Difference between revisions of "Glossary of pathology terms"

From WikiMD
Jump to navigation Jump to search
(Created page with "{{catz}} ==#-A== * '''abscess''' - a localized collection of pus in a cavity formed by disintegration of tissues. * '''achalasia''' - failure to relax; especially r...")
(Tag: 2017 source edit)
 
Line 3: Line 3:
 
==#-A==
 
==#-A==
  
* '''[[abscess]]''' - a localized collection of pus in a cavity formed by disintegration of tissues.
+
*'''[[abscess]]''' - a localized collection of pus in a cavity formed by disintegration of tissues.
  
* '''[[achalasia]]''' - failure to relax; especially referring to smooth muscle fibers at any junction of the gastrointestinal tract (e.g. openings such as the pylorus, cardia or other sphincter muscles); especially failure of the esophageal sphincter to relax with swallowing.
+
*'''[[achalasia]]''' - failure to relax; especially referring to smooth muscle fibers at any junction of the gastrointestinal tract (e.g. openings such as the pylorus, cardia or other sphincter muscles); especially failure of the esophageal sphincter to relax with swallowing.
  
* '''[[acinus]]''' (acini = pl.) - a small sac-like dilatation, e.g. in the lung the basic unit of gas exchange, each acinus is supplied by a single terminal bronchiole; in the liver, the smallest functional unit.
+
*'''[[acinus]]''' (acini = pl.) - a small sac-like dilatation, e.g. in the lung the basic unit of gas exchange, each acinus is supplied by a single terminal bronchiole; in the liver, the smallest functional unit.
  
* '''[[acute]]''' - a disease with sudden onset of signs and a short course.
+
*'''[[acute]]''' - a disease with sudden onset of signs and a short course.
  
* '''[[adenocarcinoma]]''' - a malignant tumour originating in glandular tissue.
+
*'''[[adenocarcinoma]]''' - a malignant tumour originating in glandular tissue.
  
* '''[[adenoma]]''' - a benign tumor made up of glandular elements.
+
*'''[[adenoma]]''' - a benign tumor made up of glandular elements.
  
* '''[[adenosis]]''' - a disease of a gland, often marked by the abnormal formation or enlargement of glandular tissue.
+
*'''[[adenosis]]''' - a disease of a gland, often marked by the abnormal formation or enlargement of glandular tissue.
  
* '''[[adhesion]]''' - in close proximity; joining of parts to one another which may occur abnormally as in a fibrous band of scar tissue that binds together normally separate anatomical structures.
+
*'''[[adhesion]]''' - in close proximity; joining of parts to one another which may occur abnormally as in a fibrous band of scar tissue that binds together normally separate anatomical structures.
  
* '''[[adnexal]]''' - appendages or accessory structures of an organ, e.g. of the uterus, including the uterine tubes and ligaments and ovaries.
+
*'''[[adnexal]]''' - appendages or accessory structures of an organ, e.g. of the uterus, including the uterine tubes and ligaments and ovaries.
  
* '''[[afferent]]''' - toward the centre, e.g. afferent nerves carry impulses toward the central nervous system.
+
*'''[[afferent]]''' - toward the centre, e.g. afferent nerves carry impulses toward the central nervous system.
  
* '''[[agenesis]]''' - absence or failure of formation of any part or organ.
+
*'''[[agenesis]]''' - absence or failure of formation of any part or organ.
  
* '''[[agglutination]]''' - clumping together of cells or particles.
+
*'''[[agglutination]]''' - clumping together of cells or particles.
  
* '''[[aggregation]]''' - a total or coming together of separate parts.
+
*'''[[aggregation]]''' - a total or coming together of separate parts.
  
* '''[[akinesia]]''' (akinetic = adj.) - absence or loss of movement.
+
*'''[[akinesia]]''' (akinetic = adj.) - absence or loss of movement.
  
* '''[[amenorrhea]]''' - the absence of menstrual bleeding.
+
*'''[[amenorrhea]]''' - the absence of menstrual bleeding.
  
* '''[[amino acid(s)]]''' - the basic building block of protein; there are 20 common amino acid types and their sequence will determine the properties and function of each protein.
+
*'''[[amino acid(s)]]''' - the basic building block of protein; there are 20 common amino acid types and their sequence will determine the properties and function of each protein.
  
* '''[[amine]]''' - a chemical substance in the body whose structure is similar to ammonia; a family of hormones (adrenal medulla - epinephrine & norepinephrine) or neurotransmitters in brain (dopamine, norepinephrine, epinephrine, serotonin).
+
*'''[[amine]]''' - a chemical substance in the body whose structure is similar to ammonia; a family of hormones (adrenal medulla - epinephrine & norepinephrine) or neurotransmitters in brain (dopamine, norepinephrine, epinephrine, serotonin).
  
* '''[[amyloid]]''' - the extracellular protein substance deposited in amyloidosis. It is a waxy, amorphous, eosinophilic, hyalinelike material that exhibits red-green birefringence under polarized light when stained with Congo red.  
+
*'''[[amyloid]]''' - the extracellular protein substance deposited in amyloidosis. It is a waxy, amorphous, eosinophilic, hyalinelike material that exhibits red-green birefringence under polarized light when stained with Congo red.
  
 
Amyloid deposits are composed of straight, non-branching fibrils with a diameter of 7.5 to 10 nm and indefinite length. Each fibril is composed of identical polypeptide chains arranged in stacked antiparallel beta-pleated sheets (this is what impar ts the characteristic birefringence under polarized light).  
 
Amyloid deposits are composed of straight, non-branching fibrils with a diameter of 7.5 to 10 nm and indefinite length. Each fibril is composed of identical polypeptide chains arranged in stacked antiparallel beta-pleated sheets (this is what impar ts the characteristic birefringence under polarized light).  
Line 43: Line 43:
 
There are several precursor proteins which are then deposited in the tissue as amyloid; e.g.amyloid light chain (AL) - a component of immunoglobulin, occurs in mulitple myeloma;amyloid associated protein (AA) - derived from liver protein, occurs in reactive systemic amyloidosis; amyloid familial (AF) - abnormal transthyretin.
 
There are several precursor proteins which are then deposited in the tissue as amyloid; e.g.amyloid light chain (AL) - a component of immunoglobulin, occurs in mulitple myeloma;amyloid associated protein (AA) - derived from liver protein, occurs in reactive systemic amyloidosis; amyloid familial (AF) - abnormal transthyretin.
  
* '''[[amyloidosis]]''' - a group of conditions of diverse etiologies characterized by the accumulation of insoluble fibrillar proteins (amyloid) in various organs and tissues of the body - eventually organ function is compromised. The associated disease states may be inflammatory, hereditary or neoplastic and the deposition may be local or generalized or systemic.
+
*'''[[amyloidosis]]''' - a group of conditions of diverse etiologies characterized by the accumulation of insoluble fibrillar proteins (amyloid) in various organs and tissues of the body - eventually organ function is compromised. The associated disease states may be inflammatory, hereditary or neoplastic and the deposition may be local or generalized or systemic.
  
* '''[[analgesia]]''' (analgesic) - the absence of pain; removing pain.
+
*'''[[analgesia]]''' (analgesic) - the absence of pain; removing pain.
  
* '''[[anaphylaxis]]''' - the immediate immunologic (allergic) reaction initiated by the combination ofantigen (allergen) with mast cell cytophilic antobody (chiefly IgE). anaphylactic (adj) - as in anaphylactic shock - life threatening respiratory distress, vascular collapse and shock; manifesting extremely great sensitivity to foreign protein or other material.
+
*'''[[anaphylaxis]]''' - the immediate immunologic (allergic) reaction initiated by the combination ofantigen (allergen) with mast cell cytophilic antobody (chiefly IgE). anaphylactic (adj) - as in anaphylactic shock - life threatening respiratory distress, vascular collapse and shock; manifesting extremely great sensitivity to foreign protein or other material.
  
* '''[[anaplasia]]''' - loss of differentiation of cells and of their orientation to one another and to their framework and blood vessels.
+
*'''[[anaplasia]]''' - loss of differentiation of cells and of their orientation to one another and to their framework and blood vessels.
  
* '''[[anastomosis]]''' - a connection between two blood vessels or tubes.
+
*'''[[anastomosis]]''' - a connection between two blood vessels or tubes.
  
* '''[[anencephaly]]''' - markedly defective development of the brain, cerebral hemispheres absent or reduced to small masses, together with absence of the bones of the cranium.
+
*'''[[anencephaly]]''' - markedly defective development of the brain, cerebral hemispheres absent or reduced to small masses, together with absence of the bones of the cranium.
  
* '''[[aneurysm - a ballooning out of the wall of a blood vessel or a heart chamber due to a weakening of the wall by disease or injury.
+
*'''[[aneurysm]] - a ballooning out of the wall of a blood vessel or a heart chamber due to a weakening of the wall by disease or injury.'''
  
* '''[[angina]]''' - spasmodic, choking or suffocating pain. a. pectoris, paroxysmal pain in the chest often radiating to the arms; usually due to interference with the supply of oxygen to the heart muscle; often precipitated by excitement or effort.
+
*'''[[angina]]''' - spasmodic, choking or suffocating pain. a. pectoris, paroxysmal pain in the chest often radiating to the arms; usually due to interference with the supply of oxygen to the heart muscle; often precipitated by excitement or effort.
  
* '''[[angiogenesis]]''' - the formation of new blood vessels.
+
*'''[[angiogenesis]]''' - the formation of new blood vessels.
  
* '''[[anomaly]]''' - an irregularity or deviation from normal; an abnormal structure.
+
*'''[[anomaly]]''' - an irregularity or deviation from normal; an abnormal structure.
  
* '''[[antibody]]''' - an immunoglobulin molecule that reacts with a specific antigen that induced its synthesis. Synthesized by B lymphocytes that have been activated by the binding of a antigen to a cell surface receptor.
+
*'''[[antibody]]''' - an immunoglobulin molecule that reacts with a specific antigen that induced its synthesis. Synthesized by B lymphocytes that have been activated by the binding of a antigen to a cell surface receptor.
  
* '''[[antigen]]''' - any substance, almost always a protein, not normally present in the body which when introduced to the body stimulates a specific immune response and the production of antibodies.
+
*'''[[antigen]]''' - any substance, almost always a protein, not normally present in the body which when introduced to the body stimulates a specific immune response and the production of antibodies.
  
* '''[[aphasia]]''' - partial or complete loss of the ability to speak, write or understand spoken or written language, resulting from damage to the brain by injury or disease.
+
*'''[[aphasia]]''' - partial or complete loss of the ability to speak, write or understand spoken or written language, resulting from damage to the brain by injury or disease.
  
* '''[[apnea - lack of breathing.
+
*'''[[apnea]] - lack of breathing.'''
  
* '''[[apocrine]]''' - a form of secretion in which a portion of the cytoplasm leaves the cell together with the product of secretion.
+
*'''[[apocrine]]''' - a form of secretion in which a portion of the cytoplasm leaves the cell together with the product of secretion.
  
* '''[[apoptosis]]''' - programmed cell death (carefully orchestrated by genes and gene products that turn the pathway to cell death on or off); fragmentation of the cell into membrane-bound particles that are eliminated by phagocytosis; from the Greek for "falling off".
+
*'''[[apoptosis]]''' - programmed cell death (carefully orchestrated by genes and gene products that turn the pathway to cell death on or off); fragmentation of the cell into membrane-bound particles that are eliminated by phagocytosis; from the Greek for "falling off".
  
* '''[[arrhythmia(s)]]''' - irregular heart beat.
+
*'''[[arrhythmia(s)]]''' - irregular heart beat.
  
* '''[[ascites]]''' - accumulation of serous fluid in the abdominal cavity.
+
*'''[[ascites]]''' - accumulation of serous fluid in the abdominal cavity.
  
* '''[[asymptomatic]]''' - producing or showing no symptoms.
+
*'''[[asymptomatic]]''' - producing or showing no symptoms.
  
* '''[[ataxia - failure of muscle coordination; unable to coordinate muscle movement resulting in jerkiness and incoordination.
+
*'''[[ataxia]] - failure of muscle coordination; unable to coordinate muscle movement resulting in jerkiness and incoordination.'''
  
* '''[[ATP]]''' - adenosine triphosphate. A chemical very important in energy metabolism in the cell.
+
*'''[[ATP]]''' - adenosine triphosphate. A chemical very important in energy metabolism in the cell.
  
* '''[[atrophy]]''' - a wasting away; a decrease in the size and function of a cell, tissue, organ or part.
+
*'''[[atrophy]]''' - a wasting away; a decrease in the size and function of a cell, tissue, organ or part.
  
* '''[[atypical - unusual, not characteristic.
+
*'''[[atypical]] - unusual, not characteristic.'''
 
 
* '''[[auscultation]]''' - listening for sounds within the body; it may be performed with the unaided ear or with a stethoscope.
 
  
 +
*'''[[auscultation]]''' - listening for sounds within the body; it may be performed with the unaided ear or with a stethoscope.
 
   
 
   
  
 
==B==
 
==B==
  
* '''[[bacteremia]]''' - the presence of bacteria in the blood.
+
*'''[[bacteremia]]''' - the presence of bacteria in the blood.
  
* '''[[benign]]''' - not malignant; not recurrent; favourable for recovery.
+
*'''[[benign]]''' - not malignant; not recurrent; favourable for recovery.
  
* '''[[bifurcation]]''' - the split of a tube or vessel into two branches or channels.
+
*'''[[bifurcation]]''' - the split of a tube or vessel into two branches or channels.
  
* '''[[birefringent]]''' - birefringence; the quality of transmitting light unequally in different directions.
+
*'''[[birefringent]]''' - birefringence; the quality of transmitting light unequally in different directions.
  
* '''[[biopsy]]''' - removal and examination, usually microscopic, of tissue from the living body, performed to establish a precise diagnosis
+
*'''[[biopsy]]''' - removal and examination, usually microscopic, of tissue from the living body, performed to establish a precise diagnosis
  
* '''[[bradycardia]]''' - abnormally slow heart action.
+
*'''[[bradycardia]]''' - abnormally slow heart action.
  
* '''[[bronchiectasis]]''' - chronic dilatation of the bronchi. It may affect the tube uniformly or occur in irregular pockets.
+
*'''[[bronchiectasis]]''' - chronic dilatation of the bronchi. It may affect the tube uniformly or occur in irregular pockets.
  
* '''[[bronchus]]''' - one of the large passages conveying air to and within the lungs.
+
*'''[[bronchus]]''' - one of the large passages conveying air to and within the lungs.
  
* '''[[bronchoscope]]''' - an instrument used for inspecting the interior of the windpipe and bronchial tree to carry out diagnostic (taking specimens for culture and biopsy) or therapeutic (removing a foreign object) maneuvers.
+
*'''[[bronchoscope]]''' - an instrument used for inspecting the interior of the windpipe and bronchial tree to carry out diagnostic (taking specimens for culture and biopsy) or therapeutic (removing a foreign object) maneuvers.
  
* '''[[bronchoscopy]]''' - examination of the bronchi through a bronchoscope.
+
*'''[[bronchoscopy]]''' - examination of the bronchi through a bronchoscope.
  
* '''[[BUN - blood urea nitrogen]]''': the urea concentration of serum or plasma, specified in terms of nitrogen content; an important indicator of renal function. (urea is the chief nitrogenous end-product of protein metabolism, formed in the liver from amino acids and from ammonia compounds).
+
*'''[[BUN - blood urea nitrogen]]''': the urea concentration of serum or plasma, specified in terms of nitrogen content; an important indicator of renal function. (urea is the chief nitrogenous end-product of protein metabolism, formed in the liver from amino acids and from ammonia compounds).
  
 
{{catz}}
 
{{catz}}
Line 121: Line 120:
 
==C==
 
==C==
  
* '''[[cachexia]]''' - extreme loss of weight and body wasting associated with serious illness.
+
*'''[[cachexia]]''' - extreme loss of weight and body wasting associated with serious illness.
 
 
* '''[[calculus]]''' - a stone developing in the body, e.g. kidney or bile (not the branch of mathematics!)
 
 
 
* '''[[carbuncle - deep-seated pus-producing infection of the skin and subcutaneous tissues.
 
  
* '''[[carcinogen]]''' - a substance that causes cancer.
+
*'''[[calculus]]''' - a stone developing in the body, e.g. kidney or bile (not the branch of mathematics!)
  
* '''[[cardi(o) - of the heart.
+
*'''[[carbuncle]] - deep-seated pus-producing infection of the skin and subcutaneous tissues.'''
  
* '''[[cardiomegaly]]''' - hypertrophy (enlargement) of the heart.
+
*'''[[carcinogen]]''' - a substance that causes cancer.
  
* '''[[caries]]''' - destruction of bone or teeth.
+
*'''[[cardiomegaly]]''' - hypertrophy (enlargement) of the heart.
  
* '''[[caseous]]''' - "cheesy" or "cheese-like". As in caseous necrosis]]''' - cell death characteristic of certain inflammations (e.g. tuberculosis) where the affected tissue shows the crumbly consistency and dull, opaque quality of cheese. Based on casein]]''' - the principal protein of milk, the basis of curds and cheese.
+
*'''[[caries]]''' - destruction of bone or teeth.
  
* '''[[catarrh]]''' - inflammation of a mucuos membrane with increased flow of mucous. catarrhal (adj.)
+
*'''[[caseous]]''' - "cheesy" or "cheese-like". As in caseous necrosis]]''' - cell death characteristic of certain inflammations (e.g. tuberculosis) where the affected tissue shows the crumbly consistency and dull, opaque quality of cheese. Based on casein]]''' - the principal protein of milk, the basis of curds and cheese.
  
* '''[[caudal - situated toward or pertaining to the taill; toward the inferior or posterior end of the body.
+
*'''[[catarrh]]''' - inflammation of a mucuos membrane with increased flow of mucous. catarrhal (adj.)
  
* '''[[cellulitis]]''' - inflammation of the soft or connective tissue in which a thin, watery exudate spreads through the tissue spaces.
+
*'''[[caudal]] - situated toward or pertaining to the taill; toward the inferior or posterior end of the body.'''
  
* '''[[cephalic]]''' - pertaining to the head , or to the head end of the body.
+
*'''[[cellulitis]]''' - inflammation of the soft or connective tissue in which a thin, watery exudate spreads through the tissue spaces.
  
* '''[[chemotaxis]]''' - movement of cells or organisms in response to chemical stimulation.chemotactic (adj.).
+
*'''[[cephalic]]''' - pertaining to the head , or to the head end of the body.
  
* '''[[cholangitis]]''' - inflammation of a bile duct or the entire biliary tree.
+
*'''[[chemotaxis]]''' - movement of cells or organisms in response to chemical stimulation.chemotactic (adj.).
  
* '''[[cholecyst]]''' - the gallbladder.
+
*'''[[cholangitis]]''' - inflammation of a bile duct or the entire biliary tree.
  
* '''[[cholelithiasis]]''' - presence of concretions ("gall stones") in the gallbladder or bile ducts.
+
*'''[[cholecyst]]''' - the gallbladder.
  
* '''[[chronic]]''' - a condition with slow onset, mild but continuous manifestations and long-lasting, often progressive effects.
+
*'''[[cholelithiasis]]''' - presence of concretions ("gall stones") in the gallbladder or bile ducts.
  
* '''[[ciliated]]''' - cilia are small hair-like structures which help to transport secretions along the surface of a cell.
+
*'''[[chronic]]''' - a condition with slow onset, mild but continuous manifestations and long-lasting, often progressive effects.
  
* '''[[CIN]]''' - cervical intraepithelial neoplasia; one of the terminologies in use to describe precancerous or dysplastic changes in the cervical epithelial cells..
+
*'''[[ciliated]]''' - cilia are small hair-like structures which help to transport secretions along the surface of a cell.
  
* '''[[CIS]]''' - carcinoma in situ; a neoplasm where the tumor cells are still confined to the epithelium of origin without invasion of the basement membrane (likelihood of subsequent invasive growth is presumed to be high)..
+
*'''[[CIN]]''' - cervical intraepithelial neoplasia; one of the terminologies in use to describe precancerous or dysplastic changes in the cervical epithelial cells..
  
* '''[[clubbing]]''' - proliferation of soft tissue about the ends (terminal phalanges) of fingers and toes.
+
*'''[[CIS]]''' - carcinoma in situ; a neoplasm where the tumor cells are still confined to the epithelium of origin without invasion of the basement membrane (likelihood of subsequent invasive growth is presumed to be high)..
  
* '''[[CMV]]''' - cytomegalovirus.
+
*'''[[clubbing]]''' - proliferation of soft tissue about the ends (terminal phalanges) of fingers and toes.
  
* '''[[coagulate]]''' - to cause to clot or become clotted; to convert a fluid or substance in solution into a solid or a gel. coagulative (adj.) as in coagulative necrosis- a type of necrosis in which affected cells or tissue are converted into a dry, dull, homogeneous eosinophilic mass without nuclei as a result of the coagulation of protein.
+
*'''[[CMV]]''' - cytomegalovirus.
  
* '''[[collateral]]''' (blood supply) - new vessels which develop following chronic interruption of blood supply.
+
*'''[[coagulate]]''' - to cause to clot or become clotted; to convert a fluid or substance in solution into a solid or a gel. coagulative (adj.) as in coagulative necrosis- a type of necrosis in which affected cells or tissue are converted into a dry, dull, homogeneous eosinophilic mass without nuclei as a result of the coagulation of protein.
  
* '''[[colposcope]]''' - a speculum for examining the vagina and cervix with a magnifying lens. (colposcopy is the procedure).
+
*'''[[collateral]]''' (blood supply) - new vessels which develop following chronic interruption of blood supply.
  
* '''[[congestion]]''' - abnormal accumulation of blood or fluid in a part (e.g. of blood - passive congestion]]''' - obstruction of the escape of blood from a part (as in liver);
+
*'''[[colposcope]]''' - a speculum for examining the vagina and cervix with a magnifying lens. (colposcopy is the procedure).
  
* '''[[pulmonary congestion]]''' - engorgement of pulmonary vessels, with transudation of fluid into alveolar and interstitial spaces).
+
*'''[[congestion]]''' - abnormal accumulation of blood or fluid in a part (e.g. of blood - passive congestion]]''' - obstruction of the escape of blood from a part (as in liver); '''
  
* '''[[columnar]]''' (cells) - refers to a shape of cells which often line ducts or glands within the body.
+
*'''[[pulmonary congestion]]''' - engorgement of pulmonary vessels, with transudation of fluid into alveolar and interstitial spaces).
  
* '''[[coma]]''' - a state of profound unconsciousness from which one cannot be roused.
+
*'''[[columnar]]''' (cells) - refers to a shape of cells which often line ducts or glands within the body.
  
* '''[[congenital]]''' - present at birth; cause may be genetic or non-genetic (infectious, chemical, physical).
+
*'''[[coma]]''' - a state of profound unconsciousness from which one cannot be roused.
  
* '''[[Congo red]]''' - specific stain for detection of amyloid fibrils. Proteins with a beta-pleated sheet structure will display red-green birefringence under polarized light.
+
*'''[[congenital]]''' - present at birth; cause may be genetic or non-genetic (infectious, chemical, physical).
  
* '''[[contralateral]]''' - the opposite side of the body.
+
*'''[[Congo red]]''' - specific stain for detection of amyloid fibrils. Proteins with a beta-pleated sheet structure will display red-green birefringence under polarized light.
  
* '''[[contusion]]''' - a bruise; an injury of a part without a break in the skin, characterized by swelling, discoloration, and pain.
+
*'''[[contralateral]]''' - the opposite side of the body.
  
* '''[[cor pulmonale]]''' - right-sided heart failure which occurs as a result of long-standing lung disease.
+
*'''[[contusion]]''' - a bruise; an injury of a part without a break in the skin, characterized by swelling, discoloration, and pain.
  
* '''[[creatine]]''' - an amino acid; found in muscle. Phosphorylated creatine is an important storage form of high-energy phosphate = creatine phosphate or phosphocreatine. Energy source for muscle contraction.
+
*'''[[cor pulmonale]]''' - right-sided heart failure which occurs as a result of long-standing lung disease.
  
* '''[[creatine kinase]]''' - an enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of creatine by ATP to form phosphocreatine. It occurs as three isozymes (specific to brain, cardiac and skeletal muscle, respectively). Each isozyme has two components composed of muscle (M) and brain (B) subunits - CK1 (BB) is found primarily in brain, CK2 (MB) in cardiac muscle and CK3 (MM) primarily in skeletal muscle. Differential determination of isozymes is used in clinical diagnosis.
+
*'''[[creatine]]''' - an amino acid; found in muscle. Phosphorylated creatine is an important storage form of high-energy phosphate = creatine phosphate or phosphocreatine. Energy source for muscle contraction.
  
* '''[[cribiform]]''' - perforated, sieve-like pattern.
+
*'''[[creatine kinase]]''' - an enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of creatine by ATP to form phosphocreatine. It occurs as three isozymes (specific to brain, cardiac and skeletal muscle, respectively). Each isozyme has two components composed of muscle (M) and brain (B) subunits - CK1 (BB) is found primarily in brain, CK2 (MB) in cardiac muscle and CK3 (MM) primarily in skeletal muscle. Differential determination of isozymes is used in clinical diagnosis.
  
* '''[[cruciate]]''' - shaped like a cross.
+
*'''[[cribiform]]''' - perforated, sieve-like pattern.
  
* '''[[cryptorchid]]''' - a person with undescended testes.
+
*'''[[cruciate]]''' - shaped like a cross.
  
* '''[[cryptorchism (cryptorchidism) - failure of one or both testes to descend into the scrotum.
+
*'''[[cryptorchid]]''' - a person with undescended testes.
  
* '''[[Computerized tomograph]]''' - sophisticated radiologic technique yielding a detailed image of internal body structures. Also CAT]]''' - computerized axial tomography.
+
*'''[[cryptorchism]] (cryptorchidism) - failure of one or both testes to descend into the scrotum.'''
  
* '''[[cyanosis]]''' - a bluish discoloration of skin, lips, nail beds or mucous membranes due to excessive concentrations of reduced hemoglobin in blood and hence deficient oxygenation of blood. cyanotic (adj.).
+
*'''[[Computerized tomograph]]''' - sophisticated radiologic technique yielding a detailed image of internal body structures. Also CAT]]''' - computerized axial tomography.'''
  
* '''[[cyst]]''' - any closed epithelium-lined cavity or sac, normal or abnormal, usually containing liquid or semisolid material; a bladder.
+
*'''[[cyanosis]]''' - a bluish discoloration of skin, lips, nail beds or mucous membranes due to excessive concentrations of reduced hemoglobin in blood and hence deficient oxygenation of blood. cyanotic (adj.).
  
* '''[[cystectomy]]''' - removal of a cyst; removal or resection of the bladder.
+
*'''[[cyst]]''' - any closed epithelium-lined cavity or sac, normal or abnormal, usually containing liquid or semisolid material; a bladder.
  
* '''[[cytology]]''' - the study of cells, their origin, structure, function and pathology; the microscopic examination of cells as a means of detecting malignancy and microbiologic changes. Cells can be obtained by aspiration, washing, smear or scraping.
+
*'''[[cystectomy]]''' - removal of a cyst; removal or resection of the bladder.
  
* '''[[cytotoxin]]''' - (cytotoxic = adj.), a toxin or antibody having a specific toxic action upon the cells of special organs.
+
*'''[[cytology]]''' - the study of cells, their origin, structure, function and pathology; the microscopic examination of cells as a means of detecting malignancy and microbiologic changes. Cells can be obtained by aspiration, washing, smear or scraping.
  
 +
*'''[[cytotoxin]]''' - (cytotoxic = adj.), a toxin or antibody having a specific toxic action upon the cells of special organs.
 
   
 
   
  
 
==D==
 
==D==
  
* '''[[DES]]''' - diethylystilbestrol; a synthetic nonsteroidal estrogen; females exposed to it in uteroare subject to increased risk of vaginal and cervical carcinoma..
+
*'''[[DES]]''' - diethylystilbestrol; a synthetic nonsteroidal estrogen; females exposed to it in uteroare subject to increased risk of vaginal and cervical carcinoma..
  
* '''[[degenerative]]''' - progressive and often irreversible deterioration.
+
*'''[[degenerative]]''' - progressive and often irreversible deterioration.
  
* '''[[dialysis]]''' - a procedure by which a machine is used to replace kidney functions in patients with diseased kidneys.
+
*'''[[dialysis]]''' - a procedure by which a machine is used to replace kidney functions in patients with diseased kidneys.
  
* '''[[diapedesis]]''' - the passage of leukocytes (white blood cells) through capillary walls to site of inflammation.
+
*'''[[diapedesis]]''' - the passage of leukocytes (white blood cells) through capillary walls to site of inflammation.
  
* '''[[diaphoresis]]''' - perspiration, especially profuse perspiration.
+
*'''[[diaphoresis]]''' - perspiration, especially profuse perspiration.
  
* '''[[differentiation]]''' - the distinguishing of one thing from another; the act or process of acquiring completely individual characters; increase in morphological or chemical heterogeneity.
+
*'''[[differentiation]]''' - the distinguishing of one thing from another; the act or process of acquiring completely individual characters; increase in morphological or chemical heterogeneity.
  
* '''[[dilation]]''' - the act of dilating or stretching.
+
*'''[[dilation]]''' - the act of dilating or stretching.
  
* '''[[dilatation]]''' - the condition of being stretched beyond normal dimensions, usually in a tubular sructure or an opening.
+
*'''[[dilatation]]''' - the condition of being stretched beyond normal dimensions, usually in a tubular sructure or an opening.
  
* '''[[diuresis]]''' - excessive amount of urine; diuretic - produces an increase in amount of urine.
+
*'''[[diuresis]]''' - excessive amount of urine; diuretic - produces an increase in amount of urine.
  
* '''[[diverticulum]]''' (diverticula = pl) - a pouch or sac occurring normally or created by the bulging of a membrane through a defect in the muscular coat of a tubular organ, such as the intestine.
+
*'''[[diverticulum]]''' (diverticula = pl) - a pouch or sac occurring normally or created by the bulging of a membrane through a defect in the muscular coat of a tubular organ, such as the intestine.
  
* '''[[diverticulosis]]''' - the presence of diverticula.
+
*'''[[diverticulosis]]''' - the presence of diverticula.
  
* '''[[diverticulitis - an inflammation of a diverticulum, especially those in the wall of the colon which fill with fecal matter and become inflamed. May cause bleeding or obstruction or may burst.
+
*'''[[diverticulitis]] - an inflammation of a diverticulum, especially those in the wall of the colon which fill with fecal matter and become inflamed. May cause bleeding or obstruction or may burst.'''
  
* '''[[duct - a passage with well-defined walls, especially a tubular structure for the passage of excretions or secretions.
+
*'''[[duct]] - a passage with well-defined walls, especially a tubular structure for the passage of excretions or secretions.'''
  
* '''[[dysmenorrhea]]''' - painful menstruation.
+
*'''[[dysmenorrhea]]''' - painful menstruation.
  
* '''[[dysphagia - painful or difficulty swallowing.
+
*'''[[dysphagia]] - painful or difficulty swallowing.'''
  
* '''[[dysplasia]]''' - abnormality of development; in pathology, alteration in size, shape, and organization of adult cells.
+
*'''[[dysplasia]]''' - abnormality of development; in pathology, alteration in size, shape, and organization of adult cells.
  
* '''[[dyspnea]]''' - labored or difficult breathing.
+
*'''[[dyspnea]]''' - labored or difficult breathing.
 
 
* '''[[dysrhythmia]]''' - defective heart rhythm; also see arrythmia.
 
  
 +
*'''[[dysrhythmia]]''' - defective heart rhythm; also see arrythmia.
 
   
 
   
  
 
==E==
 
==E==
  
* '''[[ecchymosis]]''' - a small hemorrhagic spot in the skin or mucous membrane, larger than apetechia, forming a nonelevated, rounded, or irregular blue or purplish patch. ecchymoses, pl.
+
*'''[[ecchymosis]]''' - a small hemorrhagic spot in the skin or mucous membrane, larger than apetechia, forming a nonelevated, rounded, or irregular blue or purplish patch. ecchymoses, pl.
  
* '''[[ectasia - dilatation, expansion or distention. e.g. duct ectasia = dilatation of duct plugged with secretion, accompanied by periductal and interstitial inflammatory infiltrate.
+
*'''[[ectasia]] - dilatation, expansion or distention. e.g. duct ectasia = dilatation of duct plugged with secretion, accompanied by periductal and interstitial inflammatory infiltrate.'''
  
* '''[[ectopic]]''' - out of place; an object or organ situated in an unusual place away from its normal position.
+
*'''[[ectopic]]''' - out of place; an object or organ situated in an unusual place away from its normal position.
  
* '''[[edema]]''' - the accumulation of excess fluid in the intercellular or interstitial tissue spaces or body cavities.
+
*'''[[edema]]''' - the accumulation of excess fluid in the intercellular or interstitial tissue spaces or body cavities.
  
* '''[[efferent - moving away from the centre, e.g. efferent nerve fibres carry motor impulses to muscles.
+
*'''[[efferent]] - moving away from the centre, e.g. efferent nerve fibres carry motor impulses to muscles.'''
  
* '''[[effusion(s)]]''' - the escape of a fluid into a part; the effused material (see exudate).
+
*'''[[effusion(s)]]''' - the escape of a fluid into a part; the effused material (see exudate).
  
* '''[[electrolyte]]''' - a compound when dissolved in water separates into charged particles. Electrolytes play an essential role in the workings of cells maintaining fluid balance and acid-base balance.
+
*'''[[electrolyte]]''' - a compound when dissolved in water separates into charged particles. Electrolytes play an essential role in the workings of cells maintaining fluid balance and acid-base balance.
  
* '''[[embolus (emboli, pl.) - a detached intravascular solid, liquid or gaseous mass that is carried by the blood to a site distant from its point of origin, thus obstructing the flow of blood. Most (99%) arise from thrombi (thromboembolus).  
+
*'''[[embolus]] (emboli, pl.) - a detached intravascular solid, liquid or gaseous mass that is carried by the blood to a site distant from its point of origin, thus obstructing the flow of blood. Most (99%) arise from thrombi (thromboembolus). '''
  
* '''[[embolism]]''' - the sudden obstruction or blocking of a vessel by an embolus.
+
*'''[[embolism]]''' - the sudden obstruction or blocking of a vessel by an embolus.
  
* '''[[emesis]]''' - the act of vomiting.
+
*'''[[emesis]]''' - the act of vomiting.
  
* '''[[empyema]]''' - accumulation of pus in a body cavity.
+
*'''[[empyema]]''' - accumulation of pus in a body cavity.
  
* '''[[encephalitis]]''' - inflammation of the brain.
+
*'''[[encephalitis]]''' - inflammation of the brain.
  
* '''[[endocarditis]]''' - inflammation of the endocardium.
+
*'''[[endocarditis]]''' - inflammation of the endocardium.
  
* '''[[endocardium]]''' - the innermost tunic of the heart (includes endothelial and subendothelial connective tissue).
+
*'''[[endocardium]]''' - the innermost tunic of the heart (includes endothelial and subendothelial connective tissue).
  
* '''[[endogenous]]''' - originating from within the body.
+
*'''[[endogenous]]''' - originating from within the body.
  
* '''[[endometriosis]]''' - presence of benign glands and uterine stroma (connective tissue elements) outside of the uterus.
+
*'''[[endometriosis]]''' - presence of benign glands and uterine stroma (connective tissue elements) outside of the uterus.
  
* '''[[endoscope]]''' - an instrument to visually examine the interior of a hollow organ such as the colon, intestine or bladder; endoscopy is the procedure.
+
*'''[[endoscope]]''' - an instrument to visually examine the interior of a hollow organ such as the colon, intestine or bladder; endoscopy is the procedure.
  
* '''[[enzyme]]''' - a substance, usually a protein, that initiates and accelerates a chemical reaction.
+
*'''[[enzyme]]''' - a substance, usually a protein, that initiates and accelerates a chemical reaction.
  
* '''[[eosin]]''' - any of a class of rose-colored stains or dyes; bromine derivatives of fluorescein; used in histology as a stain
+
*'''[[eosin]]''' - any of a class of rose-colored stains or dyes; bromine derivatives of fluorescein; used in histology as a stain
  
* '''[[epicanthus]]''' (epicanthal, adj.) - a vertical fold on either side of the nose; a normal characteristic in persons of certain races, but absent in others.
+
*'''[[epicanthus]]''' (epicanthal, adj.) - a vertical fold on either side of the nose; a normal characteristic in persons of certain races, but absent in others.
  
* '''[[epidemiology]]''' - the study of the relationships of various factors determining the frequency and distribution of diseases in the human community; also the field of medicine dealing with the determination of specific causes of localized outbreaks of infection, poisoning or other disease of recognized etiology.
+
*'''[[epidemiology]]''' - the study of the relationships of various factors determining the frequency and distribution of diseases in the human community; also the field of medicine dealing with the determination of specific causes of localized outbreaks of infection, poisoning or other disease of recognized etiology.
  
* '''[[epigastrium]]''' - the upper and middle region of the abdomen, located within the sternal angle. epigastric is the adjective.
+
*'''[[epigastrium]]''' - the upper and middle region of the abdomen, located within the sternal angle. epigastric is the adjective.
  
* '''[[erythema]]''' - diffuse or patchy redness of skin, blanching on pressure, due to congestion of cutaneous capillaries.
+
*'''[[erythema]]''' - diffuse or patchy redness of skin, blanching on pressure, due to congestion of cutaneous capillaries.
  
* '''[[erythrocyte(s)]]''' - red blood cell(s).
+
*'''[[erythrocyte(s)]]''' - red blood cell(s).
  
* '''[[etiology]]''' - (etiologic, etiological = adj.) the science dealing with the causes of disease.
+
*'''[[etiology]]''' - (etiologic, etiological = adj.) the science dealing with the causes of disease.
  
* '''[[excise]]''' - to cut out;  
+
*'''[[excise]]''' - to cut out;
  
* '''[[excision]]''' - the act of cutting out.
+
*'''[[excision]]''' - the act of cutting out.
  
* '''[[exogenous]]''' - originating from outside of the body.
+
*'''[[exogenous]]''' - originating from outside of the body.
  
* '''[[exudate]]''' - a fluid with a high concentration of protein and cellular debris which has escaped from blood vessels and has been deposited in tissues, or on tissue surfaces, usually as a result of inflammation.
+
*'''[[exudate]]''' - a fluid with a high concentration of protein and cellular debris which has escaped from blood vessels and has been deposited in tissues, or on tissue surfaces, usually as a result of inflammation.
  
 
{{catz}}
 
{{catz}}
Line 319: Line 314:
 
==F==
 
==F==
  
* '''[[facies]]''' - the face; or the expression or appearance of the face.
+
*'''[[facies]]''' - the face; or the expression or appearance of the face.
  
* '''[[fibrillation]]''' - a small, local, involuntary muscular contraction, due to spontaneous activation of single muscle cells or muscle fibers whose nerve supply has been damaged or cut off. Also see [[ventricular fibrillation]].
+
*'''[[fibrillation]]''' - a small, local, involuntary muscular contraction, due to spontaneous activation of single muscle cells or muscle fibers whose nerve supply has been damaged or cut off. Also see [[ventricular fibrillation]].
  
* '''[[fibrin]]''' - an insoluble protein essential to the clotting of blood, derived from fibrinogen; a component of thrombi, vegetations, and acute inflammatory exudates.
+
*'''[[fibrin]]''' - an insoluble protein essential to the clotting of blood, derived from fibrinogen; a component of thrombi, vegetations, and acute inflammatory exudates.
  
* '''[[fibrinogen]]''' - a coagulation factor.
+
*'''[[fibrinogen]]''' - a coagulation factor.
  
* '''[[fibrinoid]]''' - resembling fibrin; an eosinophilic, homogeneous, proteinacious material that is frequently formed on the walls of blood vessels and connective tissue in some patients (e.g with disseminated lupus erythematosus, scleroderma, etc.).  
+
*'''[[fibrinoid]]''' - resembling fibrin; an eosinophilic, homogeneous, proteinacious material that is frequently formed on the walls of blood vessels and connective tissue in some patients (e.g with disseminated lupus erythematosus, scleroderma, etc.).
  
* '''[[fibrinoid necrosis]]''' - results in acidophilic (eosinophilic) deposits with staining reactions that resemble fibrin in connective tissue, blood vessel walls and other sites.
+
*'''[[fibrinoid necrosis]]''' - results in acidophilic (eosinophilic) deposits with staining reactions that resemble fibrin in connective tissue, blood vessel walls and other sites.
  
* '''[[fibrosis]]''' - formation of fibrous tissue usually in repair or replacement of cellular elements.fibrotic (adj).
+
*'''[[fibrosis]]''' - formation of fibrous tissue usually in repair or replacement of cellular elements.fibrotic (adj).
  
* '''[[fistula]]''' (fistulas, fistulae, pl.) - an abnormal passage or communication from one organ to another or from an internal organ to the body surface; may be caused by disease or injury or created surgically.
+
*'''[[fistula]]''' (fistulas, fistulae, pl.) - an abnormal passage or communication from one organ to another or from an internal organ to the body surface; may be caused by disease or injury or created surgically.
  
* '''[[friable]]''' - easily crumbled.
+
*'''[[friable]]''' - easily crumbled.
  
 
==G==
 
==G==
  
* '''[[gangrene]]''' - necrosis due to obstruction, loss or diminution of blood supply.
+
*'''[[gangrene]]''' - necrosis due to obstruction, loss or diminution of blood supply.
  
* '''[[glomerulonephritis]]''' - nephritis with inflammation of the capillary loops in the renal glomeruli.
+
*'''[[glomerulonephritis]]''' - nephritis with inflammation of the capillary loops in the renal glomeruli.
  
* '''[[granuloma]]''' - a term applied to any small nodular aggregation of mononuclear inflammatory cells or such a collection of modified macrophages resembling epithelial cells, giant cells and other macrophages (usually surrounded by a rim of lymphocytes).
+
*'''[[granuloma]]''' - a term applied to any small nodular aggregation of mononuclear inflammatory cells or such a collection of modified macrophages resembling epithelial cells, giant cells and other macrophages (usually surrounded by a rim of lymphocytes).
  
* '''[[gyrus]]''' - (gyri = pl.), one of the convolutions on the surface of the brain caused by infolding of the cortex.
+
*'''[[gyrus]]''' - (gyri = pl.), one of the convolutions on the surface of the brain caused by infolding of the cortex.
  
 
==H==
 
==H==
  
* '''[[hamartoma]]''' - a benign tumour-like nodule composed of an overgrowth of mature cells and tissues normally present in the affected part, but with disorganization and often with one element predominating.
+
*'''[[hamartoma]]''' - a benign tumour-like nodule composed of an overgrowth of mature cells and tissues normally present in the affected part, but with disorganization and often with one element predominating.
  
* '''[[hematemesis]]''' - the vomiting of blood.
+
*'''[[hematemesis]]''' - the vomiting of blood.
  
* '''[[hematochezia]]''' - presence of red blood in the stool.
+
*'''[[hematochezia]]''' - presence of red blood in the stool.
  
* '''[[hematoma - a localized mass of blood, usually clotted, trapped in an organ, space, or tissue, resulting from a break in the wall of a blood vessel.
+
*'''[[hematoma]] - a localized mass of blood, usually clotted, trapped in an organ, space, or tissue, resulting from a break in the wall of a blood vessel.'''
  
* '''[[hematoxylin]]''' - an acid-coloring matter from the heartwood; used as a histological stain - stains nuclei .
+
*'''[[hematoxylin]]''' - an acid-coloring matter from the heartwood; used as a histological stain - stains nuclei .
  
* '''[[hematoxylin & eosin]]''' - a mixture of hematoxylin in distilled water and an aqueous eosin solution; a stain used routinely for examination of tissues.
+
*'''[[hematoxylin & eosin]]''' - a mixture of hematoxylin in distilled water and an aqueous eosin solution; a stain used routinely for examination of tissues.
  
* '''[[hematuria]]''' - the presence of blood in the urine.
+
*'''[[hematuria]]''' - the presence of blood in the urine.
  
* '''[[hemianopia]]''' - loss of vision or blindness in half the visual field of one or both eyes.
+
*'''[[hemianopia]]''' - loss of vision or blindness in half the visual field of one or both eyes.
  
* '''[[hemiparesis]]''' - weakness on one side of the body.
+
*'''[[hemiparesis]]''' - weakness on one side of the body.
  
* '''[[hemiplegia]]''' - paralysis of one side of the body.
+
*'''[[hemiplegia]]''' - paralysis of one side of the body.
  
* '''[[hemoglobin]]''' - the oxygen carrying pigment of the red blood cells (erythrocytes). It is a conjugated protein containing four heme groups and globin. A molecule of hemoglobin contains 4 globin polypeptide chains - designated alpha, beta, gamma and delta. In the adult, Hemoglobin A predominates (alpha2, beta2).
+
*'''[[hemoglobin]]''' - the oxygen carrying pigment of the red blood cells (erythrocytes). It is a conjugated protein containing four heme groups and globin. A molecule of hemoglobin contains 4 globin polypeptide chains - designated alpha, beta, gamma and delta. In the adult, Hemoglobin A predominates (alpha2, beta2).
  
* '''[[hemolysis]]''' - the liberation of hemoglobin, consisting of separation of the hemoglobin from the red cells and its appearanc in plasma.
+
*'''[[hemolysis]]''' - the liberation of hemoglobin, consisting of separation of the hemoglobin from the red cells and its appearanc in plasma.
  
* '''[[hemoptysis]]''' - the spitting of blood or blood-stained sputum.
+
*'''[[hemoptysis]]''' - the spitting of blood or blood-stained sputum.
  
* '''[[hemorrhage]]''' - to bleed; an escape of blood from the blood vessels. hemorrhagic (adj.)
+
*'''[[hemorrhage]]''' - to bleed; an escape of blood from the blood vessels. hemorrhagic (adj.)
  
* '''[[hemosiderin]]''' - a product of the decomposition of hemoglobin, found mainly intercellularly in areas of old hemorrhage.
+
*'''[[hemosiderin]]''' - a product of the decomposition of hemoglobin, found mainly intercellularly in areas of old hemorrhage.
  
* '''[[hemostasis]]''' - the arrest of bleeding by the physiological properties of vasoconstriction and coagulation or by surgical means; interruption of blood flow through any vessel or to any anatomical area.
+
*'''[[hemostasis]]''' - the arrest of bleeding by the physiological properties of vasoconstriction and coagulation or by surgical means; interruption of blood flow through any vessel or to any anatomical area.
  
* '''[[hepatomegaly]]''' - enlargement of the liver.
+
*'''[[hepatomegaly]]''' - enlargement of the liver.
  
* '''[[hernia]]''' - the protrusion of a portion of an organ or tissue through an abnormal opening.
+
*'''[[hernia]]''' - the protrusion of a portion of an organ or tissue through an abnormal opening.
  
* '''[[hilum or hilus (hila = pl.) - the part of an organ where blood vessels and nerves enter and leave.
+
*'''[[hilum]] or hilus (hila = pl.) - the part of an organ where blood vessels and nerves enter and leave.'''
  
* '''[[HIV]]''' - human immunodeficiency virus; the biological agent causing AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome).
+
*'''[[HIV]]''' - human immunodeficiency virus; the biological agent causing AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome).
  
* '''[[HPV]]''' - human papilloma virus; subtypes have been associated with the development of cervical cancer.
+
*'''[[HPV]]''' - human papilloma virus; subtypes have been associated with the development of cervical cancer.
  
* '''[[hydrocephalus]]''' - a congenital or acquired condition marked by dilatation of the cerebral ventricles, usually occurring secondarily to obstruction of the cerebrospinal fluid (csf) pathways, and accompanied by an accumulation of csf within the skull; h. ex vacuo, compensatory replacement by cerebrospinal fluid of the volume of tissue lost in atrophy of the brain.
+
*'''[[hydrocephalus]]''' - a congenital or acquired condition marked by dilatation of the cerebral ventricles, usually occurring secondarily to obstruction of the cerebrospinal fluid (csf) pathways, and accompanied by an accumulation of csf within the skull; h. ex vacuo, compensatory replacement by cerebrospinal fluid of the volume of tissue lost in atrophy of the brain.
  
* '''[[hydrosalpinx]]''' - the accumulation of serous fluid in the fallopian tube.
+
*'''[[hydrosalpinx]]''' - the accumulation of serous fluid in the fallopian tube.
  
* '''[[hyperemia]]''' - an excess of blood in a part.
+
*'''[[hyperemia]]''' - an excess of blood in a part.
  
* '''[[hyperplasia]]''' - a controlled increase in the number of normal cells in normal arrangement in an organ or tissue, causing a corresponding increase in tissue mass.
+
*'''[[hyperplasia]]''' - a controlled increase in the number of normal cells in normal arrangement in an organ or tissue, causing a corresponding increase in tissue mass.
  
* '''[[hypersensitivity]]''' - a state of altered reactivity in which the body reacts with an exaggerated immune response to a foreign agent.
+
*'''[[hypersensitivity]]''' - a state of altered reactivity in which the body reacts with an exaggerated immune response to a foreign agent.
  
* '''[[hypertension]]''' - high arterial blood pressure. Various criteria for its threshold have been suggested, ranging from 140 mm Hg systolic and 90 mm Hg diastolic to as high as 200 mm Hg systolic and 110 mm Hg diastolic.
+
*'''[[hypertension]]''' - high arterial blood pressure. Various criteria for its threshold have been suggested, ranging from 140 mm Hg systolic and 90 mm Hg diastolic to as high as 200 mm Hg systolic and 110 mm Hg diastolic.
  
* '''[[hypertrophy]]''' - an increase in individual cell size, which in turn leads to an increase in tissue mass/organ size.
+
*'''[[hypertrophy]]''' - an increase in individual cell size, which in turn leads to an increase in tissue mass/organ size.
  
* '''[[hypoechoic]]''' - in ultrasonography, giving off few echoes or weaker echoes than normal tissue or than in surrounding regions.
+
*'''[[hypoechoic]]''' - in ultrasonography, giving off few echoes or weaker echoes than normal tissue or than in surrounding regions.
  
* '''[[hypoplasia]]''' - incomplete development or underdevelopment of a tissue, usually due to a decrease in number of cells.
+
*'''[[hypoplasia]]''' - incomplete development or underdevelopment of a tissue, usually due to a decrease in number of cells.
  
* '''[[hypotension]]''' - low blood pressure. hypovolemia - decreased blood volume.
+
*'''[[hypotension]]''' - low blood pressure. hypovolemia - decreased blood volume.
  
* '''[[hypoxia]]''' - reduced supply of oxygen to tissues (below physiologic levels) despite normal blood perfusion.
+
*'''[[hypoxia]]''' - reduced supply of oxygen to tissues (below physiologic levels) despite normal blood perfusion.
  
* '''[[hysterectomy]]''' - surgical removal of the uterus.
+
*'''[[hysterectomy]]''' - surgical removal of the uterus.
  
 
==I==
 
==I==
  
* '''[[iatrogenic]]''' - resulting from the activity of physicians; usually used for any adverse condition in a patient resulting from treatment by a physician or surgeon. Derived from iatr(o) (Gr) - medicine, physician. iatric - pertaining to medicine or a physician.
+
*'''[[iatrogenic]]''' - resulting from the activity of physicians; usually used for any adverse condition in a patient resulting from treatment by a physician or surgeon. Derived from iatr(o) (Gr) - medicine, physician. iatric - pertaining to medicine or a physician.
  
* '''[[idiopathic]]''' - occurring without known cause.
+
*'''[[idiopathic]]''' - occurring without known cause.
  
* '''[[ileum]]''' - the distal portion of the small intestine, extending from the jejunum to the cecum.
+
*'''[[ileum]]''' - the distal portion of the small intestine, extending from the jejunum to the cecum.
  
* '''[[ileus]]''' - an intestinal obstruction.
+
*'''[[ileus]]''' - an intestinal obstruction.
  
* '''[[indurated]]''' - hardened, firm.
+
*'''[[indurated]]''' - hardened, firm.
  
* '''[[infarct]]''' - a localized area of ischemic necrosis produced by blockage of the arterial supply or venous drainage of the part.
+
*'''[[infarct]]''' - a localized area of ischemic necrosis produced by blockage of the arterial supply or venous drainage of the part.
  
* '''[[infarction]]''' - the formation of an infarct; acute myocardial infarction (AMI)]]''' - circulation to a region of the heart is obstructed and necrosis of tissue is occurring.
+
*'''[[infarction]]''' - the formation of an infarct; acute myocardial infarction (AMI)]]''' - circulation to a region of the heart is obstructed and necrosis of tissue is occurring.'''
  
* '''[[in situ]]''' - means "in its original place"; may be used descriptively of a cancer (e.g. carcinoma in situ) or to refer to experiments conducted in place (e.g in situ hybridization).
+
*'''[[in situ]]''' - means "in its original place"; may be used descriptively of a cancer (e.g. carcinoma in situ) or to refer to experiments conducted in place (e.g in situ hybridization).
  
* '''[[inspissation]]''' - drying-out; in histologic sections inspissated secretions appear as dense, amorphous, deeply staining material within the lumen of ducts or glands.
+
*'''[[inspissation]]''' - drying-out; in histologic sections inspissated secretions appear as dense, amorphous, deeply staining material within the lumen of ducts or glands.
  
* '''[[intussusception - when a segment of one part of the intestine becomes telescoped into an immediately adjacent part.
+
*'''[[intussusception]] - when a segment of one part of the intestine becomes telescoped into an immediately adjacent part.'''
  
* '''[[ipsilateral]]''' - same side of the body.
+
*'''[[ipsilateral]]''' - same side of the body.
  
* '''[[ischemia]]''' - (ischemic = adj.), deficiency of blood in a part, usually due to functional constriction or actual obstruction or blockage of a blood vessel.
+
*'''[[ischemia]]''' - (ischemic = adj.), deficiency of blood in a part, usually due to functional constriction or actual obstruction or blockage of a blood vessel.
  
 
J
 
J
  
* '''[[jaundice]]''' - yellowness of the skin, sclera, mucous membranes and excretions due to increased bilirubin in the blood and deposition of bile pigments.
+
*'''[[jaundice]]''' - yellowness of the skin, sclera, mucous membranes and excretions due to increased bilirubin in the blood and deposition of bile pigments.
  
 
   
 
   
Line 451: Line 446:
 
==K==
 
==K==
  
* '''[[karyolysis]]''' - the dissolution of the nucleus - the nucleus swells and gradually loses its chromatin.
+
*'''[[karyolysis]]''' - the dissolution of the nucleus - the nucleus swells and gradually loses its chromatin.
  
* '''[[karyorrhexis]]''' - rupture of the cell nucleus in which the chromatin disintegrates into formless granules that are extruded from the cell.
+
*'''[[karyorrhexis]]''' - rupture of the cell nucleus in which the chromatin disintegrates into formless granules that are extruded from the cell.
  
* '''[[karyotype (karyotyping) - the chromosomal constitution of the cell nucleus; the photographic representation of the chromosomes for analysis.
+
*'''[[karyotype (karyotyping) - the chromosomal constitution of the cell nucleus; the photographic representation of the chromosomes for analysis.'''
  
* '''[[keratoconjunctivitis]]''' - inflammation of the cornea and conjunctiva.
+
*'''[[keratoconjunctivitis]]''' - inflammation of the cornea and conjunctiva.
 
 
* '''[[kyphosis]]''' - abnormally increased convexity in the curvature of the thoracic spine as viewed from the side.
 
  
 +
*'''[[kyphosis]]''' - abnormally increased convexity in the curvature of the thoracic spine as viewed from the side.
 
   
 
   
  
 
==L==
 
==L==
  
* '''[[lacuna]]''' (lacunae = pl) - a small space or depression; e.g. in bone, the lacunae are cavities in the bone tissue in which bone-forming cells are found.
+
*'''[[lacuna]]''' (lacunae = pl) - a small space or depression; e.g. in bone, the lacunae are cavities in the bone tissue in which bone-forming cells are found.
  
* '''[[leptomeninges]]''' - the two delicate membranes of the meninges, the arachnoid and pia mater.
+
*'''[[leptomeninges]]''' - the two delicate membranes of the meninges, the arachnoid and pia mater.
  
* '''[[leukocyte(s)]]''' - white blood cell(s).
+
*'''[[leukocyte(s)]]''' - white blood cell(s).
  
* '''[[leukocytosis]]''' - a transient increase in the number of white blood cells (leukocytes); due to various causes.
+
*'''[[leukocytosis]]''' - a transient increase in the number of white blood cells (leukocytes); due to various causes.
  
* '''[[leukoplakia]]''' - a white patch of oral mucous membrane which cannot be wiped off.
+
*'''[[leukoplakia]]''' - a white patch of oral mucous membrane which cannot be wiped off.
  
* '''[[liquefaction]]''' - conversion into a liquid form.
+
*'''[[liquefaction]]''' - conversion into a liquid form.
  
* '''[[liqefactive necrosis]]''' - a type of necrosis characterized by dull, opaque, partly or completely fluid remains of tissue, observed in abscesses and frequently in infarcts of brain.
+
*'''[[liqefactive necrosis]]''' - a type of necrosis characterized by dull, opaque, partly or completely fluid remains of tissue, observed in abscesses and frequently in infarcts of brain.
  
* '''[[lumen]]''' - opening, e.g. of a blood vessel through which blood flows, or in a gland or organ.
+
*'''[[lumen]]''' - opening, e.g. of a blood vessel through which blood flows, or in a gland or organ.
  
* '''[[Lyme disease]]''' - a multisystem disease which can affect the skin, joints and nervous system. Caused by a bacteria carried by certain kinds of ticks (most commonly found in areas of northeastern U.S.).
+
*'''[[Lyme disease]]''' - a multisystem disease which can affect the skin, joints and nervous system. Caused by a bacteria carried by certain kinds of ticks (most commonly found in areas of northeastern U.S.).
 
 
* '''[[lymphadenopathy]]''' - disease of the lymph nodes.  
 
  
 +
*'''[[lymphadenopathy]]''' - disease of the lymph nodes.
 
   
 
   
  
 
==M==
 
==M==
  
* '''[[malignant]]''' - of tumours, having the properties of anaplasia, invasiveness and metastasis.
+
*'''[[malignant]]''' - of tumours, having the properties of anaplasia, invasiveness and metastasis.
  
* '''[[mastectomy]]''' - removal of the breast.
+
*'''[[mastectomy]]''' - removal of the breast.
  
* '''[[melena - black blood in the stool; the source of blood is typically from the stomach or duodenum and is thus acted upon by digestive enzymes that break down the blood and create its black appearance.
+
*'''[[melena]] - black blood in the stool; the source of blood is typically from the stomach or duodenum and is thus acted upon by digestive enzymes that break down the blood and create its black appearance.'''
  
* '''[[menarche]]''' - the first menstrual period, usually occurring during puberty.
+
*'''[[menarche]]''' - the first menstrual period, usually occurring during puberty.
  
* '''[[meninges]]''' - plural of meninx; any membrane, but specifically the three membranous coverings of the brain and spinal cord (dura mater, arachnoid and pia mater).
+
*'''[[meninges]]''' - plural of meninx; any membrane, but specifically the three membranous coverings of the brain and spinal cord (dura mater, arachnoid and pia mater).
  
* '''[[meningitis]]''' - inflammation of the meninges.
+
*'''[[meningitis]]''' - inflammation of the meninges.
  
* '''[[menorrhagia]]''' - hypermenorrhea or profuse menstruation.
+
*'''[[menorrhagia]]''' - hypermenorrhea or profuse menstruation.
  
* '''[[menorrhea]]''' - the normal discharge of the menses.
+
*'''[[menorrhea]]''' - the normal discharge of the menses.
  
* '''[[menses]]''' - the monthly flow of blood from the genital tract of a woman.
+
*'''[[menses]]''' - the monthly flow of blood from the genital tract of a woman.
  
* '''[[metaplasia]]''' - the change in the type of adult cells in a tissue to a form abnormal for that tissue
+
*'''[[metaplasia]]''' - the change in the type of adult cells in a tissue to a form abnormal for that tissue
  
* '''[[metastasis]]''' - (metastases = pl.; metastatic = adj), transfer of disease from one organ or part of the body to another not directly connected with it, due either to transfer of pathogenic organisms or to transfer of cells; all malignant tumours are capable of metastasizing. A growth of pathogenic microorganisms or of abnormal cells distant from the site primarily involved by the morbid process.
+
*'''[[metastasis]]''' - (metastases = pl.; metastatic = adj), transfer of disease from one organ or part of the body to another not directly connected with it, due either to transfer of pathogenic organisms or to transfer of cells; all malignant tumours are capable of metastasizing. A growth of pathogenic microorganisms or of abnormal cells distant from the site primarily involved by the morbid process.
  
* '''[[metrorrhagia]]''' - continuous or non-cyclical uterine bleeding.
+
*'''[[metrorrhagia]]''' - continuous or non-cyclical uterine bleeding.
  
* '''[[morbidity]]''' - the condition of being diseased or sick; the 'sick' rate, i.e. the ratio of sick to well persons in a community.
+
*'''[[morbidity]]''' - the condition of being diseased or sick; the 'sick' rate, i.e. the ratio of sick to well persons in a community.
  
* '''[[mortality]]''' - the quality of being mortal or alive; the 'death' rate, i.e. the number of people dying in a given population.
+
*'''[[mortality]]''' - the quality of being mortal or alive; the 'death' rate, i.e. the number of people dying in a given population.
  
* '''[[myocyte(s)]]''' - (a) muscle cell(s).
+
*'''[[myocyte(s)]]''' - (a) muscle cell(s).
  
* '''[[myoepithelium]]''' - flattened to stellate cells, believed to be contractile, which lie in many forms of externally secreting glands between the secreting cells and the basement membrane on which they lie.
+
*'''[[myoepithelium]]''' - flattened to stellate cells, believed to be contractile, which lie in many forms of externally secreting glands between the secreting cells and the basement membrane on which they lie.
  
* '''[[myomectomy]]''' - surgical removal of a myoma (a benign tumor of muscle elements).
+
*'''[[myomectomy]]''' - surgical removal of a myoma (a benign tumor of muscle elements).
  
* '''[[myxoma]]''' (myxomatous = adj.) - a benign neoplasm derived from connective tissue; occurs in bone, skin and muscle; in cardiac muscle may encroach on the cavity of an atrium.
+
*'''[[myxoma]]''' (myxomatous = adj.) - a benign neoplasm derived from connective tissue; occurs in bone, skin and muscle; in cardiac muscle may encroach on the cavity of an atrium.
  
 
   
 
   
Line 531: Line 524:
 
==N==
 
==N==
  
* '''[[nares]]''' - the nostrils; the external openings of the nasal cavity.
+
*'''[[nares]]''' - the nostrils; the external openings of the nasal cavity.
  
* '''[[necrosis]]''' - the morphological changes indicative of cell death caused by progressive enzymatic degradation.
+
*'''[[necrosis]]''' - the morphological changes indicative of cell death caused by progressive enzymatic degradation.
  
* '''[[neoplasia]]''' - the formation of a neoplasm.
+
*'''[[neoplasia]]''' - the formation of a neoplasm.
  
* '''[[neoplasm]]''' - tumour; any new or abnormal growth, specifically one in which cell multiplication is uncontrolled. Neoplasms may be benign or malignant.
+
*'''[[neoplasm]]''' - tumour; any new or abnormal growth, specifically one in which cell multiplication is uncontrolled. Neoplasms may be benign or malignant.
  
* '''[[neutropenia]]''' - diminished number of neutrophils in the blood.
+
*'''[[neutropenia]]''' - diminished number of neutrophils in the blood.
  
* '''[[neutrophil]]''' - a granular leukocyte having a nucleus with 3 to 5 lobes connected by threads of chromatin and cytoplasm containg very fine granules; any cell, structure or element readily stainable with neutral dyes.
+
*'''[[neutrophil]]''' - a granular leukocyte having a nucleus with 3 to 5 lobes connected by threads of chromatin and cytoplasm containg very fine granules; any cell, structure or element readily stainable with neutral dyes.
  
* '''[[nitroglycerin]]''' - when compounded in tablets used in the treatment and prevention of angina pectoris. Used sublingually (under the tongue). A vasodilator.
+
*'''[[nitroglycerin]]''' - when compounded in tablets used in the treatment and prevention of angina pectoris. Used sublingually (under the tongue). A vasodilator.
  
* '''[[NMR]]''' ( nuclear magnetic resonance) scan - or more commonly now as MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) - a sophisticated radiologic technique yielding a detailed image of internal body structures.
+
*'''[[NMR]]''' ( nuclear magnetic resonance) scan - or more commonly now as MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) - a sophisticated radiologic technique yielding a detailed image of internal body structures.
  
* '''[[nocturia]]''' - excessive urination at night.
+
*'''[[nocturia]]''' - excessive urination at night.
 
 
* '''[[nosocomial]]''' - pertaining to or originating in a hospital.
 
  
 +
*'''[[nosocomial]]''' - pertaining to or originating in a hospital.
 
   
 
   
  
 
==O==
 
==O==
  
* '''[[obtund]]''' - to dull or blunt (especially to blunt sensation or dull pain), or to reduce alertness;obtundation]]''' - clouding of consciousness.
+
*'''[[obtund]]''' - to dull or blunt (especially to blunt sensation or dull pain), or to reduce alertness;obtundation]]''' - clouding of consciousness.'''
  
* '''[[occlusion]]''' - closing or shutting off, e.g. shutting off a blood vessel by a blockage of the opening.
+
*'''[[occlusion]]''' - closing or shutting off, e.g. shutting off a blood vessel by a blockage of the opening.
  
* '''[[occult]]''' - not visible to the naked eye or hidden from view.
+
*'''[[occult]]''' - not visible to the naked eye or hidden from view.
  
* '''[[Oil-red-O]]''' - (Solvent red 27; M.W. 409) - A member of the azo dye family used to identify neutral lipids and fatty acids in smears and tissues. The chromophore is the azo group (-N=N-) which connects two aromatic rings. This coloured non-polar substance dissolves in lipids and renders them visible under the microscope. Fresh smears or cryostat sections of tissue are necessa ry because fixatives containing alcohols, or routine tissue processing with clearing, will remove lipids.  
+
*'''[[Oil-red-O]]''' - (Solvent red 27; M.W. 409) - A member of the azo dye family used to identify neutral lipids and fatty acids in smears and tissues. The chromophore is the azo group (-N=N-) which connects two aromatic rings. This coloured non-polar substance dissolves in lipids and renders them visible under the microscope. Fresh smears or cryostat sections of tissue are necessa ry because fixatives containing alcohols, or routine tissue processing with clearing, will remove lipids. A more useful agent for coloring all types of lipid is [[Sudan black B.|Sudan black B]].
  
A more useful agent for coloring all types of lipid is Sudan black B.
+
*'''[[oligohydramnios]]''' - too little amniotic fluid.
  
* '''[[oligohydramnios]]''' - too little amniotic fluid.
+
*'''[[oliguria]]''' - diminished urine output in relation to fluid intake.
  
* '''[[oliguria]]''' - diminished urine output in relation to fluid intake.
+
*'''[[oncogene(s)]] - giving rise to tumours or causing tumour formation; genes that contribute to the formation of tumours.'''
  
* '''[[oncogene(s) - giving rise to tumours or causing tumour formation; genes that contribute to the formation of tumours.
+
*'''[[organelles]]''' - minute, intracellular structures serving a specific function in the life processes of the cell.
  
* '''[[organelles]]''' - minute, intracellular structures serving a specific function in the life processes of the cell.
+
*'''[[orthotopic]]''' - occurring at the normal place.
  
* '''[[orthotopic]]''' - occurring at the normal place.
+
*'''[[osteoarthritis]]''' - degenerative disease of joint cartilage.
 
 
* '''[[osteoarthritis]]''' - degenerative disease of joint cartilage.
 
 
 
* '''[[osteoporosis]]''' - a common disease of the formation of bone leading to fragile bones and fractures.
 
  
 +
*'''[[osteoporosis]]''' - a common disease of the formation of bone leading to fragile bones and fractures.
 
   
 
   
  
 
==P==
 
==P==
  
* '''[[palsy]]''' - paralysis; e.g. cerebral palsy = persisting motor disorders in young children resulting from brain damage caused by birth trauma or intrauterine pathology.
+
*'''[[palsy]]''' - paralysis; e.g. cerebral palsy = persisting motor disorders in young children resulting from brain damage caused by birth trauma or intrauterine pathology.
  
* '''[[Pap smear]]''' - a specimen for microscopic examination of cells for detection of variuos conditions of the female genital tract (e.g. malignant and premalignant conditions), prepared by spreading the material across a slide.
+
*'''[[Pap smear]]''' - a specimen for microscopic examination of cells for detection of variuos conditions of the female genital tract (e.g. malignant and premalignant conditions), prepared by spreading the material across a slide.
  
* '''[[paraparesis - weakness affecting the lower extremities.
+
*'''[[paraparesis]] - weakness affecting the lower extremities.'''
  
* '''[[paraplegia - paralysis of the lower limbs.
+
*'''[[paraplegia]] - paralysis of the lower limbs.'''
  
* '''[[parenchyma (parenchymal = adj.) - the essential (working) tissue of an organ as distinguished from the supporting connective tissue, vessels, nerves, etc.
+
*'''[[parenchyma]] (parenchymal = adj.) - the essential (working) tissue of an organ as distinguished from the supporting connective tissue, vessels, nerves, etc.'''
  
* '''[[paresis]]''' - slight or partial paralysis.
+
*'''[[paresis]]''' - slight or partial paralysis.
  
* '''[[paresthesia]]''' - any abnormal sensation, such as burning, tingling, or a "pins and needles" feeling, often in the absence of external stimuli.
+
*'''[[paresthesia]]''' - any abnormal sensation, such as burning, tingling, or a "pins and needles" feeling, often in the absence of external stimuli.
  
* '''[[paroxysmal]]''' - recurring "sudden attacks" of symptoms.
+
*'''[[paroxysmal]]''' - recurring "sudden attacks" of symptoms.
  
* '''[[pathology]]''' - the branch of medicine that deals with the essential nature of disease and the changes in body tissues and organs which cause or are caused by disease; the structural and functional manifestations of disease.
+
*'''[[pathology]]''' - the branch of medicine that deals with the essential nature of disease and the changes in body tissues and organs which cause or are caused by disease; the structural and functional manifestations of disease.
  
* '''[[pathogen]]''' - a disease-causing microorganism or agent.
+
*'''[[pathogen]]''' - a disease-causing microorganism or agent.
  
* '''[[pathogenesis]]''' - the development of disease; specifically the cellular events and reactions and mechanisms occurring in the development of disease.
+
*'''[[pathogenesis]]''' - the development of disease; specifically the cellular events and reactions and mechanisms occurring in the development of disease.
  
* '''[[pathognomonic]]''' - characteristic or indicative of a disease; denoting symptoms or findings specific for a given disease and not found in any other condition.
+
*'''[[pathognomonic]]''' - characteristic or indicative of a disease; denoting symptoms or findings specific for a given disease and not found in any other condition.
  
* '''[[peptide]]''' - a protein with a small number of amino acids.
+
*'''[[peptide]]''' - a protein with a small number of amino acids.
  
* '''[[perfusion]]''' - transport of blood through blood vessels from heart to internal organs, tissues, etc.
+
*'''[[perfusion]]''' - transport of blood through blood vessels from heart to internal organs, tissues, etc.
  
* '''[[pericarditis]]''' - inflammation of the [[pericardium]] - the sac enclosing the heart and the roots of the great vessels.
+
*'''[[pericarditis]]''' - inflammation of the [[pericardium]] - the sac enclosing the heart and the roots of the great vessels.
  
* '''[[perikaryon (perikarya = pl) - the cell body; applied particularly to neurons.
+
*'''[[perikaryon]] (perikarya = pl) - the cell body; applied particularly to neurons.'''
  
* '''[[periorbita]]''' - periosteum of the bones of the orbit or eye socket. periorbital, adj.
+
*'''[[periorbita]]''' - periosteum of the bones of the orbit or eye socket. periorbital, adj.
  
* '''[[periosteum]]''' - a specialized connective tissue covering all bones and having bone-forming potential.
+
*'''[[periosteum]]''' - a specialized connective tissue covering all bones and having bone-forming potential.
  
* '''[[peristalsis]]''' - a wave of contractions and relaxations of the digestive tract propelling its contents towards the anus.
+
*'''[[peristalsis]]''' - a wave of contractions and relaxations of the digestive tract propelling its contents towards the anus.
  
* '''[[peritoneum]]''' - the membrane lining the walls of the abdominal and pelvic cavities and surrounding the contained organs; the two layers create a potential space - the peritoneal cavity.
+
*'''[[peritoneum]]''' - the membrane lining the walls of the abdominal and pelvic cavities and surrounding the contained organs; the two layers create a potential space - the peritoneal cavity.
  
* '''[[peritonitis]]''' - inflammation of the peritoneum due to chemical or bacterial irritation.
+
*'''[[peritonitis]]''' - inflammation of the peritoneum due to chemical or bacterial irritation.
  
* '''[[petechia(e)]]''' - a minute red spot(s) due to escape of a small amount of blood. petechial, adj.
+
*'''[[petechia(e)]]''' - a minute red spot(s) due to escape of a small amount of blood. petechial, adj.
  
* '''[[PID]]''' - pelvic inflammatory disease.
+
*'''[[PID]]''' - pelvic inflammatory disease.
  
* '''[[pleura]]''' - the serous membrane covering the lungs and lining the walls of the thoracic cavity; the two layers thus enclose a potential space - the pleural cavity.
+
*'''[[pleura]]''' - the serous membrane covering the lungs and lining the walls of the thoracic cavity; the two layers thus enclose a potential space - the pleural cavity.
  
* '''[[pleural effusion]]''' - increased amounts of fluid within the pleural cavity, usually due to inflammation.
+
*'''[[pleural effusion]]''' - increased amounts of fluid within the pleural cavity, usually due to inflammation.
  
* '''[[pleuritis]]''' - inflammation of pleura.
+
*'''[[pleuritis]]''' - inflammation of pleura.
  
* '''[[PMN]]''' - polymorphonuclear leukocyte; neutrophil.
+
*'''[[PMN]]''' - polymorphonuclear leukocyte; neutrophil.
  
* '''[[polyarteritis]]''' - inflammation involving several arteries at the same time.
+
*'''[[polyarteritis]]''' - inflammation involving several arteries at the same time.
  
* '''[[polymorphonuclear - having a nucleus so deeply lobed or so divided as to appear multiple.
+
*'''[[polymorphonuclear]] - having a nucleus so deeply lobed or so divided as to appear multiple.'''
  
* '''[[polyp]]''' - a general term for any mass of tissue that projects outwards from a normally smooth surface.
+
*'''[[polyp]]''' - a general term for any mass of tissue that projects outwards from a normally smooth surface.
  
* '''[[primipara]]''' - a woman who has born her first child.
+
*'''[[primipara]]''' - a woman who has born her first child.
  
* '''[[prognosis]]''' - a forecast of the course and probable outcome of a disorder.
+
*'''[[prognosis]]''' - a forecast of the course and probable outcome of a disorder.
  
* '''[[proteinuria]]''' - an excess of serum proteins in the urine.
+
*'''[[proteinuria]]''' - an excess of serum proteins in the urine.
  
* '''[[prophylaxis]]''' - to prevent disease; preventive treatment.
+
*'''[[prophylaxis]]''' - to prevent disease; preventive treatment.
  
* '''[[proteolysis]]''' - the breaking up of proteins.
+
*'''[[proteolysis]]''' - the breaking up of proteins.
  
* '''[[pruritis]]''' - intense itching.
+
*'''[[pruritis]]''' - intense itching.
  
* '''[[pseudohermaphroditism]]''' - a condition in which a person has the internal sexual organs (testes or ovaries) of one sex but, due to endocrine abnormalities, their external appearance is that of the opposite sex. Contrast with true hermaphroditism where both types of internal sexual organs are present.
+
*'''[[pseudohermaphroditism]]''' - a condition in which a person has the internal sexual organs (testes or ovaries) of one sex but, due to endocrine abnormalities, their external appearance is that of the opposite sex. Contrast with true hermaphroditism where both types of internal sexual organs are present.
  
* '''[[psychogenic - having an emotional or psychologic origin.
+
*'''[[psychogenic]] - having an emotional or psychologic origin.'''
  
* '''[[puerperal]]''' - relating to childbirth; the interval including the time of labor and recent post-delivery period.
+
*'''[[puerperal]]''' - relating to childbirth; the interval including the time of labor and recent post-delivery period.
  
* '''[[purpura]]''' - a small hemorrhage in the skin, mucous membrane or serosal surface; a group of disorders characterized by the presence of purpuric lesions, ecchymoses, and a tendency to bruise easily. purpuric, adj.
+
*'''[[purpura]]''' - a small hemorrhage in the skin, mucous membrane or serosal surface; a group of disorders characterized by the presence of purpuric lesions, ecchymoses, and a tendency to bruise easily. purpuric, adj.
  
* '''[[pus]]''' - a protein rich liquid inflammation product made up of cells (white blood cells or leukocytes), a thin fluid, and cellular debris.
+
*'''[[pus]]''' - a protein rich liquid inflammation product made up of cells (white blood cells or leukocytes), a thin fluid, and cellular debris.
  
* '''[[pyknosis]]''' - a thickening, especially degeneration of a cell in which the nucleus shrinks in size and the chromatin condenses to a solid, structureless mass.
+
*'''[[pyknosis]]''' - a thickening, especially degeneration of a cell in which the nucleus shrinks in size and the chromatin condenses to a solid, structureless mass.
  
* '''[[pyogenic]]''' - producing pus.
+
*'''[[pyogenic]]''' - producing pus.
  
* '''[[pyothorax]]''' - an accumulation of pus in the thorax. See also empyema.
+
*'''[[pyothorax]]''' - an accumulation of pus in the thorax. See also empyema.
  
* '''[[pyrexia]]''' - a fever or febrile condition.
+
*'''[[pyrexia]]''' - a fever or febrile condition.
  
* '''[[pyrogen]]''' - a fever-producing substance. pyrogenic (adj.).
+
*'''[[pyrogen]]''' - a fever-producing substance. pyrogenic (adj.).
  
 
   
 
   
Line 681: Line 670:
 
==Q==
 
==Q==
  
* '''[[quadriplegia]]''' - being paralysed in all four limbs; unable to use arms and legs.
+
*'''[[quadriplegia]]''' - being paralysed in all four limbs; unable to use arms and legs.
 
 
 
   
 
   
  
 
==R==
 
==R==
  
* '''[[regurgitation]]''' - flow in the opposite direction than normal, e.g. throwing up of undigested food; backflow of blood through a defective heart valve.
+
*'''[[regurgitation]]''' - flow in the opposite direction than normal, e.g. throwing up of undigested food; backflow of blood through a defective heart valve.
 
 
* '''[[relapse]]''' - a return to a previous poor or ill condition.
 
  
* '''[[reperfusion]]''' - the flooding of tissue with blood after it has suffered ischemia or a loss of blood supply.
+
*'''[[relapse]]''' - a return to a previous poor or ill condition.
  
* '''[[rheumatoid arthritis]]''' - a common chronic inflammatory disease primarily causing pain in the joints.
+
*'''[[reperfusion]]''' - the flooding of tissue with blood after it has suffered ischemia or a loss of blood supply.
  
* '''[[rhinitis]]''' - inflammation of the nasal mucous membrane.
+
*'''[[rheumatoid arthritis]]''' - a common chronic inflammatory disease primarily causing pain in the joints.
  
 +
*'''[[rhinitis]]''' - inflammation of the nasal mucous membrane.
 
   
 
   
  
 
==S==
 
==S==
  
* '''[[sangineous]]''' - bloody; relating to blood.
+
*'''[[sangineous]]''' - bloody; relating to blood.
  
* '''[[sclerosis]]''' - abnormal hardening of tissue.
+
*'''[[sclerosis]]''' - abnormal hardening of tissue.
  
* '''[[scurvy]]''' - a disease caused by insufficient intake of vitamin C.
+
*'''[[scurvy]]''' - a disease caused by insufficient intake of vitamin C.
  
* '''[[sedimentation rate]]''' - non-specific test that measures settling of red blood cells per unit time in a column of fresh blood - a rough measure of increased amounts of fibrinogen and globulin which may occur in certain pathologic or physiologic states (e.g. heart attacks, cancer, pregnancy). ESR = erythrocyte sedimentation rate.
+
*'''[[sedimentation rate]]''' - non-specific test that measures settling of red blood cells per unit time in a column of fresh blood - a rough measure of increased amounts of fibrinogen and globulin which may occur in certain pathologic or physiologic states (e.g. heart attacks, cancer, pregnancy). ESR = erythrocyte sedimentation rate.
  
* '''[[seizure]]''' - an attack; the sudden onset or recurrence of a disease or of certain symptoms, e.g. an epileptic attack, convulsion.
+
*'''[[seizure]]''' - an attack; the sudden onset or recurrence of a disease or of certain symptoms, e.g. an epileptic attack, convulsion.
  
* '''[[sepsis]]''' - the presence of bacteria (pathogenic organisms) or their toxins in the blood or tissues.
+
*'''[[sepsis]]''' - the presence of bacteria (pathogenic organisms) or their toxins in the blood or tissues.
  
* '''[[sequela(e)]]''' - the consequence(s) following a disease.
+
*'''[[sequela(e)]]''' - the consequence(s) following a disease.
  
* '''[[shock]]''' - a sudden disturbance of mental equilibrium; a profound hemodynamic and metabolic disturbance characterized by failure of the circulatory system to maintain adequate perfusion of vital organs.
+
*'''[[shock]]''' - a sudden disturbance of mental equilibrium; a profound hemodynamic and metabolic disturbance characterized by failure of the circulatory system to maintain adequate perfusion of vital organs.
  
* '''[[sign]]''' - an objective indication or evidence of disease discovered on examination of a patient. Contrast with symptom.
+
*'''[[sign]]''' - an objective indication or evidence of disease discovered on examination of a patient. Contrast with symptom.
  
* '''[[SIL]]''' - squamous intraepithelial lesion; one of the terminologies in use to describe precancerous or dysplastic changes in the cervical epithelial cells.
+
*'''[[SIL]]''' - squamous intraepithelial lesion; one of the terminologies in use to describe precancerous or dysplastic changes in the cervical epithelial cells.
  
* '''[[spasm]]''' - a sudden, violent, involuntary muscle contraction; a sudden tightening of a passage or canal.  
+
*'''[[spasm]]''' - a sudden, violent, involuntary muscle contraction; a sudden tightening of a passage or canal.
  
* '''[[spastic]]''' - characterized by spasms or other uncontrolled contractions of the skeletal muscles; muscles are stiff and the movements awkward.  
+
*'''[[spastic]]''' - characterized by spasms or other uncontrolled contractions of the skeletal muscles; muscles are stiff and the movements awkward.
  
* ''[[spasticity]]''' - the condition characterized by spasms.
+
*''[[spasticity]]'' - the condition characterized by spasms.
  
* '''[[splenomegaly]]''' - enlargement of the spleen.
+
*'''[[splenomegaly]]''' - enlargement of the spleen.
  
* '''[[squamous (cells) - cell type often seen in areas exposed to significant irritation or trauma - e.g. skin.
+
*'''[[squamous cells]] - cell type often seen in areas exposed to significant irritation or trauma - e.g. skin.'''
  
* '''[[staging]]''' - the determination of distinct phases or periods in the course of a disease, the life history of an organism, or any biological process; the classification of neoplasms according to the extent of the tumour (e.g. TMN staging - staging of tumours according to three basic components: primary tumour (T), regional nodes (N), and metastasis (M) - from 0 (undetectable) to 4).
+
*'''[[staging]]''' - the determination of distinct phases or periods in the course of a disease, the life history of an organism, or any biological process; the classification of neoplasms according to the extent of the tumour (e.g. TMN staging - staging of tumours according to three basic components: primary tumour (T), regional nodes (N), and metastasis (M) - from 0 (undetectable) to 4).
  
* '''[[steatosis]]''' - fatty degeneration.
+
*'''[[steatosis]]''' - fatty degeneration.
  
* '''[[stenosis]]''' - narrowing or contraction of a duct or canal. stenoses, pl.
+
*'''[[stenosis]]''' - narrowing or contraction of a duct or canal. stenoses, pl.
  
* '''[[steroid]]''' - a class of hormone with a particular chemical structure consisting of four interlocking carbon rings.
+
*'''[[steroid]]''' - a class of hormone with a particular chemical structure consisting of four interlocking carbon rings.
  
* '''[[stricture]]''' - an abnormal narrowing of a duct or passage.
+
*'''[[stricture]]''' - an abnormal narrowing of a duct or passage.
  
* '''[[stridor]]''' - a harsh, high-pitched respiratory sound.
+
*'''[[stridor]]''' - a harsh, high-pitched respiratory sound.
  
* '''[[stroma]]''' - the connective tissue framework of an organ or other structure, as distinguished from the tissues performing the special function of the organ.
+
*'''[[stroma]]''' - the connective tissue framework of an organ or other structure, as distinguished from the tissues performing the special function of the organ.
  
* '''[[subcutaneous]]''' (s.c. or SQ)- beneath the skin.
+
*'''[[subcutaneous]]''' (s.c. or SQ)- beneath the skin.
  
* '''[[sulcus]]''' - (sulci = pl.), a groove, trench or furrow; in neuroanatomy, for instance, a depression or groove on the brain surface separating the gyri.
+
*'''[[sulcus]]''' - (sulci = pl.), a groove, trench or furrow; in neuroanatomy, for instance, a depression or groove on the brain surface separating the gyri.
  
* '''[[suppuration]]''' (suppurative = adj.) - formation or discharge of pus.
+
*'''[[suppuration]]''' (suppurative = adj.) - formation or discharge of pus.
  
* '''[[symptom]]''' - subjective evidence of disease as perecived and reported by a patient.
+
*'''[[symptom]]''' - subjective evidence of disease as perecived and reported by a patient.
  
* '''[[syncope]]''' - fainting; temporary loss of consciousness due to reduced oxygen delivery to the brain.
+
*'''[[syncope]]''' - fainting; temporary loss of consciousness due to reduced oxygen delivery to the brain.
  
* '''[[synovia]]''' - the transparent, viscid fluid secreted by the synovial membrane and found in joint cavities, bursae, and tendon sheaths.
+
*'''[[synovia]]''' - the transparent, viscid fluid secreted by the synovial membrane and found in joint cavities, bursae, and tendon sheaths.
  
* '''[[synovitis]]''' - inflammation of a synovial membrane, usually painful, particularly on motion, and characterized by fluctuating swelling (due to effusion in a synovial sac).
+
*'''[[synovitis]]''' - inflammation of a synovial membrane, usually painful, particularly on motion, and characterized by fluctuating swelling (due to effusion in a synovial sac).
  
* '''[[systole]]''' - the contraction of the heart during which blood is pumped into the heart; systolic, the blood pressure in the arteries when the heart pumps blood through the body. Also see [[diastolic]].
+
*'''[[systole]]''' - the contraction of the heart during which blood is pumped into the heart; systolic, the blood pressure in the arteries when the heart pumps blood through the body. Also see [[diastolic]].
  
 
{{catz}}
 
{{catz}}
Line 765: Line 752:
 
==T==
 
==T==
  
* '''[[tachycardia]]''' - abnormally fast heart beat.
+
*'''[[tachycardia]]''' - abnormally fast heart beat.
  
* '''[[teratogen]]''' - a substance or condition that impairs normal development of the embryo or fetus in utero causing a congenital abnormality.
+
*'''[[teratogen]]''' - a substance or condition that impairs normal development of the embryo or fetus in utero causing a congenital abnormality.
  
* '''[[thrombocytopenia]]''' - an abnormally small number or decrease of circulating platelets in the blood.
+
*'''[[thrombocytopenia]]''' - an abnormally small number or decrease of circulating platelets in the blood.
  
* '''[[thrombus]]''' - (pl. thrombi), a solid mass formed from the constituents of blood within the blood vessels or the heart. Thrombi that form within the rapidly moving arterial circulation are composed largely of fibrin and platelets with only a few trapped red and white cells.
+
*'''[[thrombus]]''' - (pl. thrombi), a solid mass formed from the constituents of blood within the blood vessels or the heart. Thrombi that form within the rapidly moving arterial circulation are composed largely of fibrin and platelets with only a few trapped red and white cells.
  
* '''[[thrombosis]]''' - the inappropriate or pathological formation of a solid mass (from the constiutents of blood) within a blood vessel or organ.
+
*'''[[thrombosis]]''' - the inappropriate or pathological formation of a solid mass (from the constiutents of blood) within a blood vessel or organ.
  
* '''[[toxin]]''' - a poison produced by a living organism.
+
*'''[[toxin]]''' - a poison produced by a living organism.
  
* '''[[transient]]''' - of short duration, momentary.
+
*'''[[transient]]''' - of short duration, momentary.
 
 
* '''[[troponin - a protein of muscle that together with tropomyosin forms a regulatory protein complex controlling the interaction of actin and myosin and that when combined with calcium ions permits muscular contraction; when cardiac muscle cells are damaged, troponin is released into the blood stream and provides a useful indicator of cardiac cell death and evidence of myocardial infarction.
 
  
 +
*'''[[troponin]] - a protein of muscle that together with tropomyosin forms a regulatory protein complex controlling the interaction of actin and myosin and that when combined with calcium ions permits muscular contraction; when cardiac muscle cells are damaged, troponin is released into the blood stream and provides a useful indicator of cardiac cell death and evidence of myocardial infarction.'''
 
   
 
   
  
 
==U==
 
==U==
  
* '''[[ulcer]]''' - a local defect or excavation of the surface of an organ or tissue produced by the sloughing of necrotic inflammatory tissue.
+
*'''[[ulcer]]''' - a local defect or excavation of the surface of an organ or tissue produced by the sloughing of necrotic inflammatory tissue.
 
 
* '''[[urea]]''' - the chief nitrogenous end-product of protein metabolism, formed in the liver from amino acids and from ammonia compounds; found in urine, blood, and lymph. Also see BUN - blood urea nitrogen.
 
  
* '''[[uremia]]''' - an excess of the nitrogen-containing end products of protein and amino acid metabolism in the blood; the entire constellation of signs and symptoms of chronic renal failure.
+
*'''[[urea]]''' - the chief nitrogenous end-product of protein metabolism, formed in the liver from amino acids and from ammonia compounds; found in urine, blood, and lymph. Also see BUN - blood urea nitrogen.
  
 +
*'''[[uremia]]''' - an excess of the nitrogen-containing end products of protein and amino acid metabolism in the blood; the entire constellation of signs and symptoms of chronic renal failure.
 
   
 
   
  
 
==V==
 
==V==
  
* '''[[vasculitis - inflammation of a vessel
+
*'''[[vasculitis]] - inflammation of a vessel'''
  
* '''[[vasodilator]]''' - an agent that causes dilatation of the blood vessels.
+
*'''[[vasodilator]]''' - an agent that causes dilatation of the blood vessels.
  
* '''[[ventricular fibrillation]]''' - rapid, irregular twitching of heart muscle which prevents coordinated contraction of heart.
+
*'''[[ventricular fibrillation]]''' - rapid, irregular twitching of heart muscle which prevents coordinated contraction of heart.
  
* '''[[vertigo]]''' - a sensation of spinning or whirling motion.
+
*'''[[vertigo]]''' - a sensation of spinning or whirling motion.
  
* '''[[virulence]]''' - the degree of pathogenecity of a microorganism as indicated by the severity of disease produced and the ability to invade the tissues of the host. virulent (adj.)
+
*'''[[virulence]]''' - the degree of pathogenecity of a microorganism as indicated by the severity of disease produced and the ability to invade the tissues of the host. virulent (adj.)
  
* '''[[volvulus]]''' - a twisting of a loop of intestine causing an obstruction, may impair blood supply resulting in infarction.
+
*'''[[volvulus]]''' - a twisting of a loop of intestine causing an obstruction, may impair blood supply resulting in infarction.
  
 
{{catz}}
 
{{catz}}

Revision as of 19:14, 15 July 2019

Table of contents:

.A | .B | .C | .D | .E | .F | .G | .H | .I | .J | .K | .L | .M

.N | .O | .P | .Q | .R | .S | .T | .U | .V | .W | .X | .Y | .Z

#-A

  • abscess - a localized collection of pus in a cavity formed by disintegration of tissues.
  • achalasia - failure to relax; especially referring to smooth muscle fibers at any junction of the gastrointestinal tract (e.g. openings such as the pylorus, cardia or other sphincter muscles); especially failure of the esophageal sphincter to relax with swallowing.
  • acinus (acini = pl.) - a small sac-like dilatation, e.g. in the lung the basic unit of gas exchange, each acinus is supplied by a single terminal bronchiole; in the liver, the smallest functional unit.
  • acute - a disease with sudden onset of signs and a short course.
  • adenoma - a benign tumor made up of glandular elements.
  • adenosis - a disease of a gland, often marked by the abnormal formation or enlargement of glandular tissue.
  • adhesion - in close proximity; joining of parts to one another which may occur abnormally as in a fibrous band of scar tissue that binds together normally separate anatomical structures.
  • adnexal - appendages or accessory structures of an organ, e.g. of the uterus, including the uterine tubes and ligaments and ovaries.
  • afferent - toward the centre, e.g. afferent nerves carry impulses toward the central nervous system.
  • agenesis - absence or failure of formation of any part or organ.
  • aggregation - a total or coming together of separate parts.
  • akinesia (akinetic = adj.) - absence or loss of movement.
  • amino acid(s) - the basic building block of protein; there are 20 common amino acid types and their sequence will determine the properties and function of each protein.
  • amine - a chemical substance in the body whose structure is similar to ammonia; a family of hormones (adrenal medulla - epinephrine & norepinephrine) or neurotransmitters in brain (dopamine, norepinephrine, epinephrine, serotonin).
  • amyloid - the extracellular protein substance deposited in amyloidosis. It is a waxy, amorphous, eosinophilic, hyalinelike material that exhibits red-green birefringence under polarized light when stained with Congo red.

Amyloid deposits are composed of straight, non-branching fibrils with a diameter of 7.5 to 10 nm and indefinite length. Each fibril is composed of identical polypeptide chains arranged in stacked antiparallel beta-pleated sheets (this is what impar ts the characteristic birefringence under polarized light).

There are several precursor proteins which are then deposited in the tissue as amyloid; e.g.amyloid light chain (AL) - a component of immunoglobulin, occurs in mulitple myeloma;amyloid associated protein (AA) - derived from liver protein, occurs in reactive systemic amyloidosis; amyloid familial (AF) - abnormal transthyretin.

  • amyloidosis - a group of conditions of diverse etiologies characterized by the accumulation of insoluble fibrillar proteins (amyloid) in various organs and tissues of the body - eventually organ function is compromised. The associated disease states may be inflammatory, hereditary or neoplastic and the deposition may be local or generalized or systemic.
  • analgesia (analgesic) - the absence of pain; removing pain.
  • anaphylaxis - the immediate immunologic (allergic) reaction initiated by the combination ofantigen (allergen) with mast cell cytophilic antobody (chiefly IgE). anaphylactic (adj) - as in anaphylactic shock - life threatening respiratory distress, vascular collapse and shock; manifesting extremely great sensitivity to foreign protein or other material.
  • anaplasia - loss of differentiation of cells and of their orientation to one another and to their framework and blood vessels.
  • anastomosis - a connection between two blood vessels or tubes.
  • anencephaly - markedly defective development of the brain, cerebral hemispheres absent or reduced to small masses, together with absence of the bones of the cranium.
  • aneurysm - a ballooning out of the wall of a blood vessel or a heart chamber due to a weakening of the wall by disease or injury.
  • angina - spasmodic, choking or suffocating pain. a. pectoris, paroxysmal pain in the chest often radiating to the arms; usually due to interference with the supply of oxygen to the heart muscle; often precipitated by excitement or effort.
  • anomaly - an irregularity or deviation from normal; an abnormal structure.
  • antibody - an immunoglobulin molecule that reacts with a specific antigen that induced its synthesis. Synthesized by B lymphocytes that have been activated by the binding of a antigen to a cell surface receptor.
  • antigen - any substance, almost always a protein, not normally present in the body which when introduced to the body stimulates a specific immune response and the production of antibodies.
  • aphasia - partial or complete loss of the ability to speak, write or understand spoken or written language, resulting from damage to the brain by injury or disease.
  • apnea - lack of breathing.
  • apocrine - a form of secretion in which a portion of the cytoplasm leaves the cell together with the product of secretion.
  • apoptosis - programmed cell death (carefully orchestrated by genes and gene products that turn the pathway to cell death on or off); fragmentation of the cell into membrane-bound particles that are eliminated by phagocytosis; from the Greek for "falling off".
  • ascites - accumulation of serous fluid in the abdominal cavity.
  • ataxia - failure of muscle coordination; unable to coordinate muscle movement resulting in jerkiness and incoordination.
  • ATP - adenosine triphosphate. A chemical very important in energy metabolism in the cell.
  • atrophy - a wasting away; a decrease in the size and function of a cell, tissue, organ or part.
  • auscultation - listening for sounds within the body; it may be performed with the unaided ear or with a stethoscope.


B

  • bacteremia - the presence of bacteria in the blood.
  • benign - not malignant; not recurrent; favourable for recovery.
  • bifurcation - the split of a tube or vessel into two branches or channels.
  • birefringent - birefringence; the quality of transmitting light unequally in different directions.
  • biopsy - removal and examination, usually microscopic, of tissue from the living body, performed to establish a precise diagnosis
  • bronchiectasis - chronic dilatation of the bronchi. It may affect the tube uniformly or occur in irregular pockets.
  • bronchus - one of the large passages conveying air to and within the lungs.
  • bronchoscope - an instrument used for inspecting the interior of the windpipe and bronchial tree to carry out diagnostic (taking specimens for culture and biopsy) or therapeutic (removing a foreign object) maneuvers.
  • bronchoscopy - examination of the bronchi through a bronchoscope.
  • BUN - blood urea nitrogen: the urea concentration of serum or plasma, specified in terms of nitrogen content; an important indicator of renal function. (urea is the chief nitrogenous end-product of protein metabolism, formed in the liver from amino acids and from ammonia compounds).

Table of contents:

.A | .B | .C | .D | .E | .F | .G | .H | .I | .J | .K | .L | .M

.N | .O | .P | .Q | .R | .S | .T | .U | .V | .W | .X | .Y | .Z

C

  • cachexia - extreme loss of weight and body wasting associated with serious illness.
  • calculus - a stone developing in the body, e.g. kidney or bile (not the branch of mathematics!)
  • carbuncle - deep-seated pus-producing infection of the skin and subcutaneous tissues.
  • caries - destruction of bone or teeth.
  • caseous - "cheesy" or "cheese-like". As in caseous necrosis]] - cell death characteristic of certain inflammations (e.g. tuberculosis) where the affected tissue shows the crumbly consistency and dull, opaque quality of cheese. Based on casein]] - the principal protein of milk, the basis of curds and cheese.
  • catarrh - inflammation of a mucuos membrane with increased flow of mucous. catarrhal (adj.)
  • caudal - situated toward or pertaining to the taill; toward the inferior or posterior end of the body.
  • cellulitis - inflammation of the soft or connective tissue in which a thin, watery exudate spreads through the tissue spaces.
  • cephalic - pertaining to the head , or to the head end of the body.
  • chemotaxis - movement of cells or organisms in response to chemical stimulation.chemotactic (adj.).
  • cholangitis - inflammation of a bile duct or the entire biliary tree.
  • cholelithiasis - presence of concretions ("gall stones") in the gallbladder or bile ducts.
  • chronic - a condition with slow onset, mild but continuous manifestations and long-lasting, often progressive effects.
  • ciliated - cilia are small hair-like structures which help to transport secretions along the surface of a cell.
  • CIN - cervical intraepithelial neoplasia; one of the terminologies in use to describe precancerous or dysplastic changes in the cervical epithelial cells..
  • CIS - carcinoma in situ; a neoplasm where the tumor cells are still confined to the epithelium of origin without invasion of the basement membrane (likelihood of subsequent invasive growth is presumed to be high)..
  • clubbing - proliferation of soft tissue about the ends (terminal phalanges) of fingers and toes.
  • CMV - cytomegalovirus.
  • coagulate - to cause to clot or become clotted; to convert a fluid or substance in solution into a solid or a gel. coagulative (adj.) as in coagulative necrosis- a type of necrosis in which affected cells or tissue are converted into a dry, dull, homogeneous eosinophilic mass without nuclei as a result of the coagulation of protein.
  • collateral (blood supply) - new vessels which develop following chronic interruption of blood supply.
  • colposcope - a speculum for examining the vagina and cervix with a magnifying lens. (colposcopy is the procedure).
  • congestion - abnormal accumulation of blood or fluid in a part (e.g. of blood - passive congestion]] - obstruction of the escape of blood from a part (as in liver);
  • pulmonary congestion - engorgement of pulmonary vessels, with transudation of fluid into alveolar and interstitial spaces).
  • columnar (cells) - refers to a shape of cells which often line ducts or glands within the body.
  • coma - a state of profound unconsciousness from which one cannot be roused.
  • congenital - present at birth; cause may be genetic or non-genetic (infectious, chemical, physical).
  • Congo red - specific stain for detection of amyloid fibrils. Proteins with a beta-pleated sheet structure will display red-green birefringence under polarized light.
  • contusion - a bruise; an injury of a part without a break in the skin, characterized by swelling, discoloration, and pain.
  • cor pulmonale - right-sided heart failure which occurs as a result of long-standing lung disease.
  • creatine - an amino acid; found in muscle. Phosphorylated creatine is an important storage form of high-energy phosphate = creatine phosphate or phosphocreatine. Energy source for muscle contraction.
  • creatine kinase - an enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of creatine by ATP to form phosphocreatine. It occurs as three isozymes (specific to brain, cardiac and skeletal muscle, respectively). Each isozyme has two components composed of muscle (M) and brain (B) subunits - CK1 (BB) is found primarily in brain, CK2 (MB) in cardiac muscle and CK3 (MM) primarily in skeletal muscle. Differential determination of isozymes is used in clinical diagnosis.
  • cryptorchism (cryptorchidism) - failure of one or both testes to descend into the scrotum.
  • Computerized tomograph - sophisticated radiologic technique yielding a detailed image of internal body structures. Also CAT]] - computerized axial tomography.
  • cyanosis - a bluish discoloration of skin, lips, nail beds or mucous membranes due to excessive concentrations of reduced hemoglobin in blood and hence deficient oxygenation of blood. cyanotic (adj.).
  • cyst - any closed epithelium-lined cavity or sac, normal or abnormal, usually containing liquid or semisolid material; a bladder.
  • cystectomy - removal of a cyst; removal or resection of the bladder.
  • cytology - the study of cells, their origin, structure, function and pathology; the microscopic examination of cells as a means of detecting malignancy and microbiologic changes. Cells can be obtained by aspiration, washing, smear or scraping.
  • cytotoxin - (cytotoxic = adj.), a toxin or antibody having a specific toxic action upon the cells of special organs.


D

  • DES - diethylystilbestrol; a synthetic nonsteroidal estrogen; females exposed to it in uteroare subject to increased risk of vaginal and cervical carcinoma..
  • degenerative - progressive and often irreversible deterioration.
  • dialysis - a procedure by which a machine is used to replace kidney functions in patients with diseased kidneys.
  • diapedesis - the passage of leukocytes (white blood cells) through capillary walls to site of inflammation.
  • diaphoresis - perspiration, especially profuse perspiration.
  • differentiation - the distinguishing of one thing from another; the act or process of acquiring completely individual characters; increase in morphological or chemical heterogeneity.
  • dilation - the act of dilating or stretching.
  • dilatation - the condition of being stretched beyond normal dimensions, usually in a tubular sructure or an opening.
  • diuresis - excessive amount of urine; diuretic - produces an increase in amount of urine.
  • diverticulum (diverticula = pl) - a pouch or sac occurring normally or created by the bulging of a membrane through a defect in the muscular coat of a tubular organ, such as the intestine.
  • diverticulitis - an inflammation of a diverticulum, especially those in the wall of the colon which fill with fecal matter and become inflamed. May cause bleeding or obstruction or may burst.
  • duct - a passage with well-defined walls, especially a tubular structure for the passage of excretions or secretions.
  • dysphagia - painful or difficulty swallowing.
  • dysplasia - abnormality of development; in pathology, alteration in size, shape, and organization of adult cells.
  • dyspnea - labored or difficult breathing.
  • dysrhythmia - defective heart rhythm; also see arrythmia.


E

  • ecchymosis - a small hemorrhagic spot in the skin or mucous membrane, larger than apetechia, forming a nonelevated, rounded, or irregular blue or purplish patch. ecchymoses, pl.
  • ectasia - dilatation, expansion or distention. e.g. duct ectasia = dilatation of duct plugged with secretion, accompanied by periductal and interstitial inflammatory infiltrate.
  • ectopic - out of place; an object or organ situated in an unusual place away from its normal position.
  • edema - the accumulation of excess fluid in the intercellular or interstitial tissue spaces or body cavities.
  • efferent - moving away from the centre, e.g. efferent nerve fibres carry motor impulses to muscles.
  • effusion(s) - the escape of a fluid into a part; the effused material (see exudate).
  • electrolyte - a compound when dissolved in water separates into charged particles. Electrolytes play an essential role in the workings of cells maintaining fluid balance and acid-base balance.
  • embolus (emboli, pl.) - a detached intravascular solid, liquid or gaseous mass that is carried by the blood to a site distant from its point of origin, thus obstructing the flow of blood. Most (99%) arise from thrombi (thromboembolus).
  • embolism - the sudden obstruction or blocking of a vessel by an embolus.
  • empyema - accumulation of pus in a body cavity.
  • endocardium - the innermost tunic of the heart (includes endothelial and subendothelial connective tissue).
  • endometriosis - presence of benign glands and uterine stroma (connective tissue elements) outside of the uterus.
  • endoscope - an instrument to visually examine the interior of a hollow organ such as the colon, intestine or bladder; endoscopy is the procedure.
  • enzyme - a substance, usually a protein, that initiates and accelerates a chemical reaction.
  • eosin - any of a class of rose-colored stains or dyes; bromine derivatives of fluorescein; used in histology as a stain
  • epicanthus (epicanthal, adj.) - a vertical fold on either side of the nose; a normal characteristic in persons of certain races, but absent in others.
  • epidemiology - the study of the relationships of various factors determining the frequency and distribution of diseases in the human community; also the field of medicine dealing with the determination of specific causes of localized outbreaks of infection, poisoning or other disease of recognized etiology.
  • epigastrium - the upper and middle region of the abdomen, located within the sternal angle. epigastric is the adjective.
  • erythema - diffuse or patchy redness of skin, blanching on pressure, due to congestion of cutaneous capillaries.
  • etiology - (etiologic, etiological = adj.) the science dealing with the causes of disease.
  • exogenous - originating from outside of the body.
  • exudate - a fluid with a high concentration of protein and cellular debris which has escaped from blood vessels and has been deposited in tissues, or on tissue surfaces, usually as a result of inflammation.

Table of contents:

.A | .B | .C | .D | .E | .F | .G | .H | .I | .J | .K | .L | .M

.N | .O | .P | .Q | .R | .S | .T | .U | .V | .W | .X | .Y | .Z

F

  • facies - the face; or the expression or appearance of the face.
  • fibrillation - a small, local, involuntary muscular contraction, due to spontaneous activation of single muscle cells or muscle fibers whose nerve supply has been damaged or cut off. Also see ventricular fibrillation.
  • fibrin - an insoluble protein essential to the clotting of blood, derived from fibrinogen; a component of thrombi, vegetations, and acute inflammatory exudates.
  • fibrinoid - resembling fibrin; an eosinophilic, homogeneous, proteinacious material that is frequently formed on the walls of blood vessels and connective tissue in some patients (e.g with disseminated lupus erythematosus, scleroderma, etc.).
  • fibrinoid necrosis - results in acidophilic (eosinophilic) deposits with staining reactions that resemble fibrin in connective tissue, blood vessel walls and other sites.
  • fibrosis - formation of fibrous tissue usually in repair or replacement of cellular elements.fibrotic (adj).
  • fistula (fistulas, fistulae, pl.) - an abnormal passage or communication from one organ to another or from an internal organ to the body surface; may be caused by disease or injury or created surgically.

G

  • gangrene - necrosis due to obstruction, loss or diminution of blood supply.
  • glomerulonephritis - nephritis with inflammation of the capillary loops in the renal glomeruli.
  • granuloma - a term applied to any small nodular aggregation of mononuclear inflammatory cells or such a collection of modified macrophages resembling epithelial cells, giant cells and other macrophages (usually surrounded by a rim of lymphocytes).
  • gyrus - (gyri = pl.), one of the convolutions on the surface of the brain caused by infolding of the cortex.

H

  • hamartoma - a benign tumour-like nodule composed of an overgrowth of mature cells and tissues normally present in the affected part, but with disorganization and often with one element predominating.
  • hematoma - a localized mass of blood, usually clotted, trapped in an organ, space, or tissue, resulting from a break in the wall of a blood vessel.
  • hematoxylin - an acid-coloring matter from the heartwood; used as a histological stain - stains nuclei .
  • hematoxylin & eosin - a mixture of hematoxylin in distilled water and an aqueous eosin solution; a stain used routinely for examination of tissues.
  • hematuria - the presence of blood in the urine.
  • hemianopia - loss of vision or blindness in half the visual field of one or both eyes.
  • hemoglobin - the oxygen carrying pigment of the red blood cells (erythrocytes). It is a conjugated protein containing four heme groups and globin. A molecule of hemoglobin contains 4 globin polypeptide chains - designated alpha, beta, gamma and delta. In the adult, Hemoglobin A predominates (alpha2, beta2).
  • hemolysis - the liberation of hemoglobin, consisting of separation of the hemoglobin from the red cells and its appearanc in plasma.
  • hemoptysis - the spitting of blood or blood-stained sputum.
  • hemorrhage - to bleed; an escape of blood from the blood vessels. hemorrhagic (adj.)
  • hemosiderin - a product of the decomposition of hemoglobin, found mainly intercellularly in areas of old hemorrhage.
  • hemostasis - the arrest of bleeding by the physiological properties of vasoconstriction and coagulation or by surgical means; interruption of blood flow through any vessel or to any anatomical area.
  • hernia - the protrusion of a portion of an organ or tissue through an abnormal opening.
  • hilum or hilus (hila = pl.) - the part of an organ where blood vessels and nerves enter and leave.
  • HIV - human immunodeficiency virus; the biological agent causing AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome).
  • HPV - human papilloma virus; subtypes have been associated with the development of cervical cancer.
  • hydrocephalus - a congenital or acquired condition marked by dilatation of the cerebral ventricles, usually occurring secondarily to obstruction of the cerebrospinal fluid (csf) pathways, and accompanied by an accumulation of csf within the skull; h. ex vacuo, compensatory replacement by cerebrospinal fluid of the volume of tissue lost in atrophy of the brain.
  • hydrosalpinx - the accumulation of serous fluid in the fallopian tube.
  • hyperplasia - a controlled increase in the number of normal cells in normal arrangement in an organ or tissue, causing a corresponding increase in tissue mass.
  • hypersensitivity - a state of altered reactivity in which the body reacts with an exaggerated immune response to a foreign agent.
  • hypertension - high arterial blood pressure. Various criteria for its threshold have been suggested, ranging from 140 mm Hg systolic and 90 mm Hg diastolic to as high as 200 mm Hg systolic and 110 mm Hg diastolic.
  • hypertrophy - an increase in individual cell size, which in turn leads to an increase in tissue mass/organ size.
  • hypoechoic - in ultrasonography, giving off few echoes or weaker echoes than normal tissue or than in surrounding regions.
  • hypoplasia - incomplete development or underdevelopment of a tissue, usually due to a decrease in number of cells.
  • hypotension - low blood pressure. hypovolemia - decreased blood volume.
  • hypoxia - reduced supply of oxygen to tissues (below physiologic levels) despite normal blood perfusion.

I

  • iatrogenic - resulting from the activity of physicians; usually used for any adverse condition in a patient resulting from treatment by a physician or surgeon. Derived from iatr(o) (Gr) - medicine, physician. iatric - pertaining to medicine or a physician.
  • ileum - the distal portion of the small intestine, extending from the jejunum to the cecum.
  • ileus - an intestinal obstruction.
  • infarct - a localized area of ischemic necrosis produced by blockage of the arterial supply or venous drainage of the part.
  • infarction - the formation of an infarct; acute myocardial infarction (AMI)]] - circulation to a region of the heart is obstructed and necrosis of tissue is occurring.
  • in situ - means "in its original place"; may be used descriptively of a cancer (e.g. carcinoma in situ) or to refer to experiments conducted in place (e.g in situ hybridization).
  • inspissation - drying-out; in histologic sections inspissated secretions appear as dense, amorphous, deeply staining material within the lumen of ducts or glands.
  • intussusception - when a segment of one part of the intestine becomes telescoped into an immediately adjacent part.
  • ischemia - (ischemic = adj.), deficiency of blood in a part, usually due to functional constriction or actual obstruction or blockage of a blood vessel.

J

  • jaundice - yellowness of the skin, sclera, mucous membranes and excretions due to increased bilirubin in the blood and deposition of bile pigments.


Table of contents:

.A | .B | .C | .D | .E | .F | .G | .H | .I | .J | .K | .L | .M

.N | .O | .P | .Q | .R | .S | .T | .U | .V | .W | .X | .Y | .Z

K

  • karyolysis - the dissolution of the nucleus - the nucleus swells and gradually loses its chromatin.
  • karyorrhexis - rupture of the cell nucleus in which the chromatin disintegrates into formless granules that are extruded from the cell.
  • [[karyotype (karyotyping) - the chromosomal constitution of the cell nucleus; the photographic representation of the chromosomes for analysis.
  • kyphosis - abnormally increased convexity in the curvature of the thoracic spine as viewed from the side.


L

  • lacuna (lacunae = pl) - a small space or depression; e.g. in bone, the lacunae are cavities in the bone tissue in which bone-forming cells are found.
  • leptomeninges - the two delicate membranes of the meninges, the arachnoid and pia mater.
  • leukocytosis - a transient increase in the number of white blood cells (leukocytes); due to various causes.
  • leukoplakia - a white patch of oral mucous membrane which cannot be wiped off.
  • liqefactive necrosis - a type of necrosis characterized by dull, opaque, partly or completely fluid remains of tissue, observed in abscesses and frequently in infarcts of brain.
  • lumen - opening, e.g. of a blood vessel through which blood flows, or in a gland or organ.
  • Lyme disease - a multisystem disease which can affect the skin, joints and nervous system. Caused by a bacteria carried by certain kinds of ticks (most commonly found in areas of northeastern U.S.).


M

  • malignant - of tumours, having the properties of anaplasia, invasiveness and metastasis.
  • melena - black blood in the stool; the source of blood is typically from the stomach or duodenum and is thus acted upon by digestive enzymes that break down the blood and create its black appearance.
  • menarche - the first menstrual period, usually occurring during puberty.
  • meninges - plural of meninx; any membrane, but specifically the three membranous coverings of the brain and spinal cord (dura mater, arachnoid and pia mater).
  • menorrhea - the normal discharge of the menses.
  • menses - the monthly flow of blood from the genital tract of a woman.
  • metaplasia - the change in the type of adult cells in a tissue to a form abnormal for that tissue
  • metastasis - (metastases = pl.; metastatic = adj), transfer of disease from one organ or part of the body to another not directly connected with it, due either to transfer of pathogenic organisms or to transfer of cells; all malignant tumours are capable of metastasizing. A growth of pathogenic microorganisms or of abnormal cells distant from the site primarily involved by the morbid process.
  • morbidity - the condition of being diseased or sick; the 'sick' rate, i.e. the ratio of sick to well persons in a community.
  • mortality - the quality of being mortal or alive; the 'death' rate, i.e. the number of people dying in a given population.
  • myoepithelium - flattened to stellate cells, believed to be contractile, which lie in many forms of externally secreting glands between the secreting cells and the basement membrane on which they lie.
  • myomectomy - surgical removal of a myoma (a benign tumor of muscle elements).
  • myxoma (myxomatous = adj.) - a benign neoplasm derived from connective tissue; occurs in bone, skin and muscle; in cardiac muscle may encroach on the cavity of an atrium.


Table of contents:

.A | .B | .C | .D | .E | .F | .G | .H | .I | .J | .K | .L | .M

.N | .O | .P | .Q | .R | .S | .T | .U | .V | .W | .X | .Y | .Z

N

  • nares - the nostrils; the external openings of the nasal cavity.
  • necrosis - the morphological changes indicative of cell death caused by progressive enzymatic degradation.
  • neoplasm - tumour; any new or abnormal growth, specifically one in which cell multiplication is uncontrolled. Neoplasms may be benign or malignant.
  • neutropenia - diminished number of neutrophils in the blood.
  • neutrophil - a granular leukocyte having a nucleus with 3 to 5 lobes connected by threads of chromatin and cytoplasm containg very fine granules; any cell, structure or element readily stainable with neutral dyes.
  • nitroglycerin - when compounded in tablets used in the treatment and prevention of angina pectoris. Used sublingually (under the tongue). A vasodilator.
  • NMR ( nuclear magnetic resonance) scan - or more commonly now as MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) - a sophisticated radiologic technique yielding a detailed image of internal body structures.
  • nocturia - excessive urination at night.
  • nosocomial - pertaining to or originating in a hospital.


O

  • obtund - to dull or blunt (especially to blunt sensation or dull pain), or to reduce alertness;obtundation]] - clouding of consciousness.
  • occlusion - closing or shutting off, e.g. shutting off a blood vessel by a blockage of the opening.
  • occult - not visible to the naked eye or hidden from view.
  • Oil-red-O - (Solvent red 27; M.W. 409) - A member of the azo dye family used to identify neutral lipids and fatty acids in smears and tissues. The chromophore is the azo group (-N=N-) which connects two aromatic rings. This coloured non-polar substance dissolves in lipids and renders them visible under the microscope. Fresh smears or cryostat sections of tissue are necessa ry because fixatives containing alcohols, or routine tissue processing with clearing, will remove lipids. A more useful agent for coloring all types of lipid is Sudan black B.
  • oliguria - diminished urine output in relation to fluid intake.
  • oncogene(s) - giving rise to tumours or causing tumour formation; genes that contribute to the formation of tumours.
  • organelles - minute, intracellular structures serving a specific function in the life processes of the cell.
  • osteoporosis - a common disease of the formation of bone leading to fragile bones and fractures.


P

  • palsy - paralysis; e.g. cerebral palsy = persisting motor disorders in young children resulting from brain damage caused by birth trauma or intrauterine pathology.
  • Pap smear - a specimen for microscopic examination of cells for detection of variuos conditions of the female genital tract (e.g. malignant and premalignant conditions), prepared by spreading the material across a slide.
  • paraparesis - weakness affecting the lower extremities.
  • parenchyma (parenchymal = adj.) - the essential (working) tissue of an organ as distinguished from the supporting connective tissue, vessels, nerves, etc.
  • paresis - slight or partial paralysis.
  • paresthesia - any abnormal sensation, such as burning, tingling, or a "pins and needles" feeling, often in the absence of external stimuli.
  • paroxysmal - recurring "sudden attacks" of symptoms.
  • pathology - the branch of medicine that deals with the essential nature of disease and the changes in body tissues and organs which cause or are caused by disease; the structural and functional manifestations of disease.
  • pathogen - a disease-causing microorganism or agent.
  • pathogenesis - the development of disease; specifically the cellular events and reactions and mechanisms occurring in the development of disease.
  • pathognomonic - characteristic or indicative of a disease; denoting symptoms or findings specific for a given disease and not found in any other condition.
  • peptide - a protein with a small number of amino acids.
  • perfusion - transport of blood through blood vessels from heart to internal organs, tissues, etc.
  • perikaryon (perikarya = pl) - the cell body; applied particularly to neurons.
  • periorbita - periosteum of the bones of the orbit or eye socket. periorbital, adj.
  • periosteum - a specialized connective tissue covering all bones and having bone-forming potential.
  • peristalsis - a wave of contractions and relaxations of the digestive tract propelling its contents towards the anus.
  • peritoneum - the membrane lining the walls of the abdominal and pelvic cavities and surrounding the contained organs; the two layers create a potential space - the peritoneal cavity.
  • peritonitis - inflammation of the peritoneum due to chemical or bacterial irritation.
  • petechia(e) - a minute red spot(s) due to escape of a small amount of blood. petechial, adj.
  • PID - pelvic inflammatory disease.
  • pleura - the serous membrane covering the lungs and lining the walls of the thoracic cavity; the two layers thus enclose a potential space - the pleural cavity.
  • pleural effusion - increased amounts of fluid within the pleural cavity, usually due to inflammation.
  • PMN - polymorphonuclear leukocyte; neutrophil.
  • polyarteritis - inflammation involving several arteries at the same time.
  • polymorphonuclear - having a nucleus so deeply lobed or so divided as to appear multiple.
  • polyp - a general term for any mass of tissue that projects outwards from a normally smooth surface.
  • primipara - a woman who has born her first child.
  • prognosis - a forecast of the course and probable outcome of a disorder.
  • proteinuria - an excess of serum proteins in the urine.
  • prophylaxis - to prevent disease; preventive treatment.
  • pseudohermaphroditism - a condition in which a person has the internal sexual organs (testes or ovaries) of one sex but, due to endocrine abnormalities, their external appearance is that of the opposite sex. Contrast with true hermaphroditism where both types of internal sexual organs are present.
  • psychogenic - having an emotional or psychologic origin.
  • puerperal - relating to childbirth; the interval including the time of labor and recent post-delivery period.
  • purpura - a small hemorrhage in the skin, mucous membrane or serosal surface; a group of disorders characterized by the presence of purpuric lesions, ecchymoses, and a tendency to bruise easily. purpuric, adj.
  • pus - a protein rich liquid inflammation product made up of cells (white blood cells or leukocytes), a thin fluid, and cellular debris.
  • pyknosis - a thickening, especially degeneration of a cell in which the nucleus shrinks in size and the chromatin condenses to a solid, structureless mass.
  • pyothorax - an accumulation of pus in the thorax. See also empyema.
  • pyrexia - a fever or febrile condition.
  • pyrogen - a fever-producing substance. pyrogenic (adj.).


Table of contents:

.A | .B | .C | .D | .E | .F | .G | .H | .I | .J | .K | .L | .M

.N | .O | .P | .Q | .R | .S | .T | .U | .V | .W | .X | .Y | .Z

Q

  • quadriplegia - being paralysed in all four limbs; unable to use arms and legs.


R

  • regurgitation - flow in the opposite direction than normal, e.g. throwing up of undigested food; backflow of blood through a defective heart valve.
  • relapse - a return to a previous poor or ill condition.
  • reperfusion - the flooding of tissue with blood after it has suffered ischemia or a loss of blood supply.
  • rhinitis - inflammation of the nasal mucous membrane.


S

  • scurvy - a disease caused by insufficient intake of vitamin C.
  • sedimentation rate - non-specific test that measures settling of red blood cells per unit time in a column of fresh blood - a rough measure of increased amounts of fibrinogen and globulin which may occur in certain pathologic or physiologic states (e.g. heart attacks, cancer, pregnancy). ESR = erythrocyte sedimentation rate.
  • seizure - an attack; the sudden onset or recurrence of a disease or of certain symptoms, e.g. an epileptic attack, convulsion.
  • sepsis - the presence of bacteria (pathogenic organisms) or their toxins in the blood or tissues.
  • sequela(e) - the consequence(s) following a disease.
  • shock - a sudden disturbance of mental equilibrium; a profound hemodynamic and metabolic disturbance characterized by failure of the circulatory system to maintain adequate perfusion of vital organs.
  • sign - an objective indication or evidence of disease discovered on examination of a patient. Contrast with symptom.
  • SIL - squamous intraepithelial lesion; one of the terminologies in use to describe precancerous or dysplastic changes in the cervical epithelial cells.
  • spasm - a sudden, violent, involuntary muscle contraction; a sudden tightening of a passage or canal.
  • spastic - characterized by spasms or other uncontrolled contractions of the skeletal muscles; muscles are stiff and the movements awkward.
  • spasticity - the condition characterized by spasms.
  • squamous cells - cell type often seen in areas exposed to significant irritation or trauma - e.g. skin.
  • staging - the determination of distinct phases or periods in the course of a disease, the life history of an organism, or any biological process; the classification of neoplasms according to the extent of the tumour (e.g. TMN staging - staging of tumours according to three basic components: primary tumour (T), regional nodes (N), and metastasis (M) - from 0 (undetectable) to 4).
  • stenosis - narrowing or contraction of a duct or canal. stenoses, pl.
  • steroid - a class of hormone with a particular chemical structure consisting of four interlocking carbon rings.
  • stricture - an abnormal narrowing of a duct or passage.
  • stridor - a harsh, high-pitched respiratory sound.
  • stroma - the connective tissue framework of an organ or other structure, as distinguished from the tissues performing the special function of the organ.
  • sulcus - (sulci = pl.), a groove, trench or furrow; in neuroanatomy, for instance, a depression or groove on the brain surface separating the gyri.
  • suppuration (suppurative = adj.) - formation or discharge of pus.
  • symptom - subjective evidence of disease as perecived and reported by a patient.
  • syncope - fainting; temporary loss of consciousness due to reduced oxygen delivery to the brain.
  • synovia - the transparent, viscid fluid secreted by the synovial membrane and found in joint cavities, bursae, and tendon sheaths.
  • synovitis - inflammation of a synovial membrane, usually painful, particularly on motion, and characterized by fluctuating swelling (due to effusion in a synovial sac).
  • systole - the contraction of the heart during which blood is pumped into the heart; systolic, the blood pressure in the arteries when the heart pumps blood through the body. Also see diastolic.

Table of contents:

.A | .B | .C | .D | .E | .F | .G | .H | .I | .J | .K | .L | .M

.N | .O | .P | .Q | .R | .S | .T | .U | .V | .W | .X | .Y | .Z

T

  • teratogen - a substance or condition that impairs normal development of the embryo or fetus in utero causing a congenital abnormality.
  • thrombocytopenia - an abnormally small number or decrease of circulating platelets in the blood.
  • thrombus - (pl. thrombi), a solid mass formed from the constituents of blood within the blood vessels or the heart. Thrombi that form within the rapidly moving arterial circulation are composed largely of fibrin and platelets with only a few trapped red and white cells.
  • thrombosis - the inappropriate or pathological formation of a solid mass (from the constiutents of blood) within a blood vessel or organ.
  • toxin - a poison produced by a living organism.
  • troponin - a protein of muscle that together with tropomyosin forms a regulatory protein complex controlling the interaction of actin and myosin and that when combined with calcium ions permits muscular contraction; when cardiac muscle cells are damaged, troponin is released into the blood stream and provides a useful indicator of cardiac cell death and evidence of myocardial infarction.


U

  • ulcer - a local defect or excavation of the surface of an organ or tissue produced by the sloughing of necrotic inflammatory tissue.
  • urea - the chief nitrogenous end-product of protein metabolism, formed in the liver from amino acids and from ammonia compounds; found in urine, blood, and lymph. Also see BUN - blood urea nitrogen.
  • uremia - an excess of the nitrogen-containing end products of protein and amino acid metabolism in the blood; the entire constellation of signs and symptoms of chronic renal failure.


V

  • vasodilator - an agent that causes dilatation of the blood vessels.
  • vertigo - a sensation of spinning or whirling motion.
  • virulence - the degree of pathogenecity of a microorganism as indicated by the severity of disease produced and the ability to invade the tissues of the host. virulent (adj.)
  • volvulus - a twisting of a loop of intestine causing an obstruction, may impair blood supply resulting in infarction.

Table of contents:

.A | .B | .C | .D | .E | .F | .G | .H | .I | .J | .K | .L | .M

.N | .O | .P | .Q | .R | .S | .T | .U | .V | .W | .X | .Y | .Z