels and handles; helps invalids or the handicapped or the aged to walk;  a shoe designed for comfortable walking;  United States writer (born in 1944);  New Zealand runner who in 1975 became the first person to run a mile in less that 3 minutes and 50 seconds (born in 1952);  a person who travels by foot
  • walter -  German conductor (1876-1962)
  • wasabi -  the thick green root of the wasabi plant that the Japanese use in cooking and that tastes like strong horseradish; in powder or paste form it is often eaten with raw fish;  a Japanese plant of the family Cruciferae with a thick green root
  • water -  a fluid necessary for the life of most animals and plants;  binary compound that occurs at room temperature as a clear colorless odorless tasteless liquid; freezes into ice below 0 degrees centigrade and boils above 100 degrees centigrade; widely used as a solvent;  once thought to be one of four elements composing the universe (Empedocles);  a facility that provides a source of water;  the part of the earth's surface covered with water (such as a river or lake or ocean);  liquid excretory product;   secrete or form water, as tears or saliva;  supply with water, as with channels or ditches or streams;  fill with tears;  provide with water
  • watercress - adj. of a moderate yellow-green color that is greener and deeper than moss green and yellower and darker than pea green;   cresses that grow in clear ponds and streams;  any of several water-loving cresses
  • wednesday -  the fourth day of the week; the third working day
  • whatchamacallit -  something unspecified whose name is either forgotten or not known
  • white - adj. of or belonging to a racial group having light skin coloration;  of summer nights in northern latitudes where the sun barely sets;  being of the achromatic color of maximum lightness; having little or no hue owing to reflection of almost all incident light;  (of hair) having lost its color;  (of coffee) having cream or milk added;  benevolent; without malicious intent;  glowing white with heat;  restricted to whites only;  marked by the presence of snow;  free from moral blemish or impurity; unsullied;  anemic looking from illness or emotion;  (of a surface) not written or printed on;   (board games) the lighter pieces;  the quality or state of the achromatic color of greatest lightness (bearing the least resemblance to black);  a tributary of the Mississippi River that flows southeastward through northern Arkansas and southern Missouri;  a member of the Caucasoid race;  United States educator who in 1865 (with Ezra Cornell) founded Cornell University and served as its first president (1832-1918);  United States writer noted for his humorous essays (1899-1985);  United States architect (1853-1906);  United States political journalist (1915-1986);  Australian writer (1912-1990);  United States jurist appointed chief justice of the United States Supreme Court in 1910 by President Taft; noted for his work on antitrust legislation (1845-1921);  (usually in the plural) trousers made of flannel or gabardine or tweed or white cloth;  the white part of an egg; the nutritive and protective gelatinous substance surrounding the yolk consisting mainly of albumin dissolved in water;   turn white
  • white mulberry -  Asiatic mulberry with white to pale red fruit; leaves used to feed silkworms
  • white mustard -  Eurasian mustard cultivated for its pungent seeds; a source of table mustard and mustard oil
  • wild - adj. deviating widely from an intended course;  in a state of extreme emotion;  in a natural state; not tamed or domesticated or cultivated;  marked by extreme lack of restraint or control;  (of the elements) as if showing violent anger;  without civilizing influences;  intensely enthusiastic about or preoccupied with;  located in a dismal or remote area; desolate;  (of colors or sounds) intensely vivid or loud;  extravagantly fanciful and unrealistic; foolish;  involving risk or danger;  talking or behaving irrationally;  without a basis in reason or fact;  adv. in a wild or undomesticated manner;  in an uncontrolled and rampant manner;   a wild primitive state untouched by civilization;  a wild and uninhabited area left in its natural condition
  • willow -  a textile machine having a system of revolving spikes for opening and cleaning raw textile fibers;  any of numerous deciduous trees and shrubs of the genus Salix
  • wine bar -  a bar that serves only wine
  • winslow -  English colonial administrator who traveled to America on the Mayflower and served as the first governor of the Plymouth Colony (1595-1655)
  • wintergreen -  spicy red berrylike fruit; source of wintergreen oil;  any of several evergreen perennials of the genus Pyrola;  creeping shrub of eastern North America having white bell-shaped flowers followed by spicy red berrylike fruit and shiny aromatic leaves that yield wintergreen oil
  • witch hazel -  lotion consisting of an astringent alcoholic solution containing an extract from the witch hazel plant;  any of several shrubs or trees of the genus Hamamelis; bark yields an astringent lotion
  • wood -  a golf club with a long shaft used to hit long shots; originally made with a wooden head;  United States painter noted for works based on life in the Midwest (1892-1942);  English writer of novels about murders and thefts and forgeries (1814-1887);  English conductor (1869-1944);  United States film actress (1938-1981);  the hard fibrous lignified substance under the bark of trees;  any wind instrument other than the brass instruments;  the trees and other plants in a large densely wooded area
  • word -  a unit of language that native speakers can identify;  a brief statement;  a al command for action;  a word is a string of bits stored in computer memory;  the sacred writings of the Christian religions;  new information about specific and timely events;  a secret word or phrase known only to a restricted group;  an exchange of views on some topic;  a promise;  the divine word of God; the second person in the Trinity (incarnate in Jesus);   put into words or an expression
  • wrestling -  the sport of hand-to-hand struggle between unarmed contestants who try to throw each other down;  the act of engaging in close hand-to-hand combat
  • xanthium -  coarse herbs having small heads of greenish flowers followed by burrs with hooked bristles
  • yeast -  any of various single-celled fungi that reproduce asexually by budding or division;  a commercial leavening agent containing yeast cells; used to raise the dough in making bread and for fermenting beer or whiskey
  • yom kippur -  (Judaism) a solemn and major fast day on the Jewish calendar; 10th of Tishri; its observance is one of the requirements of the Mosaic law
  • yom kippur war -  Egypt and Syria attacked Israel in October 1973 (on Yom Kippur); Israel counterattacked and drove the Syrians back and crossed the Suez Canal into Egypt
  • young - adj. being in its early stage;  (used of living things especially persons) in an early period of life or development or growth;  (of crops) harvested at an early stage of development; before complete maturity;  not tried or tested by experience;  suggestive of youth; vigorous and fresh;   any immature animal;  young people collectively;  United States religious leader of the Mormon Church after the assassination of Joseph Smith; he led the Mormon exodus from Illinois to Salt Lake City, Utah (1801-1877);  United States baseball player and famous pitcher (1867-1955);  English poet (1683-1765);  United States jazz tenor saxophonist (1909-1959);  British physicist and Egyptologist; he revived the wave theory of light and proposed a three-component theory of color vision; he also played an important role in deciphering the hieroglyphics on the Rosetta Stone (1773-1829);  United States civil rights leader (1921-1971);  United States film and television actress (1913-2000)
  • yule log -  large log traditionally burned at Christmas
  • zanthoxylum americanum -  small deciduous aromatic shrub (or tree) having spiny branches and yellowish flowers; eastern North America
  • zingiber -  tropical Asiatic and Polynesian perennial plants: ginger
  • zinnia grandiflora -  subshrub having short leafy stems and numerous small flower heads with nearly round yellow-orange rays; Arizona south to Mexico and east to Kansas
  • zygophyllum fabago -  perennial shrub of the eastern Mediterranean region and southwestern Asia having flowers whose buds are used as capers

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