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Difference between revisions of "Glossary of agriculture"

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{{catz}}
  
 +
== 0-9 ==
  
 
* [[17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone caproate]]
 
* [[17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone caproate]]
 
+
Hydroxyprogesterone derivative that acts as a progestin and is used to reduce the risk of recurrent miscarriage and of premature birth. It is also used in combination with estrogen in the management of menstruation disorders.  
Hydroxyprogesterone derivative that acts as a progestin and is used to reduce the risk of recurrent miscarriage and of premature birth. It is also used in combination with estrogen in the management of menstruation disorders.  
 
 
 
 
* [[1890 Institutions]]
 
* [[1890 Institutions]]
 
+
Enacted August 30, 1890 (chapter 841, 26 Stat. 417), this law authorized additional direct appropriations for the land grant colleges of agriculture that had been established under the Morrill Act of 1862. The most significant feature of the second Morrill Act was that the 1862 schools could receive the additional funds only if they admitted blacks into their programs or if they provided separate but equal agricultural higher education to black students.  
Enacted August 30, 1890 (chapter 841, 26 Stat. 417), this law authorized additional direct appropriations for the land grant colleges of agriculture that had been established under the Morrill Act of 1862. The most significant feature of the second Morrill Act was that the 1862 schools could receive the additional funds only if they admitted blacks into their programs or if they provided separate but equal agricultural higher education to black students.  
 
 
 
 
* [[1994 Institutions]]
 
* [[1994 Institutions]]
 
+
Native American tribally-controlled colleges and universities that were granted land grant status under The Elementary and Secondary Education Reauthorization Act of 1994.  
Native American tribally-controlled colleges and universities that were granted land grant status under The Elementary and Secondary Education Reauthorization Act of 1994.  
 
 
 
 
* [[4-H Youth Development Program]]
 
* [[4-H Youth Development Program]]
 
+
The 4-H Youth Development Program is an international youth outreach organization founded in 1902 to foster agricultural, homemaking, leadership and other skills in young people. The 4-H name represents the ideals of the program with its focus on Head, Heart, Hands and Health. The program is administered by the United States Department of Agriculture Cooperative Extension Service.  
The 4-H Youth Development Program is an international youth outreach organization founded in 1902 to foster agricultural, homemaking, leadership and other skills in young people. The 4-H name represents the ideals of the program with its focus on Head, Heart, Hands and Health. The program is administered by the United States Department of Agriculture Cooperative Extension Service.  
 
 
 
 
* [[5' untranslated regions]]
 
* [[5' untranslated regions]]
 
+
The sequence at the 5' end of the messenger RNA that does not code for product. This sequence contains the ribosome binding site and other transcription and translation regulating sequences.  
The sequence at the 5' end of the messenger RNA that does not code for product. This sequence contains the ribosome binding site and other transcription and translation regulating sequences.  
 
 
 
 
* [[5-hydroxytryptophan]]
 
* [[5-hydroxytryptophan]]
 
+
The immediate precursor in the biosynthesis of serotonin from tryptophan. It is used as an antiepileptic and antidepressant.  
The immediate precursor in the biosynthesis of serotonin from tryptophan. It is used as an antiepileptic and antidepressant.  
 
 
 
 
* [[9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase]]
 
* [[9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase]]
 +
The enzyme catalyzes biosynthesis of abscisic acid from carotenoids in chloroplasts.
  
The enzyme catalyzes biosynthesis of abscisic acid from carotenoids in chloroplasts.
+
{{catz}}
 
+
== A ==
 
* [[A-DNA]]
 
* [[A-DNA]]
 
+
The form of double-stranded DNA stable under dehydrated conditions, found in crystals and solutions with higher salt concentrations or alcohol in the solute. It has a more compact helix than B-DNA with a deep, narrow major groove, a wide, shallow minor groove, and a hollow center. DNA:RNA complexes and double-stranded RNAs also take this form.  
The form of double-stranded DNA stable under dehydrated conditions, found in crystals and solutions with higher salt concentrations or alcohol in the solute. It has a more compact helix than B-DNA with a deep, narrow major groove, a wide, shallow minor groove, and a hollow center. DNA:RNA complexes and double-stranded RNAs also take this form.  
 
 
 
 
* [[ABC transporters]]
 
* [[ABC transporters]]
 
+
A family of membrane transport proteins that require ATP hydrolysis for the transport of substrates across membranes. The protein family derives its name from the ATP-binding domain found on the protein.  
A family of membrane transport proteins that require ATP hydrolysis for the transport of substrates across membranes. The protein family derives its name from the ATP-binding domain found on the protein.  
 
 
 
 
* [[abdominal fat]]
 
* [[abdominal fat]]
 
+
Body fat located in the abdominal region.  
Body fat located in the abdominal region.  
 
 
 
 
* [[abiotic stress]]
 
* [[abiotic stress]]
 
+
The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect homeostasis of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.  
The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect homeostasis of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.  
 
 
 
 
* [[abnormal behavior]]
 
* [[abnormal behavior]]
 
+
Abnormal behavior is defined as an untypical reaction to a particular combination of motivational factors and stimuli. Much abnormal behaviour can be regarded as stress-coping responses.  
Abnormal behavior is defined as an untypical reaction to a particular combination of motivational factors and stimuli. Much abnormal behaviour can be regarded as stress-coping responses.  
 
 
 
 
* [[abnormal development]]
 
* [[abnormal development]]
 
+
May be used for abnormal development in any organism, which is characterized by the change in the morphology of anatomical structures.  
May be used for abnormal development in any organism, which is characterized by the change in the morphology of anatomical structures.  
 
 
 
 
* [[abnormal hemoglobin]]
 
* [[abnormal hemoglobin]]
 
+
Hemoglobins characterized by structural alterations within the molecule. The alteration can be either absence, addition or substitution of one or more amino acids in the globin part of the molecule at selected positions in the polypeptide chains.  
Hemoglobins characterized by structural alterations within the molecule. The alteration can be either absence, addition or substitution of one or more amino acids in the globin part of the molecule at selected positions in the polypeptide chains.  
 
 
 
 
* [[abortifacients]]
 
* [[abortifacients]]
 
+
Chemical substances that interrupt pregnancy after implantation.  
Chemical substances that interrupt pregnancy after implantation.  
 
 
 
 
* [[abortion (plants)]]
 
* [[abortion (plants)]]
 
+
Premature termination of the development of pollen, gametes, embryos, seeds, fruits, flowers etc.  
Premature termination of the development of pollen, gametes, embryos, seeds, fruits, flowers etc.  
 
 
 
 
* [[abscess]]
 
* [[abscess]]
 
+
Accumulation of purulent material in tissues, organs, or circumscribed spaces, usually associated with signs of infection.  
Accumulation of purulent material in tissues, organs, or circumscribed spaces, usually associated with signs of infection.  
 
 
 
 
* [[absorbance]]
 
* [[absorbance]]
 
+
A measure of the amount of light absorbed by a surface.  
A measure of the amount of light absorbed by a surface.  
 
 
 
 
* [[absorbed dose]]
 
* [[absorbed dose]]
 
+
The amount of a substance penetrating across an absorption barrier (the exchange boundaries) of an organism, via either physical or biological processes.  
The amount of a substance penetrating across an absorption barrier (the exchange boundaries) of an organism, via either physical or biological processes.  
 
 
 
 
* [[absorbents]]
 
* [[absorbents]]
 
+
A substance that takes liquid in through the surface and holds it.  
A substance that takes liquid in through the surface and holds it.  
 
 
 
 
* [[absorption]]
 
* [[absorption]]
 
+
The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.  
The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.  
 
 
 
 
* [[absorption barrier]]
 
* [[absorption barrier]]
 
+
Any surface that may retard the rate of penetration of a biological, chemical, or physical agent into an organism. Examples include the skin and the linings of the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts.  
Any surface that may retard the rate of penetration of a biological, chemical, or physical agent into an organism. Examples include the skin and the linings of the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts.  
 
 
 
 
* [[academic achievement]]
 
* [[academic achievement]]
 
+
Accomplishments relating to education, learning and study, especially in schools and higher educational institutions.  
Accomplishments relating to education, learning and study, especially in schools and higher educational institutions.  
 
 
 
 
* [[acai berries]]
 
* [[acai berries]]
 
+
Small, round, purple fruits of the palm, Euterpe oleracea, harvested for fruit, pulp or juice.  
Small, round, purple fruits of the palm, Euterpe oleracea, harvested for fruit, pulp or juice.  
 
 
 
 
* [[accelerated erosion]]
 
* [[accelerated erosion]]
 
+
Erosion much more rapid than normal erosion, natural erosion, or geologic erosion, and occurring primarily as a result of the influence of the activities of man or, in some cases, of other animals or natural catastrophes that expose bare surfaces (for example, fires).  
Erosion much more rapid than normal erosion, natural erosion, or geologic erosion, and occurring primarily as a result of the influence of the activities of man or, in some cases, of other animals or natural catastrophes that expose bare surfaces (for example, fires).  
 
 
 
 
* [[accelerometry]]
 
* [[accelerometry]]
 
+
Qualitative and quantitative measurement of movement patterns.  
Qualitative and quantitative measurement of movement patterns.  
 
 
 
 
* [[acceptable daily intake]]
 
* [[acceptable daily intake]]
 
+
The amount of a substance to which an organism can be exposed on a daily basis over an extended period of time (usually a lifetime) without suffering deleterious effects.  
The amount of a substance to which an organism can be exposed on a daily basis over an extended period of time (usually a lifetime) without suffering deleterious effects.  
 
 
 
 
* [[acceptable risk]]
 
* [[acceptable risk]]
 
+
The level of risk that will be tolerated, depending on a variety of social, economic, scientific and other factors as well as any perceived benefits.  
The level of risk that will be tolerated, depending on a variety of social, economic, scientific and other factors as well as any perceived benefits.  
 
 
 
 
* [[Accipitridae]]
 
* [[Accipitridae]]
 
+
Family including eagles, hawks and kites.  
Family including eagles, hawks and kites.  
 
 
 
 
* [[accountability]]
 
* [[accountability]]
 
+
Being held responsible and answerable for specified results or outcomes of an activity (over which one has authority).  
Being held responsible and answerable for specified results or outcomes of an activity (over which one has authority).  
 
 
 
 
* [[acculturation]]
 
* [[acculturation]]
 
+
The processes and results of contact between two or more different cultures. Generally, acculturation brings about considerable diffusion of cultural traits in one or more directions. However, other change-processes also occur, such as development of new intercultural roles, the growth of new customs not found in either culture and the disintegration of older cultural forms.  
The processes and results of contact between two or more different cultures. Generally, acculturation brings about considerable diffusion of cultural traits in one or more directions. However, other change-processes also occur, such as development of new intercultural roles, the growth of new customs not found in either culture and the disintegration of older cultural forms.  
 
 
 
 
* [[accuracy]]
 
* [[accuracy]]
 
+
The extent to which a measurement approaches the true value of the measured quantity.  
The extent to which a measurement approaches the true value of the measured quantity.  
 
 
 
 
* [[Acer freemanii]]
 
* [[Acer freemanii]]
 
+
Interspecific hybrid between Acer rubrum x Acer saccharinum.  
Interspecific hybrid between Acer rubrum x Acer saccharinum.  
 
 
 
 
* [[acervuli (fungi)]]
 
* [[acervuli (fungi)]]
 
+
An asexual fruiting body produced by certain fungi on a plant host and consisting of a mass of hyphae that give rise to conidiophores.  
An asexual fruiting body produced by certain fungi on a plant host and consisting of a mass of hyphae that give rise to conidiophores.  
 
 
 
 
* [[acetabulum]]
 
* [[acetabulum]]
 
+
The part of the pelvis that comprises the pelvic socket where the head of femur joins to form hip joint (acetabulofemoral joint).  
The part of the pelvis that comprises the pelvic socket where the head of femur joins to form hip joint (acetabulofemoral joint).  
 
 
 
 
* [[acetaminophen]]
 
* [[acetaminophen]]
 
+
Analgesic antipyretic derivative of acetanilide. It has weak anti-inflammatory properties and is used as a common analgesic, but may cause liver, blood cell, and kidney damage.  
Analgesic antipyretic derivative of acetanilide. It has weak anti-inflammatory properties and is used as a common analgesic, but may cause liver, blood cell, and kidney damage.  
+
* [[acetogens]]
 
+
Obligate anaerobic bacteria that generates acetate (CH3COO-) as an end product of anaerobic respiration or fermentation. They use reductive acetyl-CoA or Wood-Ljungdahl pathway as their main mechanism for energy conservation.  
* [[acetogens]]
 
 
 
Obligate anaerobic bacteria that generates acetate (CH3COO-) as an end product of anaerobic respiration or fermentation. They use reductive acetyl-CoA or Wood-Ljungdahl pathway as their main mechanism for energy conservation.  
 
 
 
 
* [[acetophenones]]
 
* [[acetophenones]]
 
+
Derivatives of the simplest aromatic ketone acetophenone (of general formula C6H5C(O)CH3).  
Derivatives of the simplest aromatic ketone acetophenone (of general formula C6H5C(O)CH3).  
 
 
 
 
* [[achenes]]
 
* [[achenes]]
 
+
A small dry 1-seeded 1-celled indehiscent fruit that develops from superior ovary; as in Plumbaginaceae. Sometimes spelled akene.  
A small dry 1-seeded 1-celled indehiscent fruit that develops from superior ovary; as in Plumbaginaceae. Sometimes spelled akene.  
 
 
 
 
* [[Achillea lewisii]]
 
* [[Achillea lewisii]]
 
+
Interspecific hybrid between Achillea clavennae x Achillea tomentosa.  
Interspecific hybrid between Achillea clavennae x Achillea tomentosa.  
 
 
 
 
* [[Achilles tendon]]
 
* [[Achilles tendon]]
 
+
Tendon that connects the muscles in the back of the calf to the heel bone.  
Tendon that connects the muscles in the back of the calf to the heel bone.  
 
 
 
 
* [[Achnatherum bloomeri]]
 
* [[Achnatherum bloomeri]]
 
+
An interspecific hybrid of Achnatherum hymenoides x Achnatherum occidentalis; Also used for other hybrids involving Achnatherum hymenoides.  
An interspecific hybrid of Achnatherum hymenoides x Achnatherum occidentalis; Also used for other hybrids involving Achnatherum hymenoides.  
 
 
 
 
* [[Achnella]]
 
* [[Achnella]]
 
+
Intergeneric hybrid of Achnatherum x Nassella.  
Intergeneric hybrid of Achnatherum x Nassella.  
 
 
 
 
* [[acid-base balance]]
 
* [[acid-base balance]]
 
+
The balance between acids and bases in the body fluids. The pH (hydrogen-ion concentration) of the arterial blood provides an index for the total body acid-base balance.  
The balance between acids and bases in the body fluids. The pH (hydrogen-ion concentration) of the arterial blood provides an index for the total body acid-base balance.  
 
 
 
 
* [[acid deposition]]
 
* [[acid deposition]]
 
+
A complex chemical and atmospheric phenomenon that occurs when emissions of sulfur and nitrogen compounds and other substances are transformed by chemical processes in the atmosphere, often far from the original sources, and then deposited on earth in either a wet or dry form. The wet forms, popularly called acid rain," can fall as rain, snow, or fog. The dry forms are acidic gases or particulates.  
A complex chemical and atmospheric phenomenon that occurs when emissions of sulfur and nitrogen compounds and other substances are transformed by chemical processes in the atmosphere, often far from the original sources, and then deposited on earth in either a wet or dry form. The wet forms, popularly called acid rain," can fall as rain, snow, or fog. The dry forms are acidic gases or particulates.  
 
 
 
 
* [[acid rain]]
 
* [[acid rain]]
 
+
Low pH rainfall resulting from atmospheric reactions of aerosols containing chlorides and sulfates (or other negative ions).  
Low pH rainfall resulting from atmospheric reactions of aerosols containing chlorides and sulfates (or other negative ions).  
 
 
 
 
* [[acid soils]]
 
* [[acid soils]]
 
+
Soil with a pH less than 7.0.  
Soil with a pH less than 7.0.  
 
 
 
 
* [[acid value]]
 
* [[acid value]]
 
+
The quantification of acidity or the amount of free acid present in a substance as determined by alkaline neutralization.  
The quantification of acidity or the amount of free acid present in a substance as determined by alkaline neutralization.  
 
 
 
 
* [[acidification]]
 
* [[acidification]]
 
+
To lower the pH of a substance or material to below 7.0  
To lower the pH of a substance or material to below 7.0  
 
 
 
 
* [[acidolysis]]
 
* [[acidolysis]]
 
+
Chemical decomposition resulting from the addition of an acid to a compound.  
Chemical decomposition resulting from the addition of an acid to a compound.  
 
 
 
 
* [[acidosis]]
 
* [[acidosis]]
 
+
A pathologic condition of acid accumulation or depletion of base in the body. The two main types are respiratory acidosis and metabolic acidosis, due to metabolic acid build up.  
A pathologic condition of acid accumulation or depletion of base in the body. The two main types are respiratory acidosis and metabolic acidosis, due to metabolic acid build up.  
 
 
 
 
* [[acidulants]]
 
* [[acidulants]]
 
+
An additive added to a product to increase the acidity of the product. Acidulants are often added to food products to increase tartness.  
An additive added to a product to increase the acidity of the product. Acidulants are often added to food products to increase tartness.  
 
 
 
 
* [[acinar cells]]
 
* [[acinar cells]]
 
+
Any secreting cells lining an acinus of a compound gland.  
Any secreting cells lining an acinus of a compound gland.  
 
 
 
 
* [[aconitine]]
 
* [[aconitine]]
 
+
A C19 norditerpenoid alkaloid (diterpenes) from the root of Aconitum plants. It activates voltage-gated sodium channels. It has been used to induce arrhythmias in experimental animals and it has antiinflammatory and antineuralgic properties.  
A C19 norditerpenoid alkaloid (diterpenes) from the root of Aconitum plants. It activates voltage-gated sodium channels. It has been used to induce arrhythmias in experimental animals and it has antiinflammatory and antineuralgic properties.  
 
 
 
 
* [[Aconitum cammarum]]
 
* [[Aconitum cammarum]]
 
+
Probable interspecific hybrid between Aconitum variegatum x Aconitum napellus.  
Probable interspecific hybrid between Aconitum variegatum x Aconitum napellus.  
 
 
 
 
* [[acorns]]
 
* [[acorns]]
 
+
The characteristic, 1-celled, 1-seeded fruit of oaks (Quercus spp.); it consists of cuplike part called the cup, cupule, or involucre, and the glands or nut which contains the embryo.  
The characteristic, 1-celled, 1-seeded fruit of oaks (Quercus spp.); it consists of cuplike part called the cup, cupule, or involucre, and the glands or nut which contains the embryo.  
 
 
 
 
* [[acoustics]]
 
* [[acoustics]]
 
+
The study of sound, including its production, transmission, and effects.  
The study of sound, including its production, transmission, and effects.  
 
 
 
 
* [[acquired characters]]
 
* [[acquired characters]]
 
+
Non-inherited modifications in the structure of an organism during its life time in response to the environment.  
Non-inherited modifications in the structure of an organism during its life time in response to the environment.  
 
 
 
 
* [[acquired immunodeficiency syndrome]]
 
* [[acquired immunodeficiency syndrome]]
 
+
An acquired defect of cellular immunity associated with infection by the human immunodeficiency virus ( HIV), a CD4-positive T-lymphocyte count under 200 cells/microliter or less than 14% of total lymphocytes, and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and malignant neoplasms. Clinical manifestations also include emaciation (wasting) and dementia. These elements reflect criteria for AIDS as defined by the CDC in 1993.  
An acquired defect of cellular immunity associated with infection by the human immunodeficiency virus ( HIV), a CD4-positive T-lymphocyte count under 200 cells/microliter or less than 14% of total lymphocytes, and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and malignant neoplasms. Clinical manifestations also include emaciation (wasting) and dementia. These elements reflect criteria for AIDS as defined by the CDC in 1993.  
 
 
 
 
* [[acreage]]
 
* [[acreage]]
 
+
An area of land measured in acres.  
An area of land measured in acres.  
 
 
 
 
* [[acrosome]]
 
* [[acrosome]]
 
+
The cap-like structure covering the anterior portion of sperm head. Acrosome, derived from lysosomes, is a membrane-bound organelle that contains the required hydrolytic and proteolytic enzymes necessary for sperm penetration of the egg in fertilization.  
The cap-like structure covering the anterior portion of sperm head. Acrosome, derived from lysosomes, is a membrane-bound organelle that contains the required hydrolytic and proteolytic enzymes necessary for sperm penetration of the egg in fertilization.  
 
 
 
 
* [[acrosome reaction]]
 
* [[acrosome reaction]]
 
+
Changes that occur to liberate the enzymes of the acrosome of a sperm (spermatozoa). Acrosome reaction allows the sperm to penetrate the zona pellucida and enter the ovum during fertilization.  
Changes that occur to liberate the enzymes of the acrosome of a sperm (spermatozoa). Acrosome reaction allows the sperm to penetrate the zona pellucida and enter the ovum during fertilization.  
 
 
 
 
* [[actigraphy]]
 
* [[actigraphy]]
 
+
The measurement and recording of motor activity to assess rest/activity cycles.  
The measurement and recording of motor activity to assess rest/activity cycles.  
 
 
 
 
* [[actin]]
 
* [[actin]]
 
+
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with myosins, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.  
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with myosins, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.  
 
 
 
 
* [[Actinobacillus equuli]]
 
* [[Actinobacillus equuli]]
 
+
A species of bacteria that infects horses and pigs.  
A species of bacteria that infects horses and pigs.  
 
 
 
 
* [[Actinobacillus lignieresii]]
 
* [[Actinobacillus lignieresii]]
 
+
A species of bacteria that infects cattle and sheep.  
A species of bacteria that infects cattle and sheep.  
 
 
 
 
* [[actinometers]]
 
* [[actinometers]]
 
+
The general name for instruments used to measure the intensity of radiant energy, particularly that of sun.  
The general name for instruments used to measure the intensity of radiant energy, particularly that of sun.  
 
 
 
 
* [[actinomycin D]]
 
* [[actinomycin D]]
 
+
A compound composed of a two cyclic peptides attached to a phenoxazine that is derived from Streptomyces parvullus. It binds to DNA and inhibits RNA synthesis (transcription), with chain elongation more sensitive than initiation, termination, or release. As a result of impaired mRNA production, protein synthesis also declines after dactinomycin therapy.  
A compound composed of a two cyclic peptides attached to a phenoxazine that is derived from Streptomyces parvullus. It binds to DNA and inhibits RNA synthesis (transcription), with chain elongation more sensitive than initiation, termination, or release. As a result of impaired mRNA production, protein synthesis also declines after dactinomycin therapy.  
 
 
 
 
* [[actinorhizae]]
 
* [[actinorhizae]]
 
+
Symbiotic nitrogen-fixing organs composed of root tissue and actinomycete bacteria such as Frankia, which may be found on trees in the genera Alnus, Casuarina and Elaeagnus.  
Symbiotic nitrogen-fixing organs composed of root tissue and actinomycete bacteria such as Frankia, which may be found on trees in the genera Alnus, Casuarina and Elaeagnus.  
 
 
 
 
* [[action potentials]]
 
* [[action potentials]]
 
+
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the cell membrane of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.  
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the cell membrane of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.  
 
 
 
 
* [[activated sludge]]
 
* [[activated sludge]]
 
+
Sludge that has been aerated and treated with microorganisms in order to accelerate microbial activity and the oxidation (decomposition) of organic compounds.  
Sludge that has been aerated and treated with microorganisms in order to accelerate microbial activity and the oxidation (decomposition) of organic compounds.  
 
 
 
 
* [[active immunity]]
 
* [[active immunity]]
 
+
Resistance to a disease agent resulting from the production of specific antibodies by the host, either after exposure to the disease or after vaccination.  
Resistance to a disease agent resulting from the production of specific antibodies by the host, either after exposure to the disease or after vaccination.  
 
 
 
 
* [[active sites]]
 
* [[active sites]]
 
+
Protein or enzyme structural motifs that bind to other substances and activate the function of the proteins or enzymes.  
Protein or enzyme structural motifs that bind to other substances and activate the function of the proteins or enzymes.  
 
 
 
 
* [[activity sampling]]
 
* [[activity sampling]]
 
+
A form of sampling in which a large number of observations are made on machines, workers, processes etc., over a period of time, to find out how much time it will take to do that activity.  
A form of sampling in which a large number of observations are made on machines, workers, processes etc., over a period of time, to find out how much time it will take to do that activity.  
 
 
 
 
* [[acute course]]
 
* [[acute course]]
 
+
Short and relatively severe progression of disease.  
Short and relatively severe progression of disease.  
 
 
 
 
* [[acute dermal toxicity]]
 
* [[acute dermal toxicity]]
 
+
Acute dermal toxicity is defined as the adverse effect triggered by a substance or chemical within a short time (24 hours or less) of dermal application or exposure.  
Acute dermal toxicity is defined as the adverse effect triggered by a substance or chemical within a short time (24 hours or less) of dermal application or exposure.  
 
 
 
 
* [[acute exposure]]
 
* [[acute exposure]]
 
+
Contact made between a chemical, physical or biological agent and an organism for a short period of time (typically less than a day).  
Contact made between a chemical, physical or biological agent and an organism for a short period of time (typically less than a day).  
 
 
 
 
* [[acute inhalation toxicity]]
 
* [[acute inhalation toxicity]]
 
+
Acute inhalation toxicity is the total of adverse effects caused by a substance following a single uninterrupted exposure by inhalation over a short period of time (24 hours or less) to a substance capable of being inhaled.  
Acute inhalation toxicity is the total of adverse effects caused by a substance following a single uninterrupted exposure by inhalation over a short period of time (24 hours or less) to a substance capable of being inhaled.  
 
 
 
 
* [[acute kidney injury]]
 
* [[acute kidney injury]]
 
+
Abrupt reduction in kidney function. Acute kidney injury encompasses the entire spectrum of the syndrome including acute kidney failure; acute kidney tubular necrosis; and other less severe conditions.  
Abrupt reduction in kidney function. Acute kidney injury encompasses the entire spectrum of the syndrome including acute kidney failure; acute kidney tubular necrosis; and other less severe conditions.  
 
 
 
 
* [[acute oral toxicity]]
 
* [[acute oral toxicity]]
 
+
Acute oral toxicity refers to those adverse effects occurring following oral administration of a single dose of a substance, or multiple doses given within 24 hours.  
Acute oral toxicity refers to those adverse effects occurring following oral administration of a single dose of a substance, or multiple doses given within 24 hours.  
 
 
 
 
* [[acute phase proteins]]
 
* [[acute phase proteins]]
 
+
Proteins that are secreted into the blood in increased or decreased quantities by hepatocytes in response to trauma, inflammation, or disease. These proteins can serve as inhibitors or mediators of the inflammatory processes. Certain acute-phase proteins have been used to diagnose and follow the course of diseases or as tumor markers.  
Proteins that are secreted into the blood in increased or decreased quantities by hepatocytes in response to trauma, inflammation, or disease. These proteins can serve as inhibitors or mediators of the inflammatory processes. Certain acute-phase proteins have been used to diagnose and follow the course of diseases or as tumor markers.  
 
 
 
 
* [[acute respiratory distress syndrome]]
 
* [[acute respiratory distress syndrome]]
 
+
A syndrome characterized by progressive life-threatening respiratory insufficiency in the absence of known lung diseases, usually following a systemic insult such as surgery or major trauma.  
A syndrome characterized by progressive life-threatening respiratory insufficiency in the absence of known lung diseases, usually following a systemic insult such as surgery or major trauma.  
 
 
 
 
* [[acute toxic class method]]
 
* [[acute toxic class method]]
 
+
An alternative to the LD-50 test which uses fewer animals and classifies chemicals as very toxic, toxic, harmful or unclassified.  
An alternative to the LD-50 test which uses fewer animals and classifies chemicals as very toxic, toxic, harmful or unclassified.  
 
 
 
 
* [[acute toxicity]]
 
* [[acute toxicity]]
 
+
Immediate or short-term adverse reaction of an organism to a single exposure to a chemical substance.  
Immediate or short-term adverse reaction of an organism to a single exposure to a chemical substance.  
 
 
 
 
* [[ad valorem duty]]
 
* [[ad valorem duty]]
 
+
Tariff defined as a percentage of the value of an imported commodity or product.  
Tariff defined as a percentage of the value of an imported commodity or product.  
 
 
 
 
* [[adaptive management]]
 
* [[adaptive management]]
 
+
A type of natural resource management in which decision making is an ongoing process. Monitoring the results of actions will provide a flow of information that may indicate the need to change a course of action. Scientific findings and the needs of society may also indicate the need to adapt resource management.  
A type of natural resource management in which decision making is an ongoing process. Monitoring the results of actions will provide a flow of information that may indicate the need to change a course of action. Scientific findings and the needs of society may also indicate the need to adapt resource management.  
 
 
 
 
* [[adaptive radiation]]
 
* [[adaptive radiation]]
 
+
Rapid divergent evolution of a more generalized ancestral species into a variety of more specialized species or subspecies which fill unoccupied ecological niches.  
Rapid divergent evolution of a more generalized ancestral species into a variety of more specialized species or subspecies which fill unoccupied ecological niches.  
 
 
 
 
* [[added sugars]]
 
* [[added sugars]]
 
+
These sugars, syrups, and other caloric sweeteners are added when foods are processed or prepared. Added sugars do not include sugars that occur naturally, like fructose in fruit or lactose in milk. Names for added sugars include brown sugar, cane sugar, corn sugar, corn sweetener, corn syrup, dextrose, fructose (when not naturally occurring), fruit juice concentrates, glucose, high-fructose corn syrup, honey, invert sugar, lactose (when not in milk or dairy products), maltose, malt syrup, molasses, raw sugar, sucrose, and turbinado sugar.  
These sugars, syrups, and other caloric sweeteners are added when foods are processed or prepared. Added sugars do not include sugars that occur naturally, like fructose in fruit or lactose in milk. Names for added sugars include brown sugar, cane sugar, corn sugar, corn sweetener, corn syrup, dextrose, fructose (when not naturally occurring), fruit juice concentrates, glucose, high-fructose corn syrup, honey, invert sugar, lactose (when not in milk or dairy products), maltose, malt syrup, molasses, raw sugar, sucrose, and turbinado sugar.  
 
 
 
 
* [[additive effect]]
 
* [[additive effect]]
 
+
A biologic response to exposure to multiple substances that equals the sum of responses of all the individual substances added together.  
A biologic response to exposure to multiple substances that equals the sum of responses of all the individual substances added together.  
 
 
 
 
* [[additive gene effects]]
 
* [[additive gene effects]]
 
+
Gene action which is the result of genes acting independently of genetic background so that each gene has an equal ability to be expressed and makes an independent contribution to the expression of the trait.  
Gene action which is the result of genes acting independently of genetic background so that each gene has an equal ability to be expressed and makes an independent contribution to the expression of the trait.  
 
 
 
 
* [[additives]]
 
* [[additives]]
 
+
Substances added to a product, usually in small quantities, in order to alter its characteristics or quality.  
Substances added to a product, usually in small quantities, in order to alter its characteristics or quality.  
 
 
 
 
* [[adenoids]]
 
* [[adenoids]]
 
+
A collection of lymphoid nodules on the posterior wall and roof of the nasopharynx.  
A collection of lymphoid nodules on the posterior wall and roof of the nasopharynx.  
 
 
 
 
* [[Adenoviridae infections]]
 
* [[Adenoviridae infections]]
 
+
Virus diseases caused by the Adenoviridae.  
Virus diseases caused by the Adenoviridae.  
 
 
 
 
* [[Adequate Intakes]]
 
* [[Adequate Intakes]]
 
+
When sufficient scientific evidence is not available to estimate an average requirement, Adequate Intakes are set.  
When sufficient scientific evidence is not available to estimate an average requirement, Adequate Intakes are set.  
 
 
 
 
* [[adhesins]]
 
* [[adhesins]]
 
+
Cell-surface components or appendages of bacteria that facilitate adhesion to other cells or to inanimate surfaces. Most fimbriae of gram-negative bacteria function as adhesins, but in many cases it is a minor subunit protein at the tip of the fimbriae that is the actual adhesin. In gram-positive bacteria, a protein or polysaccharide surface layer serves as the specific adhesin.  
Cell-surface components or appendages of bacteria that facilitate adhesion to other cells or to inanimate surfaces. Most fimbriae of gram-negative bacteria function as adhesins, but in many cases it is a minor subunit protein at the tip of the fimbriae that is the actual adhesin. In gram-positive bacteria, a protein or polysaccharide surface layer serves as the specific adhesin.  
 
 
 
 
* [[adhesion]]
 
* [[adhesion]]
 
+
The state in which two surfaces are held together by interfacial forces which may consist of valence forces or interlocking action or both.  
The state in which two surfaces are held together by interfacial forces which may consist of valence forces or interlocking action or both.  
 
 
 
 
* [[adhesives]]
 
* [[adhesives]]
 
+
A substance capable of holding materials together by surface attachment. It is a general term and includes cements, mucilage, and paste, as well as glue.  
A substance capable of holding materials together by surface attachment. It is a general term and includes cements, mucilage, and paste, as well as glue.  
 
 
 
 
* [[adipocytes]]
 
* [[adipocytes]]
 
+
Cells in the body that store fats, usually in the form of triglycerides. White adipocytes are the predominant type and found mostly in the abdominal cavity and subcutaneous tissue. Brown adipocytes are thermogenic cells that can be found in newborns of some species and hibernating mammals.  
Cells in the body that store fats, usually in the form of triglycerides. White adipocytes are the predominant type and found mostly in the abdominal cavity and subcutaneous tissue. Brown adipocytes are thermogenic cells that can be found in newborns of some species and hibernating mammals.  
 
 
 
 
* [[adipogenesis]]
 
* [[adipogenesis]]
 
+
The differentiation of pre-adipocytes into mature adipocytes.  
The differentiation of pre-adipocytes into mature adipocytes.  
 
 
 
 
* [[adipokines]]
 
* [[adipokines]]
 
+
Polypeptides produced by the adipocytes. They include leptin, adiponectin, resistin, and many cytokines of the immune system, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6, and complement factor D (also known as adipsin). They have potent autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine functions.  
Polypeptides produced by the adipocytes. They include leptin, adiponectin, resistin, and many cytokines of the immune system, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6, and complement factor D (also known as adipsin). They have potent autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine functions.  
 
 
 
 
* [[adipokinetic hormone]]
 
* [[adipokinetic hormone]]
 
+
Peptide hormones produced by some insect species stimulating the release of acylglycerols from the fat body which are used as an energy source by the flight muscles. There are several types of peptides with adipokinetic activity. These peptides are composed of 8-10 amino acids.  
Peptide hormones produced by some insect species stimulating the release of acylglycerols from the fat body which are used as an energy source by the flight muscles. There are several types of peptides with adipokinetic activity. These peptides are composed of 8-10 amino acids.  
 
 
 
 
* [[adiponectin]]
 
* [[adiponectin]]
 
+
A 30-kDa complement C1Q-related protein, the most abundant gene product secreted by fat cells of the white adipose tissue. Adiponectin modulates several physiological processes, such as metabolism of glucose and fatty acids, and immune responses. Decreased plasma adiponectin levels are associated with insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, obesity and atherosclerosis.  
A 30-kDa complement C1Q-related protein, the most abundant gene product secreted by fat cells of the white adipose tissue. Adiponectin modulates several physiological processes, such as metabolism of glucose and fatty acids, and immune responses. Decreased plasma adiponectin levels are associated with insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, obesity and atherosclerosis.  
 
 
 
 
* [[adiposity]]
 
* [[adiposity]]
 
+
The amount of fat or lipid deposit at a site or an organ in the body, an indicator of body fat status.  
The amount of fat or lipid deposit at a site or an organ in the body, an indicator of body fat status.  
 
 
 
 
* [[Adirondacks]]
 
* [[Adirondacks]]
 
+
An area around the Adirondack Mountains located in northern New York State and sometimes included as part of the Appalachian region.  
An area around the Adirondack Mountains located in northern New York State and sometimes included as part of the Appalachian region.  
 
 
 
 
* [[adjuvants]]
 
* [[adjuvants]]
 
+
An ingredient that improves the properties of a drug, vaccine or pesticide formulation.  
An ingredient that improves the properties of a drug, vaccine or pesticide formulation.  
 
 
 
 
* [[administered dose]]
 
* [[administered dose]]
 
+
The amount of a substance given to a test subject (human or animal) to determine dose-response relationships.  
The amount of a substance given to a test subject (human or animal) to determine dose-response relationships.  
 
 
 
 
* [[administration of justice]]
 
* [[administration of justice]]
 
+
The practical execution of the law, including law enforcement, corrections and the judicial system.  
The practical execution of the law, including law enforcement, corrections and the judicial system.  
 
 
 
 
* [[adolescent fathers]]
 
* [[adolescent fathers]]
 
+
Males between the ages of 12-18 who have fathered children.  
Males between the ages of 12-18 who have fathered children.  
 
 
 
 
* [[adrenalectomy]]
 
* [[adrenalectomy]]
 
+
Surgical removal of one or both adrenal glands.  
Surgical removal of one or both adrenal glands.  
 
 
 
 
* [[adrenergic agents]]
 
* [[adrenergic agents]]
 
+
Drugs that act on adrenergic receptors or affect the life cycle of adrenergic transmitters. Included here are adrenergic agonists and antagonists and agents that affect the synthesis, storage, uptake, metabolism, or release of adrenergic transmitters.  
Drugs that act on adrenergic receptors or affect the life cycle of adrenergic transmitters. Included here are adrenergic agonists and antagonists and agents that affect the synthesis, storage, uptake, metabolism, or release of adrenergic transmitters.  
 
 
 
 
* [[adrenergic receptors]]
 
* [[adrenergic receptors]]
 
+
Cell-surface proteins that bind epinephrine and/or norepinephrine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes. The two major classes of adrenergic receptors, alpha and beta, were originally discriminated based on their cellular actions but now are distinguished by their relative affinity for characteristic synthetic ligands. Adrenergic receptors may also be classified according to the subtypes of G-proteins with which they bind; this scheme does not respect the alpha-beta distinction.  
Cell-surface proteins that bind epinephrine and/or norepinephrine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes. The two major classes of adrenergic receptors, alpha and beta, were originally discriminated based on their cellular actions but now are distinguished by their relative affinity for characteristic synthetic ligands. Adrenergic receptors may also be classified according to the subtypes of G-proteins with which they bind; this scheme does not respect the alpha-beta distinction.  
 
 
 
 
* [[adsorbents]]
 
* [[adsorbents]]
 
+
A substance which has the property of attaching or accumulating another substance on its surface.  
A substance which has the property of attaching or accumulating another substance on its surface.  
 
 
 
 
* [[adsorption]]
 
* [[adsorption]]
 
+
The taking up of one substance onto the surface of another.  
The taking up of one substance onto the surface of another.  
 
 
 
 
* [[adult literacy]]
 
* [[adult literacy]]
 
+
The ability of adults (ages 18 and older) to read and write.  
The ability of adults (ages 18 and older) to read and write.  
 
 
 
 
* [[adult stem cells]]
 
* [[adult stem cells]]
 
+
Cells with high proliferative and self renewal capacities derived from adults.  
Cells with high proliferative and self renewal capacities derived from adults.  
 
 
 
 
* [[adulterated products]]
 
* [[adulterated products]]
 
+
Products containing any deleterious substance rendering it injurious to health or products produced using ingredients or processes that are inconsistent with their labels. See Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act Section 402 [21 U.S.C. 342].  
Products containing any deleterious substance rendering it injurious to health or products produced using ingredients or processes that are inconsistent with their labels. See Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act Section 402 [21 U.S.C. 342].  
 
 
 
 
* [[adulticides]]
 
* [[adulticides]]
 
+
Chemical agents that kill the adult stage of a pest or parasite.  
Chemical agents that kill the adult stage of a pest or parasite.  
 
 
 
 
* [[advanced glycation end products]]
 
* [[advanced glycation end products]]
 
+
Products derived from the nonenzymatic reaction of glucose and proteins in vivo that exhibit a yellow-brown pigmentation and an ability to participate in protein-protein cross-linking. These substances are involved in biological processes relating to protein turnover and it is believed that their excessive accumulation contributes to the chronic complications of diabetes mellitus.  
Products derived from the nonenzymatic reaction of glucose and proteins in vivo that exhibit a yellow-brown pigmentation and an ability to participate in protein-protein cross-linking. These substances are involved in biological processes relating to protein turnover and it is believed that their excessive accumulation contributes to the chronic complications of diabetes mellitus.  
 
 
 
 
* [[advanced regeneration]]
 
* [[advanced regeneration]]
 
+
Seedlings or saplings that develop naturally under a forest canopy and can become the next forest canopy after the mature canopy is harvested.  
Seedlings or saplings that develop naturally under a forest canopy and can become the next forest canopy after the mature canopy is harvested.  
 
 
 
 
* [[advanced trauma life support care]]
 
* [[advanced trauma life support care]]
 
+
The initial life support care of the severely injured patient.  
The initial life support care of the severely injured patient.  
 
 
 
 
* [[advanced very high resolution radiometer]]
 
* [[advanced very high resolution radiometer]]
 
+
A five-channel scanning instrument that quantitatively measures electromagnetic radiation, flown on NOAA environmental satellites. AVHRR remotely determines cloud cover and surface temperature. Visible and infrared detectors observe vegetation, clouds, lakes, shorelines, snow, and ice.  
A five-channel scanning instrument that quantitatively measures electromagnetic radiation, flown on NOAA environmental satellites. AVHRR remotely determines cloud cover and surface temperature. Visible and infrared detectors observe vegetation, clouds, lakes, shorelines, snow, and ice.  
 
 
 
 
* [[advanced wastewater treatment]]
 
* [[advanced wastewater treatment]]
 
+
Any treatment of sewage that goes beyond the secondary or biological water treatment stage and includes the removal of nutrients such as phosphorus and nitrogen and a high percentage of suspended solids.  
Any treatment of sewage that goes beyond the secondary or biological water treatment stage and includes the removal of nutrients such as phosphorus and nitrogen and a high percentage of suspended solids.  
 
 
 
 
* [[advection]]
 
* [[advection]]
 
+
The predominately horizontal large-scale movement of air that causes changes in temperature or other physical properties. In oceanography, advection is the horizontal or vertical flow of sea water as a current.  
The predominately horizontal large-scale movement of air that causes changes in temperature or other physical properties. In oceanography, advection is the horizontal or vertical flow of sea water as a current.  
 
 
 
 
* [[adventitious buds]]
 
* [[adventitious buds]]
 
+
A subnormal bud that develops at any place on plant part but not at nodes, usually when a plant part is injured or cut off.  
A subnormal bud that develops at any place on plant part but not at nodes, usually when a plant part is injured or cut off.  
 
 
 
 
* [[adverse outcome pathways]]
 
* [[adverse outcome pathways]]
 
+
Models connecting initiating events at the cellular and molecular level to population-wide impacts. Computational models may be at levels relating toxicology to adverse effects.  
Models connecting initiating events at the cellular and molecular level to population-wide impacts. Computational models may be at levels relating toxicology to adverse effects.  
 
 
 
 
* [[advocacy]]
 
* [[advocacy]]
 
+
Active support in favor of an idea, policy, individual, group or cause.  
Active support in favor of an idea, policy, individual, group or cause.  
 
 
 
 
* [[aedeagus]]
 
* [[aedeagus]]
 
+
Copulatory organ of some male insects.  
Copulatory organ of some male insects.  
 
 
 
 
* [[Aegilotriticum]]
 
* [[Aegilotriticum]]
 
+
Intergeneric hybrid of Aegilops x Triticum.  
Intergeneric hybrid of Aegilops x Triticum.  
 
 
 
 
* [[aelurostrongylosis]]
 
* [[aelurostrongylosis]]
 
+
Infections with nematodes of the genus Aelurostrongylus.  
Infections with nematodes of the genus Aelurostrongylus.  
 
 
 
 
* [[aequorin]]
 
* [[aequorin]]
 
+
A photoprotein isolated from the bioluminescent jellyfish Aequorea. It emits visible light by an intramolecular reaction when a trace amount of calcium ion is added. The light-emitting moiety in the bioluminescence reaction is believed to be 2-amino-3-benzyl-5-(p-hydroxyphenyl)pyrazine (AF-350).  
A photoprotein isolated from the bioluminescent jellyfish Aequorea. It emits visible light by an intramolecular reaction when a trace amount of calcium ion is added. The light-emitting moiety in the bioluminescence reaction is believed to be 2-amino-3-benzyl-5-(p-hydroxyphenyl)pyrazine (AF-350).  
 
 
 
 
* [[aerenchyma]]
 
* [[aerenchyma]]
 
+
Prominent intercellular or gas spaces present in the cortical tissues of leaves, roots and stems of aquatic and some other plants, which facilitate gaseous exchanges between the root and the shoot.  
Prominent intercellular or gas spaces present in the cortical tissues of leaves, roots and stems of aquatic and some other plants, which facilitate gaseous exchanges between the root and the shoot.  
 
 
 
 
* [[aerobic digestion]]
 
* [[aerobic digestion]]
 
+
A biochemical process which uses microorganisms in the presence of oxygen to decompose organic matter.  
A biochemical process which uses microorganisms in the presence of oxygen to decompose organic matter.  
 
 
 
 
* [[aerobiology]]
 
* [[aerobiology]]
 
+
Aerobiology is a discipline of biology that studies biological materials, such as fungal spores, small insects, bacteria, pollens, and viruses, which are passively transported by the air.  
Aerobiology is a discipline of biology that studies biological materials, such as fungal spores, small insects, bacteria, pollens, and viruses, which are passively transported by the air.  
 
 
 
 
* [[aerobiosis]]
 
* [[aerobiosis]]
 
+
Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.  
Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.  
 
 
 
 
* [[aerodynamics]]
 
* [[aerodynamics]]
 
+
The study of the flow of gases (especially air) and the forces that affect objects in motion; specifically, the interaction of moving objects with the atmosphere.  
The study of the flow of gases (especially air) and the forces that affect objects in motion; specifically, the interaction of moving objects with the atmosphere.  
 
 
 
 
* [[aeroponics]]
 
* [[aeroponics]]
 
+
The growing of plants in a soilless environment where nutrients are intermittently or continuously misted on to the plant roots.  
The growing of plants in a soilless environment where nutrients are intermittently or continuously misted on to the plant roots.  
 
 
 
 
* [[aerosols]]
 
* [[aerosols]]
 
+
A colloidal suspension of fine solid particles or liquid droplets, in air or another gas.  
A colloidal suspension of fine solid particles or liquid droplets, in air or another gas.  
 
 
 
 
* [[Aesculus carnea]]
 
* [[Aesculus carnea]]
 
+
Interspecific hybrid between Aesculus hippocastanum x Aesculus pavia.  
Interspecific hybrid between Aesculus hippocastanum x Aesculus pavia.  
 
 
 
 
* [[aesthetics]]
 
* [[aesthetics]]
 
+
Pertaining to the quality of human perceptual experience (including sight, sound, smell, touch, taste, and movement) evoked by phenomena or elements or configurations of elements in the environment.  
Pertaining to the quality of human perceptual experience (including sight, sound, smell, touch, taste, and movement) evoked by phenomena or elements or configurations of elements in the environment.  
 
 
 
 
* [[affinity chromatography]]
 
* [[affinity chromatography]]
 
+
A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry.  
A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry.  
 
 
 
 
* [[affordability]]
 
* [[affordability]]
 
+
Being able to bear the cost or to have the financial means for purchasing goods or services.  
Being able to bear the cost or to have the financial means for purchasing goods or services.  
 
 
 
 
* [[afforestation]]
 
* [[afforestation]]
 
+
The establishment of a tree crop on an area from which it has always or very long been absent.  
The establishment of a tree crop on an area from which it has always or very long been absent.  
 
 
 
 
* [[aflatrem]]
 
* [[aflatrem]]
 
+
A potent tremorgenic mycotoxin produced by Aspergillus flavus.  
A potent tremorgenic mycotoxin produced by Aspergillus flavus.  
 
 
 
 
* [[African horse sickness]]
 
* [[African horse sickness]]
 
+
An insect-borne reovirus infection of horses, mules and donkeys in Africa and the Middle East; characterized by pulmonary edema, cardiac involvement, and edema of the head and neck.  
An insect-borne reovirus infection of horses, mules and donkeys in Africa and the Middle East; characterized by pulmonary edema, cardiac involvement, and edema of the head and neck.  
 
 
 
 
* [[African horse sickness virus]]
 
* [[African horse sickness virus]]
 
+
A species of Orbivirus that causes disease in horses, mules, and donkeys and can also infect other animals such as dogs, cattle, sheep, goats and humans. The virus is transmitted by blood-sucking (hematophagous) insects - usually biting midges of the genus Culicoides.  
A species of Orbivirus that causes disease in horses, mules, and donkeys and can also infect other animals such as dogs, cattle, sheep, goats and humans. The virus is transmitted by blood-sucking (hematophagous) insects - usually biting midges of the genus Culicoides.  
 
 
 
 
* [[African swine fever]]
 
* [[African swine fever]]
 
+
A sometimes fatal Asfivirus infection of pigs, characterized by fever, cough, diarrhea, hemorrhagic lymph nodes, and edema of the gallbladder. It is transmitted between domestic swine by direct contact, ingestion of infected meat, or fomites, or mechanically by biting flies or soft ticks (genus Ornithodoros).  
A sometimes fatal Asfivirus infection of pigs, characterized by fever, cough, diarrhea, hemorrhagic lymph nodes, and edema of the gallbladder. It is transmitted between domestic swine by direct contact, ingestion of infected meat, or fomites, or mechanically by biting flies or soft ticks (genus Ornithodoros).  
 
 
 
 
* [[African swine fever virus]]
 
* [[African swine fever virus]]
 
+
A sometimes fatal Asfivirus infection of pigs, characterized by fever, cough, diarrhea, hemorrhagic lymph nodes, and edema of the gallbladder. It is transmitted between domestic swine by direct contact, ingestion of infected meat, or fomites, or mechanically by biting flies or soft ticks (genus Ornithodoros).  
A sometimes fatal Asfivirus infection of pigs, characterized by fever, cough, diarrhea, hemorrhagic lymph nodes, and edema of the gallbladder. It is transmitted between domestic swine by direct contact, ingestion of infected meat, or fomites, or mechanically by biting flies or soft ticks (genus Ornithodoros).  
 
 
 
 
* [[after-ripening]]
 
* [[after-ripening]]
 
+
The dormancy period following seed formation, necessary for embryo changes that insure germination.  
The dormancy period following seed formation, necessary for embryo changes that insure germination.  
 
 
 
 
* [[agar gel electrophoresis]]
 
* [[agar gel electrophoresis]]
 
+
Electrophoresis in which agar or agarose gel is used as the diffusion medium.  
Electrophoresis in which agar or agarose gel is used as the diffusion medium.  
 
 
 
 
* [[agarose]]
 
* [[agarose]]
 
+
A polysaccharide present in agar and responsible for its gelling. It consists of residues of 3,6-anhydo-L-galactose and D-galactose. It is used as a medium for gel chromatography.  
A polysaccharide present in agar and responsible for its gelling. It consists of residues of 3,6-anhydo-L-galactose and D-galactose. It is used as a medium for gel chromatography.  
 
 
 
 
* [[agglomeration economies]]
 
* [[agglomeration economies]]
 
+
The benefits obtained when multiple companies are located near each other, due to decreased production costs and other advantages brought by network effects.  
The benefits obtained when multiple companies are located near each other, due to decreased production costs and other advantages brought by network effects.  
 
 
 
 
* [[aggregate exposure]]
 
* [[aggregate exposure]]
 
+
The sum total of all exposure to a specific biological, chemical or physical agent via relevant routes, pathways and sources.  
The sum total of all exposure to a specific biological, chemical or physical agent via relevant routes, pathways and sources.  
 
 
 
 
* [[aggregate fruits]]
 
* [[aggregate fruits]]
 
+
An aggregate fruit is basically a cluster of simple fruits (fruitlets) that are produced from several separate carpels of a single flower, e.g., strawberry, blackberry, etc.  
An aggregate fruit is basically a cluster of simple fruits (fruitlets) that are produced from several separate carpels of a single flower, e.g., strawberry, blackberry, etc.  
 
 
 
 
* [[aggregate stability]]
 
* [[aggregate stability]]
 
+
The ability of soil aggregates to resist degradation. An aggregate is many soil particles held together in a small mass. In a "well-aggregated soil" the aggregates and pores between them hold up well to forces such as rain, wind, and compaction.  
The ability of soil aggregates to resist degradation. An aggregate is many soil particles held together in a small mass. In a "well-aggregated soil" the aggregates and pores between them hold up well to forces such as rain, wind, and compaction.  
 
 
 
 
* [[agonistic behavior]]
 
* [[agonistic behavior]]
 
+
Agressive or defensive social behavior such as fighting, fleeing or submitting between individuals usually of the same species.  
Agressive or defensive social behavior such as fighting, fleeing or submitting between individuals usually of the same species.  
 
 
 
 
* [[agribusiness]]
 
* [[agribusiness]]
 
+
A business that earns revenue from agriculture.  
A business that earns revenue from agriculture.  
 
 
 
 
* [[Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1933]]
 
* [[Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1933]]
 
+
Signed May 12, 1933, this law introduced the price support programs, including production adjustments, and the incorporation of the Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC), under the laws of the State of Delaware on October 17, 1933. The program benefits were financed mostly by processing taxes on the specific commodity. The Act also made price support loans by the CCC mandatory for the designated "basic" (storable) commodities: corn, wheat, and cotton. Support for other commodities was authorized upon the recommendation by the Secretary of Agriculture with the President's approval.  
Signed May 12, 1933, this law introduced the price support programs, including production adjustments, and the incorporation of the Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC), under the laws of the State of Delaware on October 17, 1933. The program benefits were financed mostly by processing taxes on the specific commodity. The Act also made price support loans by the CCC mandatory for the designated "basic" (storable) commodities: corn, wheat, and cotton. Support for other commodities was authorized upon the recommendation by the Secretary of Agriculture with the President's approval.  
 
 
 
 
* [[Agricultural Agreement]]
 
* [[Agricultural Agreement]]
 
+
The agreement within the World Trade Organization that commits members to improving market access and reducing subsidies which distort trade in agriculture, starting with tariffication.  
The agreement within the World Trade Organization that commits members to improving market access and reducing subsidies which distort trade in agriculture, starting with tariffication.  
 
 
 
 
* [[agricultural biotechnology]]
 
* [[agricultural biotechnology]]
 
+
The use of living organisms, cells or cell constituents for the purpose of developing agricultural products or improving livestock or crop plants.  
The use of living organisms, cells or cell constituents for the purpose of developing agricultural products or improving livestock or crop plants.  
 
 
 
 
* [[agricultural colleges]]
 
* [[agricultural colleges]]
 
+
Educational institutions offering a curriculum in agricultural sciences.  
Educational institutions offering a curriculum in agricultural sciences.  
 
 
 
 
* [[agricultural conservation practice]]
 
* [[agricultural conservation practice]]
 
+
Methods which reduce soil erosion and retain soil moisture. Major conservation practices include conservation tillage, crop rotation, contour farming, strip cropping, terraces, diversions, and grassed waterways.  
Methods which reduce soil erosion and retain soil moisture. Major conservation practices include conservation tillage, crop rotation, contour farming, strip cropping, terraces, diversions, and grassed waterways.  
 
 
 
 
* [[agricultural engineering]]
 
* [[agricultural engineering]]
 
+
Discipline which includes the design of machinery, equipment and structures used for agricultural operations and the storage and processing of agricultural commodities.  
Discipline which includes the design of machinery, equipment and structures used for agricultural operations and the storage and processing of agricultural commodities.  
 
 
 
 
* [[agricultural experiment stations]]
 
* [[agricultural experiment stations]]
 
+
Centers where scientific research is conducted in order to improve food and agricultural production. Experiment station scientists and staff work with farmers and other members of the agriculture and food industry.  
Centers where scientific research is conducted in order to improve food and agricultural production. Experiment station scientists and staff work with farmers and other members of the agriculture and food industry.  
 
 
 
 
* [[agricultural health and safety]]
 
* [[agricultural health and safety]]
 
+
The promotion of a safe and healthy environment to support the physical and mental well-being among humans engaged in agricultural activities.  
The promotion of a safe and healthy environment to support the physical and mental well-being among humans engaged in agricultural activities.  
 
 
 
 
* [[agricultural industry]]
 
* [[agricultural industry]]
 
+
The Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing and Hunting sector comprises establishments primarily engaged in growing crops, raising animals, harvesting timber, and harvesting fish and other animals from a farm, ranch, or their natural habitats.  
The Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing and Hunting sector comprises establishments primarily engaged in growing crops, raising animals, harvesting timber, and harvesting fish and other animals from a farm, ranch, or their natural habitats.  
 
 
 
 
* [[agricultural land]]
 
* [[agricultural land]]
 
+
Land used primarily for the production of farm commodities. The categories of "agricultural land" are: cropland and pasture; orchards, groves, vineyards, bush fruits, and horticultural areas (such as nurseries); feeding operations; and other.  
Land used primarily for the production of farm commodities. The categories of "agricultural land" are: cropland and pasture; orchards, groves, vineyards, bush fruits, and horticultural areas (such as nurseries); feeding operations; and other.  
 
 
 
 
* [[agricultural productivity]]
 
* [[agricultural productivity]]
 
+
The efficiency with which inputs are transformed into outputs in the agricultural sector. Agricultural productivity is driven by innovations in on farm tasks, changes in the organization and structure of the farm sector, research aimed at improvements in farm production, and/or random events like weather.  
The efficiency with which inputs are transformed into outputs in the agricultural sector. Agricultural productivity is driven by innovations in on farm tasks, changes in the organization and structure of the farm sector, research aimed at improvements in farm production, and/or random events like weather.  
 
 
 
 
* [[agricultural zoning]]
 
* [[agricultural zoning]]
 
+
Zoning which restricts land uses to agriculture and other low-density uses.  
Zoning which restricts land uses to agriculture and other low-density uses.  
 
 
 
 
* [[agriculture]]
 
* [[agriculture]]
 
+
The science or practice of farming, including growing crops and raising animals for the production of food, fiber, fuel and other products.  
The science or practice of farming, including growing crops and raising animals for the production of food, fiber, fuel and other products.  
 
 
 
 
* [[agrivoltaic systems]]
 
* [[agrivoltaic systems]]
 
+
Agrivoltaics is an arrangement of land use that collocates agriculture and solar photo-voltaic panels. This system helps in producing crops and electricity simultaneously from a single land unit.  
Agrivoltaics is an arrangement of land use that collocates agriculture and solar photo-voltaic panels. This system helps in producing crops and electricity simultaneously from a single land unit.  
 
 
 
 
* [[agrobiodiversity]]
 
* [[agrobiodiversity]]
 
+
Agrobiodiversity is a fundamental feature of farming systems around the world. It encompasses many types of biological resources tied to agriculture, including: genetic resources - the essential living materials of plants and animals; edible plants and crops, including traditional varieties, cultivars, hybrids, and other genetic material developed by breeders; and livestock (small and large, lineal breeds or thoroughbreds) and freshwater fish; soil organisms vital to soil fertility, structure, quality, and soil health; naturally occurring insects, bacteria, and fungi that control insect pests and diseases of domesticated plants and animals; agroecosystem components and types (polycultural/monocultural, small/large scale, rainfed/irrigated, etc.) indispensable for nutrient cycling, stability, and productivity; and 'wild' resources (species and elements) of natural habitats and landscapes that can provide services (for example, pest control and ecosystem stability) to agriculture. Agrobiodiversity therefore includes not only a wide variety of species, but also the many ways in which farmers can exploit biological diversity to produce and manage crops, land, water, insects, and biota.  
Agrobiodiversity is a fundamental feature of farming systems around the world. It encompasses many types of biological resources tied to agriculture, including: genetic resources - the essential living materials of plants and animals; edible plants and crops, including traditional varieties, cultivars, hybrids, and other genetic material developed by breeders; and livestock (small and large, lineal breeds or thoroughbreds) and freshwater fish; soil organisms vital to soil fertility, structure, quality, and soil health; naturally occurring insects, bacteria, and fungi that control insect pests and diseases of domesticated plants and animals; agroecosystem components and types (polycultural/monocultural, small/large scale, rainfed/irrigated, etc.) indispensable for nutrient cycling, stability, and productivity; and 'wild' resources (species and elements) of natural habitats and landscapes that can provide services (for example, pest control and ecosystem stability) to agriculture. Agrobiodiversity therefore includes not only a wide variety of species, but also the many ways in which farmers can exploit biological diversity to produce and manage crops, land, water, insects, and biota.  
 
 
 
 
* [[agroecological zones]]
 
* [[agroecological zones]]
 
+
Land areas classified by their biophysical attributes, (such as rainfed soil moisture availability, temperature, length of growing period), in order to cluster land use types into homogenous units for agricultural production considerations.  
Land areas classified by their biophysical attributes, (such as rainfed soil moisture availability, temperature, length of growing period), in order to cluster land use types into homogenous units for agricultural production considerations.  
 
 
 
 
* [[agroecology]]
 
* [[agroecology]]
 
+
The design, development and management of sustainable agroecosystems based on the application of ecological principles while considering existing social, cultural, and economic factors of farming communities.  
The design, development and management of sustainable agroecosystems based on the application of ecological principles while considering existing social, cultural, and economic factors of farming communities.  
 
 
 
 
* [[agroecosystems]]
 
* [[agroecosystems]]
 
+
Land used for crops, pasture, and livestock; the adjacent uncultivated land that supports other vegetation and wildlife; and the associated atmosphere, the underlying soils, groundwater, and drainage networks.  
Land used for crops, pasture, and livestock; the adjacent uncultivated land that supports other vegetation and wildlife; and the associated atmosphere, the underlying soils, groundwater, and drainage networks.  
 
 
 
 
* [[Agroelymus]]
 
* [[Agroelymus]]
 
+
Intergeneric hybrid of Agropyron x Elymus.  
Intergeneric hybrid of Agropyron x Elymus.  
 
 
 
 
* [[agroforestry]]
 
* [[agroforestry]]
 
+
An agroforestry system is a form of multiple land use where woody perennials (trees, shrubs, bamboos, palm trees, woody lianas) are grown on the same land management unit with crops and/or animals.  
An agroforestry system is a form of multiple land use where woody perennials (trees, shrubs, bamboos, palm trees, woody lianas) are grown on the same land management unit with crops and/or animals.  
 
 
 
 
* [[Agrohordeum]]
 
* [[Agrohordeum]]
 
+
Intergeneric hybrid of Agropyron x Hordeum.  
Intergeneric hybrid of Agropyron x Hordeum.  
 
 
 
 
* [[agroinfiltration]]
 
* [[agroinfiltration]]
 
+
A technique for genetic transformation of plants by injection or vacuum infiltration of Agrobacterium or a plant virus carrying a desired gene, thereby providing a system for monitoring transient gene expression.  
A technique for genetic transformation of plants by injection or vacuum infiltration of Agrobacterium or a plant virus carrying a desired gene, thereby providing a system for monitoring transient gene expression.  
 
 
 
 
* [[agromedicine]]
 
* [[agromedicine]]
 
+
The study and treatment of human health related to agriculture. The application of medical and agricultural sciences to promote the health and safety of farm families, agricultural workers, and consumers of agricultural products.  
The study and treatment of human health related to agriculture. The application of medical and agricultural sciences to promote the health and safety of farm families, agricultural workers, and consumers of agricultural products.  
 
 
 
 
* [[agronomy]]
 
* [[agronomy]]
 
+
The science of crop production and soil management.  
The science of crop production and soil management.  
 
 
 
 
* [[agropastoralism]]
 
* [[agropastoralism]]
 
+
The form of farming that combines crop production with extensive livestock rearing.  
The form of farming that combines crop production with extensive livestock rearing.  
 
 
 
 
* [[agropisciculture]]
 
* [[agropisciculture]]
 
+
The practice of freshwater aquaculture with agriculture (crop production) concurrently or alternately.  
The practice of freshwater aquaculture with agriculture (crop production) concurrently or alternately.  
 
 
 
 
* [[Agropogon]]
 
* [[Agropogon]]
 
+
Intergeneric hybrid of Agrostis x Polypogon.  
Intergeneric hybrid of Agrostis x Polypogon.  
 
 
 
 
* [[agrosilvopastoral systems]]
 
* [[agrosilvopastoral systems]]
 
+
Farming systems with livestock, woody perennials, pastures and food crops.  
Farming systems with livestock, woody perennials, pastures and food crops.  
 
 
 
 
* [[Agrotriticum]]
 
* [[Agrotriticum]]
 
+
Intergeneric hybrid of Agropyron x Triticum.  
Intergeneric hybrid of Agropyron x Triticum.  
 
 
 
 
* [[air drying]]
 
* [[air drying]]
 
+
Dried by exposure to air without artificial heat.  
Dried by exposure to air without artificial heat.  
 
 
 
 
* [[air ionization]]
 
* [[air ionization]]
 
+
The dissociation of molecules in the air into positive and negative ions under the influence of an electric field.  
The dissociation of molecules in the air into positive and negative ions under the influence of an electric field.  
 
 
 
 
* [[air layering]]
 
* [[air layering]]
 
+
Inducing root development on an undetached aerial portion of a plant, commonly by wounding it, treating it with a rooting-stimulant, and wrapping it in moist material under a waterproof covering, so that the portion so treated is capable of independent growth after separation from the mother plant.  
Inducing root development on an undetached aerial portion of a plant, commonly by wounding it, treating it with a rooting-stimulant, and wrapping it in moist material under a waterproof covering, so that the portion so treated is capable of independent growth after separation from the mother plant.  
 
 
 
 
* [[air pollution]]
 
* [[air pollution]]
 
+
Any substance or energy form (heat, light, noise, etc.) which alters the state of the air from what would naturally occur. Especially associated with those altered states whose physical, chemical, biological, psychological or aesthetic impacts have been decreed to be undesirable by human value judgments.  
Any substance or energy form (heat, light, noise, etc.) which alters the state of the air from what would naturally occur. Especially associated with those altered states whose physical, chemical, biological, psychological or aesthetic impacts have been decreed to be undesirable by human value judgments.  
 
 
 
 
* [[air sparging]]
 
* [[air sparging]]
 
+
Air sparging is an in situ remedial technology that reduces concentrations of volatile constituents in petroleum products that are adsorbed to soils and dissolved in groundwater. It involves the injection of contaminant-free air into the subsurface saturated zone, enabling a phase transfer of hydrocarbons from a dissolved state to a vapor phase. The air is then vented through the unsaturated zone.  
Air sparging is an in situ remedial technology that reduces concentrations of volatile constituents in petroleum products that are adsorbed to soils and dissolved in groundwater. It involves the injection of contaminant-free air into the subsurface saturated zone, enabling a phase transfer of hydrocarbons from a dissolved state to a vapor phase. The air is then vented through the unsaturated zone.  
 
 
 
 
* [[air transportation]]
 
* [[air transportation]]
 
+
Transport of people and goods by aircraft.  
Transport of people and goods by aircraft.  
 
 
 
 
* [[airborne transmission]]
 
* [[airborne transmission]]
 
+
The spread of a biological, chemical or physical agent through the air, typically over distances greater than one meter from the source.  
The spread of a biological, chemical or physical agent through the air, typically over distances greater than one meter from the source.  
 
 
 
 
* [[airshed]]
 
* [[airshed]]
 
+
A region with common sources and problems of air pollution; it may coincide with a watershed or be a part of a large urban agglomeration.  
A region with common sources and problems of air pollution; it may coincide with a watershed or be a part of a large urban agglomeration.  
 
 
 
 
* [[alamethicin]]
 
* [[alamethicin]]
 
+
A group of closely related cyclic undecapeptides from the fungi Trichoderma polysporum and Cylindocarpon lucidum. They have some antineoplastic and antifungal action and significant immunosuppressive effects. Cyclosporins have been proposed as adjuvants in tissue and organ transplantation to suppress graft rejection.  
A group of closely related cyclic undecapeptides from the fungi Trichoderma polysporum and Cylindocarpon lucidum. They have some antineoplastic and antifungal action and significant immunosuppressive effects. Cyclosporins have been proposed as adjuvants in tissue and organ transplantation to suppress graft rejection.  
 
 
 
 
* [[alanine-tRNA ligase]]
 
* [[alanine-tRNA ligase]]
 
+
An enzyme that activates alanine with its specific transfer RNA.  
An enzyme that activates alanine with its specific transfer RNA.  
 
 
 
 
* [[ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable)]]
 
* [[ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable)]]
 
+
A guideline for reducing known risks by minimizing exposures, considering costs, public health benefits, safety, and other social and economic issues.  
A guideline for reducing known risks by minimizing exposures, considering costs, public health benefits, safety, and other social and economic issues.  
 
 
 
 
* [[albedo (citrus fruit)]]
 
* [[albedo (citrus fruit)]]
 
+
The white spongy portion of the citrus peel.  
The white spongy portion of the citrus peel.  
 
 
 
 
* [[albedo (reflectance)]]
 
* [[albedo (reflectance)]]
 
+
The fraction of the total radiation incident on a body that is reflected by it. The ratio of reflected to incident light.  
The fraction of the total radiation incident on a body that is reflected by it. The ratio of reflected to incident light.  
 
 
 
 
* [[albino]]
 
* [[albino]]
 
+
animals or plants with absence of pigmentation. In animals, lacking pigmentation in the hair, eyes, and skin. In plants, partial or total lacking of natural pigments or chlorophyll.  
animals or plants with absence of pigmentation. In animals, lacking pigmentation in the hair, eyes, and skin. In plants, partial or total lacking of natural pigments or chlorophyll.  
 
 
 
 
* [[albuminuria]]
 
* [[albuminuria]]
 
+
A pathological condition of having too much albumin in the urine.  
A pathological condition of having too much albumin in the urine.  
 
 
 
 
* [[alcohol drinking]]
 
* [[alcohol drinking]]
 
+
Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.  
Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.  
 
 
 
 
* [[alcoholic hepatitis]]
 
* [[alcoholic hepatitis]]
 
+
Inflammation of the liver due to alcohol abuse. It is characterized by necrosis of hepatocytes, infiltration by neutrophils, and deposit of Mallory bodies. Depending on its severity, the inflammatory lesion may be reversible or progress to liver cirrhosis.  
Inflammation of the liver due to alcohol abuse. It is characterized by necrosis of hepatocytes, infiltration by neutrophils, and deposit of Mallory bodies. Depending on its severity, the inflammatory lesion may be reversible or progress to liver cirrhosis.  
 
 
 
 
* [[alcoholysis]]
 
* [[alcoholysis]]
 
+
A chemical reaction in which a chemical bond is broken by the addition of an alcohol.  
A chemical reaction in which a chemical bond is broken by the addition of an alcohol.  
 
 
 
 
* [[Aleutian mink disease]]
 
* [[Aleutian mink disease]]
 
+
A slow progressive disease of mink caused by the Aleutian mink disease virus. It is characterized by poor reproduction, weight loss, autoimmunity, hypergammaglobulinemia, increased susceptibility to bacterial infections, and death from renal failure. The disease occurs in all color types, but mink which are homozygous recessive for the Aleutian gene for light coat color are particularly susceptible.  
A slow progressive disease of mink caused by the Aleutian mink disease virus. It is characterized by poor reproduction, weight loss, autoimmunity, hypergammaglobulinemia, increased susceptibility to bacterial infections, and death from renal failure. The disease occurs in all color types, but mink which are homozygous recessive for the Aleutian gene for light coat color are particularly susceptible.  
 
 
 
 
* [[alevins]]
 
* [[alevins]]
 
+
Larval salmonid fish which derive nutrients from their yolk sac and reside in the spawning site.  
Larval salmonid fish which derive nutrients from their yolk sac and reside in the spawning site.  
 
 
 
 
* [[alfalfa]]
 
* [[alfalfa]]
 
+
A valuable leguminous crop for forage or hay used in livestock feeding.  
A valuable leguminous crop for forage or hay used in livestock feeding.  
 
 
 
 
* [[algal blooms]]
 
* [[algal blooms]]
 
+
A readily visible, high concentration of algal growth or aggregation of algae in or on the surface layer of a body of water.  
A readily visible, high concentration of algal growth or aggregation of algae in or on the surface layer of a body of water.  
 
 
 
 
* [[algicides]]
 
* [[algicides]]
 
+
Pesticides that control algae in lakes, canals, swimming pools, water tanks, and other sites.  
Pesticides that control algae in lakes, canals, swimming pools, water tanks, and other sites.  
 
 
 
 
* [[algivores]]
 
* [[algivores]]
 
+
An organism that feeds on algae.  
An organism that feeds on algae.  
 
 
 
 
* [[alkadienes]]
 
* [[alkadienes]]
 
+
Acyclic branched or unbranched hydrocarbons having two carbon-carbon double bonds.  
Acyclic branched or unbranched hydrocarbons having two carbon-carbon double bonds.  
 
 
 
 
* [[alkali silica reaction]]
 
* [[alkali silica reaction]]
 
+
ASR is a chemical combining of reactive silica from the concrete aggregate with the alkali from the cement paste in the presence of moisture. The result of the reaction is a gel, which can expand and may cause micro-cracks in the concrete.  
ASR is a chemical combining of reactive silica from the concrete aggregate with the alkali from the cement paste in the presence of moisture. The result of the reaction is a gel, which can expand and may cause micro-cracks in the concrete.  
 
 
 
 
* [[alkali spreading value]]
 
* [[alkali spreading value]]
 
+
A test for estimating the gelatinization temperature of starch utilizing a seven point scale of the degree of spreading of milled rice grains in potassium hydroxide solution.  
A test for estimating the gelatinization temperature of starch utilizing a seven point scale of the degree of spreading of milled rice grains in potassium hydroxide solution.  
 
 
 
 
* [[alkaline soils]]
 
* [[alkaline soils]]
 
+
Soil with a pH of more than 7.0.  
Soil with a pH of more than 7.0.  
 
 
 
 
* [[alkalosis]]
 
* [[alkalosis]]
 
+
A pathological condition that removes acid or adds base to the body fluids.  
A pathological condition that removes acid or adds base to the body fluids.  
 
 
 
 
* [[alkenes]]
 
* [[alkenes]]
 
+
Unsaturated hydrocarbons of the type Cn-H2n, indicated by the suffix -ene.  
Unsaturated hydrocarbons of the type Cn-H2n, indicated by the suffix -ene.  
 
 
 
 
* [[alkyd resins]]
 
* [[alkyd resins]]
 
+
Synthetic polyester resins which are used in paints, adhesives and varnishes.  
Synthetic polyester resins which are used in paints, adhesives and varnishes.  
 
 
 
 
* [[alkylation]]
 
* [[alkylation]]
 
+
The covalent bonding of an alkyl group to an organic compound. It can occur by a simple addition reaction or by substitution of another functional group.  
The covalent bonding of an alkyl group to an organic compound. It can occur by a simple addition reaction or by substitution of another functional group.  
 
 
 
 
* [[Allee effect]]
 
* [[Allee effect]]
 
+
Decline in population growth rate at low population sizes.  
Decline in population growth rate at low population sizes.  
 
 
 
 
* [[Allegheny Mountain region]]
 
* [[Allegheny Mountain region]]
 
+
Mountain area that is part of the Appalachian Mountain region which is west of and generally runs parallel to the Blue Ridge Mountain Region.  
Mountain area that is part of the Appalachian Mountain region which is west of and generally runs parallel to the Blue Ridge Mountain Region.  
 
 
 
 
* [[alleles]]
 
* [[alleles]]
 
+
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous chromosomes, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.  
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous chromosomes, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.  
 
 
 
 
* [[allelic dropouts]]
 
* [[allelic dropouts]]
 
+
Inability to detect or identify one or both allelic copies of a genetic locus after nucleic acid amplification. It results in a heterozygous cell appearing to be homozygous.  
Inability to detect or identify one or both allelic copies of a genetic locus after nucleic acid amplification. It results in a heterozygous cell appearing to be homozygous.  
 
 
 
 
* [[allelic imbalance]]
 
* [[allelic imbalance]]
 
+
A situation where one member (allele) of a gene pair is lost (loss of heterozygosity) or amplified.  
A situation where one member (allele) of a gene pair is lost (loss of heterozygosity) or amplified.  
 
 
 
 
* [[allelochemicals]]
 
* [[allelochemicals]]
 
+
Chemical substances released by one organism exerting behavioral or physiological effects in another organism, usually adversely.  
Chemical substances released by one organism exerting behavioral or physiological effects in another organism, usually adversely.  
 
 
 
 
* [[allelopathy]]
 
* [[allelopathy]]
 
+
The process by which organisms release chemical compounds known as allelochemicals which influence the physiology, growth, survival, colonization, and reproductive activities of other species usually located nearby.  
The process by which organisms release chemical compounds known as allelochemicals which influence the physiology, growth, survival, colonization, and reproductive activities of other species usually located nearby.  
 
 
 
 
* [[allergens]]
 
* [[allergens]]
 
+
A substance, usually a protein, that can cause an allergy or allergic reaction in the body.  
A substance, usually a protein, that can cause an allergy or allergic reaction in the body.  
 
 
 
 
* [[allergic rhinitis]]
 
* [[allergic rhinitis]]
 
+
An inflammation of the nasal mucosa triggered by allergens.  
An inflammation of the nasal mucosa triggered by allergens.  
 
 
 
 
* [[alley cropping]]
 
* [[alley cropping]]
 
+
A cropping system that involves growing crops in a wide strip, typically 6 meters in width, between lines of closely planted, fast-growing trees or shrubs. These woody species are usually leguminous and are pruned frequently to provide a mulching material and nutrients to the crop in the alley.  
A cropping system that involves growing crops in a wide strip, typically 6 meters in width, between lines of closely planted, fast-growing trees or shrubs. These woody species are usually leguminous and are pruned frequently to provide a mulching material and nutrients to the crop in the alley.  
 
 
 
 
* [[allied health professionals]]
 
* [[allied health professionals]]
 
+
Health care workers specially trained and licensed to assist and support the work of health professionals. Often used synonymously with paramedical personnel, the term generally refers to all health care workers who perform tasks which must otherwise be performed by a physician or other health professional.  
Health care workers specially trained and licensed to assist and support the work of health professionals. Often used synonymously with paramedical personnel, the term generally refers to all health care workers who perform tasks which must otherwise be performed by a physician or other health professional.  
 
 
 
 
* [[alligator farming]]
 
* [[alligator farming]]
 
+
The cultivation of alligators for food, leather, conservation or other purposes.  
The cultivation of alligators for food, leather, conservation or other purposes.  
 
 
 
 
* [[allografting]]
 
* [[allografting]]
 
+
Transplantation between individuals of the same species. Usually refers to genetically disparate individuals in contradistinction to isogeneic transplantation for genetically identical individuals.  
Transplantation between individuals of the same species. Usually refers to genetically disparate individuals in contradistinction to isogeneic transplantation for genetically identical individuals.  
 
 
 
 
* [[allometry]]
 
* [[allometry]]
 
+
The study of the growth rate of a part of an organism in relation to the growth rate of the entire organism, and the resulting change in proportion of various parts as the organism grows.  
The study of the growth rate of a part of an organism in relation to the growth rate of the entire organism, and the resulting change in proportion of various parts as the organism grows.  
 
 
 
 
* [[alloparental behavior]]
 
* [[alloparental behavior]]
 
+
Parent-like behavior (grooming, feeding, territorial defense, protection via increased vigilance over young etc.) of an adult animal expressed towards an individual that is not his or her offspring.  
Parent-like behavior (grooming, feeding, territorial defense, protection via increased vigilance over young etc.) of an adult animal expressed towards an individual that is not his or her offspring.  
 
 
 
 
* [[allopatric speciation]]
 
* [[allopatric speciation]]
 
+
A mechanism for the evolution of new species whereby two populations of a species which are geographically isolated and cannot interbreed gradually evolve through genetic divergence into two different species.  
A mechanism for the evolution of new species whereby two populations of a species which are geographically isolated and cannot interbreed gradually evolve through genetic divergence into two different species.  
 
 
 
 
* [[allopatry]]
 
* [[allopatry]]
 
+
Species or populations which are geographically separated and therefore cannot interbreed. Allopatric populations may exhibit phenotypic or genetic divergence with time.  
Species or populations which are geographically separated and therefore cannot interbreed. Allopatric populations may exhibit phenotypic or genetic divergence with time.  
 
 
 
 
* [[allopolyploidy]]
 
* [[allopolyploidy]]
 
+
Polyploidy in which two different species contribute one or more sets of chromosomes.  
Polyploidy in which two different species contribute one or more sets of chromosomes.  
 
 
 
 
* [[allowable cut]]
 
* [[allowable cut]]
 
+
The volume of timber which can be cut, under specified management plans during a given period.  
The volume of timber which can be cut, under specified management plans during a given period.  
 
 
 
 
* [[alloy nanoparticles]]
 
* [[alloy nanoparticles]]
 
+
Multimetallic nanoparticles in the 1-100 nm diameter range.  
Multimetallic nanoparticles in the 1-100 nm diameter range.  
 
 
 
 
* [[alloys]]
 
* [[alloys]]
 
+
Any of a large number of substances having metallic properties and consisting of two or more elements; with few exceptions, the components are usually metallic elements.  
Any of a large number of substances having metallic properties and consisting of two or more elements; with few exceptions, the components are usually metallic elements.  
 
 
 
 
* [[allozymes]]
 
* [[allozymes]]
 
+
An isozyme which differs from other variants of the enzyme as a result of an allelic difference. An allozyme differs in amino acid sequence from other forms of the same enzyme and is encoded by one allele at a single locus.  
An isozyme which differs from other variants of the enzyme as a result of an allelic difference. An allozyme differs in amino acid sequence from other forms of the same enzyme and is encoded by one allele at a single locus.  
 
 
 
 
* [[alluvial plains]]
 
* [[alluvial plains]]
 
+
A flat or gently sloping land that is gradually formed when sediments are deposited by the periodic flooding of streams or rivers.  
A flat or gently sloping land that is gradually formed when sediments are deposited by the periodic flooding of streams or rivers.  
 
 
 
 
* [[alluvial soils]]
 
* [[alluvial soils]]
 
+
Soils that have developed over time as sediments are deposited by the periodic flooding of streams or rivers.  
Soils that have developed over time as sediments are deposited by the periodic flooding of streams or rivers.  
 
 
 
 
* [[alluvium]]
 
* [[alluvium]]
 
+
The sedimentary matter such as silt, sand, clay, gravel or similar detrital matter deposited by running water, as in floodplains, deltas, riverbeds etc.  
The sedimentary matter such as silt, sand, clay, gravel or similar detrital matter deposited by running water, as in floodplains, deltas, riverbeds etc.  
 
 
 
 
* [[almond hulls]]
 
* [[almond hulls]]
 
+
The outermost green fleshy tissue of developing almond nut that later dries up and either falls on its own or removed mechanically. Once hulls are removed, almond shell is seen.  
The outermost green fleshy tissue of developing almond nut that later dries up and either falls on its own or removed mechanically. Once hulls are removed, almond shell is seen.  
 
 
 
 
* [[almond shells]]
 
* [[almond shells]]
 
+
The hard layer between the almond hull and the almond meat.  
The hard layer between the almond hull and the almond meat.  
 
 
 
 
* [[Almost Ideal Demand System]]
 
* [[Almost Ideal Demand System]]
 
+
A consumer demand model based on the flexible functional form approach, widely used in economics, to study and analyze consumer behavior.  
A consumer demand model based on the flexible functional form approach, widely used in economics, to study and analyze consumer behavior.  
 
 
 
 
* [[alpha-1 adrenergic receptors]]
 
* [[alpha-1 adrenergic receptors]]
 
+
A subclass of alpha-adrenergic receptors that mediate contraction of smooth muscle in a variety of tissues such as arterioles; veins; and the uterus. They are usually found on postsynaptic membranes and signal through Gq-G11 G-proteins.  
A subclass of alpha-adrenergic receptors that mediate contraction of smooth muscle in a variety of tissues such as arterioles; veins; and the uterus. They are usually found on postsynaptic membranes and signal through Gq-G11 G-proteins.  
 
 
 
 
* [[alpha-2 adrenergic receptors]]
 
* [[alpha-2 adrenergic receptors]]
 
+
A subclass of alpha-adrenergic receptors found on both presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes where they signal through Gi-Go G-proteins. While postsynaptic alpha-2 receptors play a traditional role in mediating the effects of adrenergic agonists, the subset of alpha-2 receptors found on presynaptic membranes signal the feedback inhibition of neurotransmitter release.  
A subclass of alpha-adrenergic receptors found on both presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes where they signal through Gi-Go G-proteins. While postsynaptic alpha-2 receptors play a traditional role in mediating the effects of adrenergic agonists, the subset of alpha-2 receptors found on presynaptic membranes signal the feedback inhibition of neurotransmitter release.  
 
 
 
 
* [[alpha-amanitin]]
 
* [[alpha-amanitin]]
 
+
A cyclic octapeptide with a thioether bridge between the cystine and tryptophan. It inhibits RNA polymerase II. Poisoning may require liver transplantation.  
A cyclic octapeptide with a thioether bridge between the cystine and tryptophan. It inhibits RNA polymerase II. Poisoning may require liver transplantation.  
 
 
 
 
* [[alpha-chlorohydrin]]
 
* [[alpha-chlorohydrin]]
 
+
A chlorinated propanediol with antifertility activity in males used as a chemosterilant in rodents.  
A chlorinated propanediol with antifertility activity in males used as a chemosterilant in rodents.  
 
 
 
 
* [[alpha-pinene]]
 
* [[alpha-pinene]]
 
+
A hydrocarbon of monoterpene class occurring in many essential oils.  
A hydrocarbon of monoterpene class occurring in many essential oils.  
 
 
 
 
* [[alpha adrenergic receptors]]
 
* [[alpha adrenergic receptors]]
 
+
One of the two major pharmacological subdivisions of adrenergic receptors that were originally defined by the relative potencies of various adrenergic compounds. The alpha receptors were initially described as excitatory receptors that post-junctionally stimulate smooth muscle contraction. However, further analysis has revealed a more complex picture involving several alpha receptor subtypes and their involvement in feedback regulation.  
One of the two major pharmacological subdivisions of adrenergic receptors that were originally defined by the relative potencies of various adrenergic compounds. The alpha receptors were initially described as excitatory receptors that post-junctionally stimulate smooth muscle contraction. However, further analysis has revealed a more complex picture involving several alpha receptor subtypes and their involvement in feedback regulation.  
 
 
 
 
* [[alpha catenin]]
 
* [[alpha catenin]]
 
+
A catenin that binds F-actin and links the cytoskeleton with beta catenin and gamma catenin.  
A catenin that binds F-actin and links the cytoskeleton with beta catenin and gamma catenin.  
 
 
 
 
* [[alpine meadows]]
 
* [[alpine meadows]]
 
+
Natural meadows occurring at high altitude, near or above treeline.  
Natural meadows occurring at high altitude, near or above treeline.  
 
 
 
 
* [[alpine tundra]]
 
* [[alpine tundra]]
 
+
A tundra that is treeless due to the high altitude and can occur at any latitude.  
A tundra that is treeless due to the high altitude and can occur at any latitude.  
 
 
 
 
* [[Alps region]]
 
* [[Alps region]]
 
+
Large mountain system of south-central Europe extending through Italy, France, Switzerland, Germany, Austria and the northwest Balkan peninsula.  
Large mountain system of south-central Europe extending through Italy, France, Switzerland, Germany, Austria and the northwest Balkan peninsula.  
 
 
 
 
* [[alternative farming]]
 
* [[alternative farming]]
 
+
Production methods other than energy- and chemical intensive one-crop (monoculture) farming. Alternatives include using animal and green manure rather than chemical fertilizers, integrated pest management instead of chemical pesticides, reduced tillage, crop rotation (especially with legumes to add nitrogen), alternative crops, or diversification of the farm enterprise.  
Production methods other than energy- and chemical intensive one-crop (monoculture) farming. Alternatives include using animal and green manure rather than chemical fertilizers, integrated pest management instead of chemical pesticides, reduced tillage, crop rotation (especially with legumes to add nitrogen), alternative crops, or diversification of the farm enterprise.  
 
 
 
 
* [[alternative fuels]]
 
* [[alternative fuels]]
 
+
Substitutes for traditional liquid, oil-derived motor vehicle fuels like gasoline and diesel. Includes methanol, ethanol, biodiesel, compressed natural gas, and others. The alternatives are promoted for pollution reduction properties and/or to reduce dependency on imported oil.  
Substitutes for traditional liquid, oil-derived motor vehicle fuels like gasoline and diesel. Includes methanol, ethanol, biodiesel, compressed natural gas, and others. The alternatives are promoted for pollution reduction properties and/or to reduce dependency on imported oil.  
 
 
 
 
* [[alternative medicine]]
 
* [[alternative medicine]]
 
+
Therapeutic practices which are not currently considered an integral part of conventional allopathic medical practice.  
Therapeutic practices which are not currently considered an integral part of conventional allopathic medical practice.  
 
 
 
 
* [[altimeters]]
 
* [[altimeters]]
 
+
Instruments for measuring altitude.  
Instruments for measuring altitude.  
 
 
 
 
* [[alum]]
 
* [[alum]]
 
+
A double sulphate formed of aluminium and some other element (esp. an alkali metal) or of aluminium. It has twenty-four molecules of water of crystallization. Common alum is the double sulphate of aluminium and potassium. It is white, transparent, very astringent, and crystallizes easily in octahedrons. The term is extended so as to include other double sulphates similar to alum in formula.  
A double sulphate formed of aluminium and some other element (esp. an alkali metal) or of aluminium. It has twenty-four molecules of water of crystallization. Common alum is the double sulphate of aluminium and potassium. It is white, transparent, very astringent, and crystallizes easily in octahedrons. The term is extended so as to include other double sulphates similar to alum in formula.  
 
 
 
 
* [[amanitins]]
 
* [[amanitins]]
 
+
Cyclic peptides extracted from carpophores of various mushroom species. They are potent inhibitors of RNA polymerases in most eukaryotic species, blocking the production of mRNA and protein synthesis. These peptides are important in the study of transcription. Alpha-amanitin is the main toxin from the species Amanitia phalloides, poisonous if ingested by humans or animals.  
Cyclic peptides extracted from carpophores of various mushroom species. They are potent inhibitors of RNA polymerases in most eukaryotic species, blocking the production of mRNA and protein synthesis. These peptides are important in the study of transcription. Alpha-amanitin is the main toxin from the species Amanitia phalloides, poisonous if ingested by humans or animals.  
 
 
 
 
* [[Amazonia]]
 
* [[Amazonia]]
 
+
The region immediately surrounding the Amazon River in South America.  
The region immediately surrounding the Amazon River in South America.  
 
 
 
 
* [[amber box]]
 
* [[amber box]]
 
+
All domestic support measures considered to distort production and trade, e.g. price supports or subsidies related to production quantities.  
All domestic support measures considered to distort production and trade, e.g. price supports or subsidies related to production quantities.  
 
 
 
 
* [[ambient pressure]]
 
* [[ambient pressure]]
 
+
Pressure of the surrounding medium.  
Pressure of the surrounding medium.  
 
 
 
 
* [[ambient temperature]]
 
* [[ambient temperature]]
 
+
Temperature of the surrounding medium.  
Temperature of the surrounding medium.  
 
 
 
 
* [[ambient water]]
 
* [[ambient water]]
 
+
Waterbodies in the environment in their current state (i.e., polluted or unpolluted).  
Waterbodies in the environment in their current state (i.e., polluted or unpolluted).  
 
 
 
 
* [[ambient water quality]]
 
* [[ambient water quality]]
 
+
Natural concentration of water quality constituents prior to mixing of either point or nonpoint source load of contaminants. Reference ambient concentration is used to indicate the concentration of a chemical that will not cause adverse impact to human health.  
Natural concentration of water quality constituents prior to mixing of either point or nonpoint source load of contaminants. Reference ambient concentration is used to indicate the concentration of a chemical that will not cause adverse impact to human health.  
 
 
 
 
* [[American Association for Laboratory Animal Science]]
 
* [[American Association for Laboratory Animal Science]]
 
+
American Association for Laboratory Animal Science (AALAS) is an association of professionals that advances responsible laboratory animal care and use to benefit people and animals.  
American Association for Laboratory Animal Science (AALAS) is an association of professionals that advances responsible laboratory animal care and use to benefit people and animals.  
 
 
 
 
* [[American Indians]]
 
* [[American Indians]]
 
+
Peoples indigenous to North, Central and South Americas, except Alaska.  
Peoples indigenous to North, Central and South Americas, except Alaska.  
 
 
 
 
* [[American Society for Cellular and Computational Toxicology]]
 
* [[American Society for Cellular and Computational Toxicology]]
 
+
The American Society for Cellular and Computational Toxicology (ASCCT) is a scientific society dedicated to the promotion of toxicology testing and research that reduces and replaces the use of animals.  
The American Society for Cellular and Computational Toxicology (ASCCT) is a scientific society dedicated to the promotion of toxicology testing and research that reduces and replaces the use of animals.  
 
 
 
 
* [[Ames test]]
 
* [[Ames test]]
 
+
A test for chemical carcinogenicity which determines how many histidine-negative mutant Salmonella typhimurium bacteria acquire the reverse mutation to wild-type due to exposure to the chemical in question.  
A test for chemical carcinogenicity which determines how many histidine-negative mutant Salmonella typhimurium bacteria acquire the reverse mutation to wild-type due to exposure to the chemical in question.  
 
 
 
 
* [[amides]]
 
* [[amides]]
 
+
Organic compounds containing the -CO-NH2 radical. Amides are derived from acids by replacement of -OH by -NH2 or from ammonia by the replacement of H by an acyl group.  
Organic compounds containing the -CO-NH2 radical. Amides are derived from acids by replacement of -OH by -NH2 or from ammonia by the replacement of H by an acyl group.  
 
 
 
 
* [[amikacin]]
 
* [[amikacin]]
 
+
A broad-spectrum antibiotic derived from kanamycin. It is reno- and oto-toxic like the other aminoglycoside antibiotics.  
A broad-spectrum antibiotic derived from kanamycin. It is reno- and oto-toxic like the other aminoglycoside antibiotics.  
 
 
 
 
* [[amination]]
 
* [[amination]]
 
+
The creation of an amine. It can be produced by the addition of an amino group to an organic compound or reduction of a nitro group.  
The creation of an amine. It can be produced by the addition of an amino group to an organic compound or reduction of a nitro group.  
 
 
 
 
* [[amino acid isomerases]]
 
* [[amino acid isomerases]]
 
+
Enzymes that catalyze either the racemization or epimerization of chiral centers within amino acids or derivatives.  
Enzymes that catalyze either the racemization or epimerization of chiral centers within amino acids or derivatives.  
 
 
 
 
* [[amino acid motifs]]
 
* [[amino acid motifs]]
 
+
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures.  
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures.  
 
 
 
 
* [[amino acid receptors]]
 
* [[amino acid receptors]]
 
+
Cell surface proteins that bind amino acids and trigger changes which influence the behavior of cells. Glutamate receptors are the most common receptors for fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the vertebrate central nervous system, and gamma-aminobutyric acid and glycine receptors are the most common receptors for fast inhibition.  
Cell surface proteins that bind amino acids and trigger changes which influence the behavior of cells. Glutamate receptors are the most common receptors for fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the vertebrate central nervous system, and gamma-aminobutyric acid and glycine receptors are the most common receptors for fast inhibition.  
 
 
 
 
* [[amino acid repeat sequences]]
 
* [[amino acid repeat sequences]]
 
+
A sequential pattern of amino acids occurring more than once in the same protein sequence. There often is some sequence variation between the repeated segments. Many protein domains are constituted from repeats.  
A sequential pattern of amino acids occurring more than once in the same protein sequence. There often is some sequence variation between the repeated segments. Many protein domains are constituted from repeats.  
 
 
 
 
* [[amino acid sequences]]
 
* [[amino acid sequences]]
 
+
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining protein conformation.  
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining protein conformation.  
 
 
 
 
* [[amino acid substitution]]
 
* [[amino acid substitution]]
 
+
The replacement of one or more amino acids in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish or eliminate protein function.  
The replacement of one or more amino acids in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish or eliminate protein function.  
 
 
 
 
* [[aminoacyl transfer RNA]]
 
* [[aminoacyl transfer RNA]]
 
+
Intermediates in protein biosynthesis. The compounds are formed from amino acids, ATP and transfer RNA, a reaction catalyzed by aminoacyl tRNA synthetase. They are key compounds in the genetic translation process.  
Intermediates in protein biosynthesis. The compounds are formed from amino acids, ATP and transfer RNA, a reaction catalyzed by aminoacyl tRNA synthetase. They are key compounds in the genetic translation process.  
 
 
 
 
* [[aminoacyl tRNA ligases]]
 
* [[aminoacyl tRNA ligases]]
 
+
A subclass of enzymes that aminoacylate amino acid-specific transfer RNA with their corresponding amino acids.  
A subclass of enzymes that aminoacylate amino acid-specific transfer RNA with their corresponding amino acids.  
 
 
 
 
* [[aminoacylation]]
 
* [[aminoacylation]]
 
+
A reaction that introduces an aminoacyl group to a molecule. Transfer RNA aminoacylation is the first step in genetic translation.  
A reaction that introduces an aminoacyl group to a molecule. Transfer RNA aminoacylation is the first step in genetic translation.  
 
 
 
 
* [[aminoarabinose]]
 
* [[aminoarabinose]]
 
+
An amino sugar which binds to a lipid in the outer coat of bacteria and may increase the antibiotic resistance of the bacteria.  
An amino sugar which binds to a lipid in the outer coat of bacteria and may increase the antibiotic resistance of the bacteria.  
 
 
 
 
* [[aminolysis]]
 
* [[aminolysis]]
 
+
Chemical reaction in which a molecule is split into two parts by reacting with an ammonia or amine molecule.  
Chemical reaction in which a molecule is split into two parts by reacting with an ammonia or amine molecule.  
 
 
 
 
* [[aminomethylation]]
 
* [[aminomethylation]]
 
+
Chemical reaction in which an amino-methyl group is introduced into a compound.  
Chemical reaction in which an amino-methyl group is introduced into a compound.  
 
 
 
 
* [[ammonium compounds]]
 
* [[ammonium compounds]]
 
+
Inorganic and organic compounds that contain the ion NH4+.  
Inorganic and organic compounds that contain the ion NH4+.  
 
 
 
 
* [[amnesia]]
 
* [[amnesia]]
 
+
Pathologic partial or complete loss of the ability to recall past experiences (amnesia, retrograde) or to form new memories (amnesia, anterograde). This condition may be of organic or psychologic origin. Organic forms of amnesia are usually associated with dysfunction of the diencephalon or hippocampus.  
Pathologic partial or complete loss of the ability to recall past experiences (amnesia, retrograde) or to form new memories (amnesia, anterograde). This condition may be of organic or psychologic origin. Organic forms of amnesia are usually associated with dysfunction of the diencephalon or hippocampus.  
 
 
 
 
* [[amoxicillin]]
 
* [[amoxicillin]]
 
+
A broad-spectrum semisynthetic antibiotic similar to ampicillin except that its resistance to gastric acid permits higher serum levels with oral administration.  
A broad-spectrum semisynthetic antibiotic similar to ampicillin except that its resistance to gastric acid permits higher serum levels with oral administration.  
 
 
 
 
* [[amphibian culture]]
 
* [[amphibian culture]]
 
+
The cultivation of amphibians for food or other purposes.  
The cultivation of amphibians for food or other purposes.  
 
 
 
 
* [[amphibian venoms]]
 
* [[amphibian venoms]]
 
+
Venoms produced by frogs, toads, salamanders, etc. The venom glands are usually on the skin of the back and contain cardiotoxic glycosides, cholinolytics, and a number of other bioactive materials, many of which have been characterized. The venoms have been used as arrow poisons and include bufogenin, bufotoxin, bufagin, bufotalin, histrionicotoxins, and pumiliotoxin.  
Venoms produced by frogs, toads, salamanders, etc. The venom glands are usually on the skin of the back and contain cardiotoxic glycosides, cholinolytics, and a number of other bioactive materials, many of which have been characterized. The venoms have been used as arrow poisons and include bufogenin, bufotoxin, bufagin, bufotalin, histrionicotoxins, and pumiliotoxin.  
 
 
 
 
* [[Amphipoda]]
 
* [[Amphipoda]]
 
+
An order of mostly marine Crustacea containing more than 5500 species in over 100 families. Like Isopoda the other large order in the superorder Peracarida, members are shrimp-like in appearance, have sessile compound eyes, and no carapace. But unlike Isopoda, they possess thoracic gills and their bodies are laterally compressed.  
An order of mostly marine Crustacea containing more than 5500 species in over 100 families. Like Isopoda the other large order in the superorder Peracarida, members are shrimp-like in appearance, have sessile compound eyes, and no carapace. But unlike Isopoda, they possess thoracic gills and their bodies are laterally compressed.  
 
 
 
 
* [[amphotericin B]]
 
* [[amphotericin B]]
 
+
Macrolide antifungal antibiotic produced by Streptomyces nodosus obtained from soil of the Orinoco river region of Venezuela.  
Macrolide antifungal antibiotic produced by Streptomyces nodosus obtained from soil of the Orinoco river region of Venezuela.  
 
 
 
 
* [[ampicillin]]
 
* [[ampicillin]]
 
+
Semi-synthetic derivative of penicillin that functions as an orally active broad-spectrum antibiotic.  
Semi-synthetic derivative of penicillin that functions as an orally active broad-spectrum antibiotic.  
 
 
 
 
* [[amygdala]]
 
* [[amygdala]]
 
+
Almond-shaped group of basal nuclei anterior to the inferior horn of the lateral ventricle of the temporal lobe. The amygdala is part of the limbic system.  
Almond-shaped group of basal nuclei anterior to the inferior horn of the lateral ventricle of the temporal lobe. The amygdala is part of the limbic system.  
 
 
 
 
* [[amylographs]]
 
* [[amylographs]]
 
+
Instruments that measure and record the change in viscosity of a heated flour-water slurry or paste due to starch gelatinization.  
Instruments that measure and record the change in viscosity of a heated flour-water slurry or paste due to starch gelatinization.  
 
 
 
 
* [[amyloid]]
 
* [[amyloid]]
 
+
A fibrous protein complex that consists of proteins folded into a specific cross beta-pleated sheet structure. This fibrillar structure has been found as an alternative folding pattern for a variety of functional proteins. Deposits of amyloid in the form of amyloid plaques are associated with a variety of degenerative diseases. The amyloid structure has also been found in a number of functional proteins that are unrelated to disease.  
A fibrous protein complex that consists of proteins folded into a specific cross beta-pleated sheet structure. This fibrillar structure has been found as an alternative folding pattern for a variety of functional proteins. Deposits of amyloid in the form of amyloid plaques are associated with a variety of degenerative diseases. The amyloid structure has also been found in a number of functional proteins that are unrelated to disease.  
 
 
 
 
* [[amyloid beta-peptides]]
 
* [[amyloid beta-peptides]]
 
+
Peptides generated from amyloid beta-peptides precursor. An amyloid fibrillar form of these peptides is the major component of amyloid plaques found in individuals with Alzheimer's disease and in aged individuals with trisomy 21 (down syndrome). The peptide is found predominantly in the nervous system, but there have been reports of its presence in non-neural tissue.  
Peptides generated from amyloid beta-peptides precursor. An amyloid fibrillar form of these peptides is the major component of amyloid plaques found in individuals with Alzheimer's disease and in aged individuals with trisomy 21 (down syndrome). The peptide is found predominantly in the nervous system, but there have been reports of its presence in non-neural tissue.  
 
 
 
 
* [[amyloidosis]]
 
* [[amyloidosis]]
 
+
A group of sporadic, familial and/or inherited, degenerative, and infectious disease processes, linked by the common theme of abnormal protein folding and deposition of amyloid. As the amyloid deposits enlarge they displace normal tissue structures, causing disruption of function. Various signs and symptoms depend on the location and size of the deposits.  
A group of sporadic, familial and/or inherited, degenerative, and infectious disease processes, linked by the common theme of abnormal protein folding and deposition of amyloid. As the amyloid deposits enlarge they displace normal tissue structures, causing disruption of function. Various signs and symptoms depend on the location and size of the deposits.  
 
 
 
 
* [[amyloplasts]]
 
* [[amyloplasts]]
 
+
Unpigmented plastids in plant cytoplasm involved in starch synthesis and storage.  
Unpigmented plastids in plant cytoplasm involved in starch synthesis and storage.  
 
 
 
 
* [[anadromous fish]]
 
* [[anadromous fish]]
 
+
Fish that migrate from saltwater to freshwater for reproduction.  
Fish that migrate from saltwater to freshwater for reproduction.  
 
 
 
 
* [[anaerobic conditions]]
 
* [[anaerobic conditions]]
 
+
The complete absence, or temporary absence, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given environment.  
The complete absence, or temporary absence, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given environment.  
 
 
 
 
* [[anaerobic digestion]]
 
* [[anaerobic digestion]]
 
+
A biochemical process which utilizes bacteria in the absence of oxygen to decompose organic matter, whereby methane and other byproducts are produced.  
A biochemical process which utilizes bacteria in the absence of oxygen to decompose organic matter, whereby methane and other byproducts are produced.  
 
 
 
 
* [[anaerobiosis]]
 
* [[anaerobiosis]]
 
+
The production of energy from nutrients without using oxygen.  
The production of energy from nutrients without using oxygen.  
 
 
 
 
* [[analgesia]]
 
* [[analgesia]]
 
+
Methods of pain relief that may be used with or in place of analgesics.  
Methods of pain relief that may be used with or in place of analgesics.  
 
 
 
 
* [[analgesic effect]]
 
* [[analgesic effect]]
 
+
Compounds possessing pain-relieving properties.  
Compounds possessing pain-relieving properties.  
 
 
 
 
* [[analgesics]]
 
* [[analgesics]]
 
+
Compounds capable of relieving pain without the loss of consciousness.  
Compounds capable of relieving pain without the loss of consciousness.  
 
 
 
 
* [[analysis of variance]]
 
* [[analysis of variance]]
 
+
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.  
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.  
 
 
 
 
* [[analytical specificity]]
 
* [[analytical specificity]]
 
+
The degree to which a test can reliably distinguish between the analyte of interest and other components in the sample.  
The degree to which a test can reliably distinguish between the analyte of interest and other components in the sample.  
 
 
 
 
* [[anamorphs]]
 
* [[anamorphs]]
 
+
The asexual form of a fungus.  
The asexual form of a fungus.  
 
 
 
 
* [[anaphase promoting complex]]
 
* [[anaphase promoting complex]]
 
+
An E3 ubiquitin ligase primarily involved in regulation of the metaphase-to-anaphase transition during mitosis through ubiquitination of specific cell cycle proteins. Enzyme activity is tightly regulated through subunits and cofactors, which modulate activation, inhibition, and substrate specificity. The anaphase-promoting complex, or APC-C, is also involved in tissue differentiation in the placenta, crystalline lens, and skeletal muscle, and in regulation of postmitotic neuronal plasticity and excitability.  
An E3 ubiquitin ligase primarily involved in regulation of the metaphase-to-anaphase transition during mitosis through ubiquitination of specific cell cycle proteins. Enzyme activity is tightly regulated through subunits and cofactors, which modulate activation, inhibition, and substrate specificity. The anaphase-promoting complex, or APC-C, is also involved in tissue differentiation in the placenta, crystalline lens, and skeletal muscle, and in regulation of postmitotic neuronal plasticity and excitability.  
 
 
 
 
* [[Anaplasma]]
 
* [[Anaplasma]]
 
+
A genus of bacteria that is vectored by ticks, biting flies and other fomites to cause disease in canids, humans, and ruminants.  
A genus of bacteria that is vectored by ticks, biting flies and other fomites to cause disease in canids, humans, and ruminants.  
 
 
 
 
* [[anautogeny]]
 
* [[anautogeny]]
 
+
Reproduction in which a blood meal or ingested food is required for egg development, as in some species of parasitic Diptera.  
Reproduction in which a blood meal or ingested food is required for egg development, as in some species of parasitic Diptera.  
 
 
 
 
* [[ancient lakes]]
 
* [[ancient lakes]]
 
+
Lakes consistently carrying water for more than one million years.  
Lakes consistently carrying water for more than one million years.  
 
 
 
 
* [[Andes region]]
 
* [[Andes region]]
 
+
The area of the great mountain system of South America, extending 4500 miles along the entire west coast of South America from Tierra del Fuego in the south to Panama in the north and crossing through the countries of Venezuela, Bolivia, Ecuador, Colombia, Peru, Chile and Argentina. The Andes region is made up of several parallel ranges, called cordilleras.  
The area of the great mountain system of South America, extending 4500 miles along the entire west coast of South America from Tierra del Fuego in the south to Panama in the north and crossing through the countries of Venezuela, Bolivia, Ecuador, Colombia, Peru, Chile and Argentina. The Andes region is made up of several parallel ranges, called cordilleras.  
 
 
 
 
* [[andesite]]
 
* [[andesite]]
 
+
An extrusive usually dark grayish rock consisting essentially of oligoclase or feldspar.  
An extrusive usually dark grayish rock consisting essentially of oligoclase or feldspar.  
 
 
 
 
* [[androgenesis]]
 
* [[androgenesis]]
 
+
the development of an embryo from a fertilized egg that only involves the paternal chromosomes from the male nucleus.  
the development of an embryo from a fertilized egg that only involves the paternal chromosomes from the male nucleus.  
 
 
 
 
* [[androstanes]]
 
* [[androstanes]]
 
+
The family of steroids from which the androgens are derived.  
The family of steroids from which the androgens are derived.  
 
 
 
 
* [[androstanols]]
 
* [[androstanols]]
 
+
Androstanes and androstane derivatives which are substituted in any position with one or more hydroxyl groups.  
Androstanes and androstane derivatives which are substituted in any position with one or more hydroxyl groups.  
 
 
 
 
* [[anemochory]]
 
* [[anemochory]]
 
+
Dispersal of seed by wind.  
Dispersal of seed by wind.  
 
 
 
 
* [[Anemone fulgens]]
 
* [[Anemone fulgens]]
 
+
A natural interspecific hybrid between Anemone hortensis x Anemone pavonina.  
A natural interspecific hybrid between Anemone hortensis x Anemone pavonina.  
 
 
 
 
* [[Anemone hybrida]]
 
* [[Anemone hybrida]]
 
+
An interspecific hybrid between Anemone hupehensis x Anemone vitifolia.  
An interspecific hybrid between Anemone hupehensis x Anemone vitifolia.  
 
 
 
 
* [[anestrus]]
 
* [[anestrus]]
 
+
A state of sexual inactivity in female animals exhibiting no estrous cycle. Causes of anestrus include pregnancy, presence of offspring, season, stress, and pathology.  
A state of sexual inactivity in female animals exhibiting no estrous cycle. Causes of anestrus include pregnancy, presence of offspring, season, stress, and pathology.  
 
 
 
 
* [[aneuploidy]]
 
* [[aneuploidy]]
 
+
The chromosomal constitution of cells which deviate from the normal by the addition or subtraction of chromosomes, chromosome pairs, or chromosome fragments. In a normally diploid cell the loss of a chromosome pair is termed nullisomy, the loss of a single chromosome is monosomy, the addition of a chromosome pair is tetrasomy, the addition of a single chromosome is trisomy.  
The chromosomal constitution of cells which deviate from the normal by the addition or subtraction of chromosomes, chromosome pairs, or chromosome fragments. In a normally diploid cell the loss of a chromosome pair is termed nullisomy, the loss of a single chromosome is monosomy, the addition of a chromosome pair is tetrasomy, the addition of a single chromosome is trisomy.  
 
 
 
 
* [[aneurysm]]
 
* [[aneurysm]]
 
+
Pathological outpouching or sac-like dilatation in the wall of any blood vessel or the heart. It indicates a thin and weakened area in the wall which may later rupture. Aneurysms are classified by location, etiology, or other characteristics.  
Pathological outpouching or sac-like dilatation in the wall of any blood vessel or the heart. It indicates a thin and weakened area in the wall which may later rupture. Aneurysms are classified by location, etiology, or other characteristics.  
 
 
 
 
* [[angel food cakes]]
 
* [[angel food cakes]]
 
+
A light spongy cake made out of flour, egg whites, sugar and other ingredients. The mixture of egg whites and sugar is beaten until it is stiff; cream of tartar may be added to the mixture as a whipping agent. After the mixture is stiff, flour is gently added to it, mixed and poured into a baking pan for baking.  
A light spongy cake made out of flour, egg whites, sugar and other ingredients. The mixture of egg whites and sugar is beaten until it is stiff; cream of tartar may be added to the mixture as a whipping agent. After the mixture is stiff, flour is gently added to it, mixed and poured into a baking pan for baking.  
 
 
 
 
* [[angiogenesis]]
 
* [[angiogenesis]]
 
+
The development of new blood vessels.  
The development of new blood vessels.  
 
 
 
 
* [[angiogenic proteins]]
 
* [[angiogenic proteins]]
 
+
Intercellular signaling peptides and proteins that regulate the proliferation of new blood vessels under normal physiological conditions (angiogenesis, physiological). Aberrant expression of angiogenic proteins during disease states such as tumorigenesis can also result in pathological angiogenesis.  
Intercellular signaling peptides and proteins that regulate the proliferation of new blood vessels under normal physiological conditions (angiogenesis, physiological). Aberrant expression of angiogenic proteins during disease states such as tumorigenesis can also result in pathological angiogenesis.  
 
 
 
 
* [[angiogenin]]
 
* [[angiogenin]]
 
+
Angiogenin (147 aa, 17 kDa) is encoded by the human ANG gene. This protein plays a role in the modulation of both vascular development and transcription.  
Angiogenin (147 aa, 17 kDa) is encoded by the human ANG gene. This protein plays a role in the modulation of both vascular development and transcription.  
 
 
 
 
* [[angiography]]
 
* [[angiography]]
 
+
Radiography of blood vessels after injection of a contrast medium.  
Radiography of blood vessels after injection of a contrast medium.  
 
 
 
 
* [[angiopoietin-1]]
 
* [[angiopoietin-1]]
 
+
The first to be discovered member of the angiopoietin family. It may play a role in increasing the sprouting and branching of blood vessels. Angiopoietin-1 specifically binds to and stimulates the TIE-2 receptor. Several isoforms of angiopoietin-1 occur due to alternative splicing of its mRNA.  
The first to be discovered member of the angiopoietin family. It may play a role in increasing the sprouting and branching of blood vessels. Angiopoietin-1 specifically binds to and stimulates the TIE-2 receptor. Several isoforms of angiopoietin-1 occur due to alternative splicing of its mRNA.  
 
 
 
 
* [[angiopoietin-2]]
 
* [[angiopoietin-2]]
 
+
An angiopoietin that is closely related to angiopoietin-1. It binds to the TIE-2 receptor without receptor stimulation and antagonizes the effect of angiopoietin-1. However its antagonistic effect may be limited to cell receptors that occur within the vasculature. Angiopoietin-2 may therefore play a role in down-regulation of blood vessel branching and sprouting.  
An angiopoietin that is closely related to angiopoietin-1. It binds to the TIE-2 receptor without receptor stimulation and antagonizes the effect of angiopoietin-1. However its antagonistic effect may be limited to cell receptors that occur within the vasculature. Angiopoietin-2 may therefore play a role in down-regulation of blood vessel branching and sprouting.  
 
 
 
 
* [[angiopoietins]]
 
* [[angiopoietins]]
 
+
A family of structurally-related angiogenic proteins of approximately 70 kDa in size. They have high specificity for members of the TIE receptor family.  
A family of structurally-related angiogenic proteins of approximately 70 kDa in size. They have high specificity for members of the TIE receptor family.  
 
 
 
 
* [[angioscopy]]
 
* [[angioscopy]]
 
+
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery performed on the interior of blood vessels.  
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery performed on the interior of blood vessels.  
 
 
 
 
* [[angiostrongylosis]]
 
* [[angiostrongylosis]]
 
+
Infections with nematodes of the genus Angiostrongylus.  
Infections with nematodes of the genus Angiostrongylus.  
 
 
 
 
* [[angiotensinogen]]
 
* [[angiotensinogen]]
 
+
An alpha-globulin of about 453 amino acids, depending on the species. It is produced by the liver and secreted into blood circulation. Angiotensinogen is the inactive precursor of natural angiotensins. Upon successive enzyme cleavages, angiotensinogen yields angiotensin I, II, and III with amino acids numbered at 10, 8, and 7, respectively.  
An alpha-globulin of about 453 amino acids, depending on the species. It is produced by the liver and secreted into blood circulation. Angiotensinogen is the inactive precursor of natural angiotensins. Upon successive enzyme cleavages, angiotensinogen yields angiotensin I, II, and III with amino acids numbered at 10, 8, and 7, respectively.  
 
 
 
 
* [[angiotensins]]
 
* [[angiotensins]]
 
+
Oligopeptides which are important in the regulation of blood pressure (vasoconstriction) and fluid homeostasis via the renin-angiotensin system.  
Oligopeptides which are important in the regulation of blood pressure (vasoconstriction) and fluid homeostasis via the renin-angiotensin system.  
 
 
 
 
* [[angle of incidence]]
 
* [[angle of incidence]]
 
+
The angle between a wave that strikes a surface and the perpendicular to that surface at the point of incidence.  
The angle between a wave that strikes a surface and the perpendicular to that surface at the point of incidence.  
 
 
 
 
* [[angle of repose]]
 
* [[angle of repose]]
 
+
The maximum slope of a pile of loose granular material at rest.  
The maximum slope of a pile of loose granular material at rest.  
 
 
 
 
* [[anhydrides]]
 
* [[anhydrides]]
 
+
Chemical compounds derived from acids by the elimination of a molecule of water.  
Chemical compounds derived from acids by the elimination of a molecule of water.  
 
 
 
 
* [[anhydrobiosis]]
 
* [[anhydrobiosis]]
 
+
Anhydrobiosis is defined as an ametabolic state induced by dehydration and followed by resurrection when rehydrated.  
Anhydrobiosis is defined as an ametabolic state induced by dehydration and followed by resurrection when rehydrated.  
 
 
 
 
* [[anhydrous milk fat]]
 
* [[anhydrous milk fat]]
 
+
A dairy product made from cream or butter containing at least 99.8% milk fat and 0.10% moisture.  
A dairy product made from cream or butter containing at least 99.8% milk fat and 0.10% moisture.  
 
 
 
 
* [[animal-based foods]]
 
* [[animal-based foods]]
 
+
Foods originating from animal sources.  
Foods originating from animal sources.  
 
 
 
 
* [[animal assisted therapy]]
 
* [[animal assisted therapy]]
 
+
The use of live animal as a means of therapy.  
The use of live animal as a means of therapy.  
 
 
 
 
* [[animal behavior]]
 
* [[animal behavior]]
 
+
The scientific study of the behavior of an animal in its natural environment.  
The scientific study of the behavior of an animal in its natural environment.  
 
 
 
 
* [[animal byproducts]]
 
* [[animal byproducts]]
 
+
Parts of carcasses of livestock or poultry, processed by cooking, curing, drying or other methods.  
Parts of carcasses of livestock or poultry, processed by cooking, curing, drying or other methods.  
 
 
 
 
* [[animal control services]]
 
* [[animal control services]]
 
+
The provision of services in a municipality by authorized personnel to enforce animal control laws that support public safety and ensure the welfare of wild and domestic animals, including activities such as investigating animal cruelty incidents, licensing of animals, impounding stray animals, and controlling nuisance animals.  
The provision of services in a municipality by authorized personnel to enforce animal control laws that support public safety and ensure the welfare of wild and domestic animals, including activities such as investigating animal cruelty incidents, licensing of animals, impounding stray animals, and controlling nuisance animals.  
 
 
 
 
* [[animal density]]
 
* [[animal density]]
 
+
In biology, populations are groups of individuals belonging to the same species that live in the same region at the same time. Animal density is a measure of the number of organisms that make up a population in a defined area.  
In biology, populations are groups of individuals belonging to the same species that live in the same region at the same time. Animal density is a measure of the number of organisms that make up a population in a defined area.  
 
 
 
 
* [[animal disease models]]
 
* [[animal disease models]]
 
+
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.  
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.  
 
 
 
 
* [[animal ethics]]
 
* [[animal ethics]]
 
+
Animal ethics is a rational argument about the right and wrong way to treat non-human animals. It is applied in the evaluation of what should or should not be done when non-human animals used by or for human purposes.  
Animal ethics is a rational argument about the right and wrong way to treat non-human animals. It is applied in the evaluation of what should or should not be done when non-human animals used by or for human purposes.  
 
 
 
 
* [[animal health]]
 
* [[animal health]]
 
+
The homeostatic state of the animal; presence or absence of disease or injury.  
The homeostatic state of the animal; presence or absence of disease or injury.  
 
 
 
 
* [[animal identification]]
 
* [[animal identification]]
 
+
Procedures for recognizing individual animals and certain identifiable characteristics pertaining to them; includes computerized methods, ear tags, etc.  
Procedures for recognizing individual animals and certain identifiable characteristics pertaining to them; includes computerized methods, ear tags, etc.  
 
 
 
 
* [[animal law]]
 
* [[animal law]]
 
+
Laws and legislation that govern the treatment, confinement, or production of animals and livestock.  
Laws and legislation that govern the treatment, confinement, or production of animals and livestock.  
 
 
 
 
* [[animal models]]
 
* [[animal models]]
 
+
Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.  
Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.  
 
 
 
 
* [[animal production]]
 
* [[animal production]]
 
+
Industries in the Animal Production subsector raise or fatten animals for the sale of animals or animal products. The subsector comprises establishments, such as ranches, farms, and feedlots primarily engaged in keeping, grazing, breeding, or feeding animals. These animals are kept for the products they produce or for eventual sale.  
Industries in the Animal Production subsector raise or fatten animals for the sale of animals or animal products. The subsector comprises establishments, such as ranches, farms, and feedlots primarily engaged in keeping, grazing, breeding, or feeding animals. These animals are kept for the products they produce or for eventual sale.  
 
 
 
 
* [[animal source protein]]
 
* [[animal source protein]]
 
+
Dietary proteins originating from animals.  
Dietary proteins originating from animals.  
 
 
 
 
* [[animal stress]]
 
* [[animal stress]]
 
+
Physical reaction to danger, threat of harm, or lack of nutrition or hydration.  
Physical reaction to danger, threat of harm, or lack of nutrition or hydration.  
 
 
 
 
* [[animal suffering]]
 
* [[animal suffering]]
 
+
A set of negative emotions such as fear, pain, boredom, etc., that disrupts the quality of life. It also refer to the mental state associated with unpleasant experiences such as malaise, distress, injury and emotional numbness.  
A set of negative emotions such as fear, pain, boredom, etc., that disrupts the quality of life. It also refer to the mental state associated with unpleasant experiences such as malaise, distress, injury and emotional numbness.  
 
 
 
 
* [[animal technicians]]
 
* [[animal technicians]]
 
+
Assistants to a veterinarian, biological or biomedical researcher, or other scientist who are engaged in the care and management of animals, and who are trained in basic principles of animal life processes and routine laboratory and animal health care procedures.  
Assistants to a veterinarian, biological or biomedical researcher, or other scientist who are engaged in the care and management of animals, and who are trained in basic principles of animal life processes and routine laboratory and animal health care procedures.  
 
 
 
 
* [[animal use alternatives]]
 
* [[animal use alternatives]]
 
+
Alternatives to the use of animals in research, testing, and education. The alternatives may include reduction in the number of animals used, replacement of animals with a non-animal model or with animals of a species lower phylogenetically, or refinement of methods to minimize pain and distress of animals used.  
Alternatives to the use of animals in research, testing, and education. The alternatives may include reduction in the number of animals used, replacement of animals with a non-animal model or with animals of a species lower phylogenetically, or refinement of methods to minimize pain and distress of animals used.  
 
 
 
 
* [[animal welfare]]
 
* [[animal welfare]]
 
+
The protection of animals in laboratories or other specific environments by promoting their health through better nutrition, housing, and care.  
The protection of animals in laboratories or other specific environments by promoting their health through better nutrition, housing, and care.  
 
 
 
 
* [[Animal Welfare Institute]]
 
* [[Animal Welfare Institute]]
 
+
The Animal Welfare Institute is an American, non-profit, charitable organization founded in 1951 with the goal of reducing pain and fear inflicted on animals by humans. Its legislative division, the Society for Animal Protective Legislation, pushes for the passage of laws that reflect this purpose.  
The Animal Welfare Institute is an American, non-profit, charitable organization founded in 1951 with the goal of reducing pain and fear inflicted on animals by humans. Its legislative division, the Society for Animal Protective Legislation, pushes for the passage of laws that reflect this purpose.  
 
 
 
 
* [[animal well-being]]
 
* [[animal well-being]]
 
+
The current state of an animal living in reasonable harmony with its environment.  
The current state of an animal living in reasonable harmony with its environment.  
 
 
 
 
* [[anion exchange]]
 
* [[anion exchange]]
 
+
Reversible chemical reaction between a solid, often one of the anion exchange resins, and a fluid whereby anions may be exchanged from one substance to another.  
Reversible chemical reaction between a solid, often one of the anion exchange resins, and a fluid whereby anions may be exchanged from one substance to another.  
 
 
 
 
* [[anion pumps]]
 
* [[anion pumps]]
 
+
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of negatively charged molecules (anions) across a biological membrane.  
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of negatively charged molecules (anions) across a biological membrane.  
 
 
 
 
* [[anisotropy]]
 
* [[anisotropy]]
 
+
A physical property showing different values in relation to the direction in or along which the measurement is made. The physical property may be with regard to thermal or electric conductivity or light refraction. In crystallography, it describes crystals whose index of refraction varies with the direction of the incident light. It is also called acolotropy and colotropy. The opposite of anisotropy is isotropy wherein the same values characterize the object when measured along axes in all directions.  
A physical property showing different values in relation to the direction in or along which the measurement is made. The physical property may be with regard to thermal or electric conductivity or light refraction. In crystallography, it describes crystals whose index of refraction varies with the direction of the incident light. It is also called acolotropy and colotropy. The opposite of anisotropy is isotropy wherein the same values characterize the object when measured along axes in all directions.  
 
 
 
 
* [[ankylosis]]
 
* [[ankylosis]]
 
+
Fixation and immobility of a joint.  
Fixation and immobility of a joint.  
 
 
 
 
* [[annealing]]
 
* [[annealing]]
 
+
Heating followed by slow cooling.  
Heating followed by slow cooling.  
 
 
 
 
* [[annual pastures]]
 
* [[annual pastures]]
 
+
A pasture consisting of introduced forage species planted for only one year or season's duration.  
A pasture consisting of introduced forage species planted for only one year or season's duration.  
 
 
 
 
* [[anodes]]
 
* [[anodes]]
 
+
The positive poles or electrodes of electron emitters, such as electron tubes or electric cells.  
The positive poles or electrodes of electron emitters, such as electron tubes or electric cells.  
 
 
 
 
* [[anovulation]]
 
* [[anovulation]]
 
+
Suspension or cessation of ovulation in animals or humans with follicle-containing ovaries (ovarian follicle). Depending on the etiology, ovulation may be induced with appropriate therapy.  
Suspension or cessation of ovulation in animals or humans with follicle-containing ovaries (ovarian follicle). Depending on the etiology, ovulation may be induced with appropriate therapy.  
 
 
 
 
* [[antecedent moisture]]
 
* [[antecedent moisture]]
 
+
The degree of wetness of the soil at the beginning of a runoff period, expressed as an index or as the total inch-depth-equivalents of water stored in the soil.  
The degree of wetness of the soil at the beginning of a runoff period, expressed as an index or as the total inch-depth-equivalents of water stored in the soil.  
 
 
 
 
* [[anterior cruciate ligament]]
 
* [[anterior cruciate ligament]]
 
+
A strong ligament of the knee that originates from the posteromedial portion of the lateral condyle of the femur, passes anteriorly and inferiorly between the condyles, and attaches to the depression in front of the intercondylar eminence of the tibia.  
A strong ligament of the knee that originates from the posteromedial portion of the lateral condyle of the femur, passes anteriorly and inferiorly between the condyles, and attaches to the depression in front of the intercondylar eminence of the tibia.  
 
 
 
 
* [[anterior pituitary]]
 
* [[anterior pituitary]]
 
+
The anterior glandular lobe of the pituitary gland, also known as the adenohypophysis. It secretes the adenohypophyseal hormones that regulate vital functions such as growth; metabolism; and reproduction.  
The anterior glandular lobe of the pituitary gland, also known as the adenohypophysis. It secretes the adenohypophyseal hormones that regulate vital functions such as growth; metabolism; and reproduction.  
 
 
 
 
* [[anthelmintics]]
 
* [[anthelmintics]]
 
+
Agents destructive to parasitic worms. They are used therapeutically in the treatment of helminthiasis in man and animal.  
Agents destructive to parasitic worms. They are used therapeutically in the treatment of helminthiasis in man and animal.  
 
 
 
 
* [[anthers]]
 
* [[anthers]]
 
+
Pollen-bearing portion of the stamen.  
Pollen-bearing portion of the stamen.  
 
 
 
 
* [[anthracyclines]]
 
* [[anthracyclines]]
 
+
Organic compounds that have a tetrahydronaphthacenedione ring structure attached by a glycosidic linkage to the amino sugar daunosamine.  
Organic compounds that have a tetrahydronaphthacenedione ring structure attached by a glycosidic linkage to the amino sugar daunosamine.  
 
 
 
 
* [[anthrax]]
 
* [[anthrax]]
 
+
An acute infection caused by the spore-forming bacteria Bacillus anthracis. It commonly affects hoofed animals such as sheep and goats. Infection in humans often involves the skin (cutaneous anthrax), the lungs (inhalation anthrax), or the gastrointestinal tract.  
An acute infection caused by the spore-forming bacteria Bacillus anthracis. It commonly affects hoofed animals such as sheep and goats. Infection in humans often involves the skin (cutaneous anthrax), the lungs (inhalation anthrax), or the gastrointestinal tract.  
 
 
 
 
* [[anthrax vaccines]]
 
* [[anthrax vaccines]]
 
+
Vaccines to prevent anthrax.  
Vaccines to prevent anthrax.  
 
 
 
 
* [[anthropometric measurements]]
 
* [[anthropometric measurements]]
 
+
Measurements of the human body, employed in the study of human growth and variation.  
Measurements of the human body, employed in the study of human growth and variation.  
 
 
 
 
* [[anti-allergic agents]]
 
* [[anti-allergic agents]]
 
+
Agents that are used to treat allergic reactions. Most of these drugs act by preventing the release of inflammatory mediators or inhibiting the actions of released mediators on their target cells.  
Agents that are used to treat allergic reactions. Most of these drugs act by preventing the release of inflammatory mediators or inhibiting the actions of released mediators on their target cells.  
 
 
 
 
* [[anti-infective agents]]
 
* [[anti-infective agents]]
 
+
Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.  
Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.  
 
 
 
 
* [[anti-inflammatory agents]]
 
* [[anti-inflammatory agents]]
 
+
Substances that reduce or suppress inflammation.  
Substances that reduce or suppress inflammation.  
 
 
 
 
* [[anti-Mullerian hormone]]
 
* [[anti-Mullerian hormone]]
 
+
A glycoprotein that causes regression of Mullerian ducts. It is produced by Sertoli cells of the testes. In the absence of this hormone, the Mullerian ducts develop into structures of the female reproductive tract. In males, defects of this hormone result in persistent Mullerian duct, a form of male pseudohermaphroditism.  
A glycoprotein that causes regression of Mullerian ducts. It is produced by Sertoli cells of the testes. In the absence of this hormone, the Mullerian ducts develop into structures of the female reproductive tract. In males, defects of this hormone result in persistent Mullerian duct, a form of male pseudohermaphroditism.  
 
 
 
 
* [[anti-obesity agents]]
 
* [[anti-obesity agents]]
 
+
Agents that increase energy expenditure and weight loss by neural and chemical regulation. Beta-adrenergic agents and serotoninergic drugs have been experimentally used in patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) to treat obesity.  
Agents that increase energy expenditure and weight loss by neural and chemical regulation. Beta-adrenergic agents and serotoninergic drugs have been experimentally used in patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) to treat obesity.  
 
 
 
 
* [[antibiosis]]
 
* [[antibiosis]]
 
+
A natural association between organisms that is detrimental to at least one of them. This often refers to the production of chemicals by one microorganism that is harmful to another.  
A natural association between organisms that is detrimental to at least one of them. This often refers to the production of chemicals by one microorganism that is harmful to another.  
 
 
 
 
* [[antibiotics]]
 
* [[antibiotics]]
 
+
Chemical substances produced by microorganisms or synthetically that inhibit the growth of, or destroy, bacteria. Antibiotics are used at therapeutic levels to fight disease in humans and animals. Since the 1950s they have been used at subtherapeutic levels in animal feeds to enhance growth and prevent disease in livestock and poultry.  
Chemical substances produced by microorganisms or synthetically that inhibit the growth of, or destroy, bacteria. Antibiotics are used at therapeutic levels to fight disease in humans and animals. Since the 1950s they have been used at subtherapeutic levels in animal feeds to enhance growth and prevent disease in livestock and poultry.  
 
 
 
 
* [[antibody affinity]]
 
* [[antibody affinity]]
 
+
A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.  
A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.  
 
 
 
 
* [[antibody binding sites]]
 
* [[antibody binding sites]]
 
+
Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (epitopes). They are formed from parts of the variable regions of Fab fragments.  
Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (epitopes). They are formed from parts of the variable regions of Fab fragments.  
 
 
 
 
* [[antibody diversity]]
 
* [[antibody diversity]]
 
+
The phenomenon of immense variability characteristic of antibodies. It enables the immune system to react specifically against the essentially unlimited kinds of antigens it encounters. Antibody diversity is accounted for by three main theories: (1) the Germ Line Theory, which holds that each antibody-producing cell has genes coding for all possible antibody specificities, but expresses only the one stimulated by antigen; (2) the Somatic Mutation Theory, which holds that antibody-producing cells contain only a few genes, which produce antibody diversity by mutation; and (3) the Gene Rearrangement Theory, which holds that antibody diversity is generated by the rearrangement of immunoglobulin variable region gene segments during the differentiation of the antibody-producing cells.  
The phenomenon of immense variability characteristic of antibodies. It enables the immune system to react specifically against the essentially unlimited kinds of antigens it encounters. Antibody diversity is accounted for by three main theories: (1) the Germ Line Theory, which holds that each antibody-producing cell has genes coding for all possible antibody specificities, but expresses only the one stimulated by antigen; (2) the Somatic Mutation Theory, which holds that antibody-producing cells contain only a few genes, which produce antibody diversity by mutation; and (3) the Gene Rearrangement Theory, which holds that antibody diversity is generated by the rearrangement of immunoglobulin variable region gene segments during the differentiation of the antibody-producing cells.  
 
 
 
 
* [[antibody microarrays]]
 
* [[antibody microarrays]]
 
+
The arrangement of a large set of minute antibody spots that are coated or fixed on solid surface "microchips", which may be used for antigen detection or protein expression analysis.  
The arrangement of a large set of minute antibody spots that are coated or fixed on solid surface "microchips", which may be used for antigen detection or protein expression analysis.  
 
 
 
 
* [[antibody specificity]]
 
* [[antibody specificity]]
 
+
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some antigenic determinants and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.  
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some antigenic determinants and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.  
 
 
 
 
* [[anticarcinogenic activity]]
 
* [[anticarcinogenic activity]]
 
+
The property of a substance to counteract the effects of a carcinogen, or inhibit or prevent the development of a cancer.  
The property of a substance to counteract the effects of a carcinogen, or inhibit or prevent the development of a cancer.  
 
 
 
 
* [[anticarcinogenic agents]]
 
* [[anticarcinogenic agents]]
 
+
Agents that reduce the frequency or rate of spontaneous or induced tumors independently of the mechanism involved.  
Agents that reduce the frequency or rate of spontaneous or induced tumors independently of the mechanism involved.  
 
 
 
 
* [[anticoagulants]]
 
* [[anticoagulants]]
 
+
Substances that prevent the coagulation (clotting) of blood.  
Substances that prevent the coagulation (clotting) of blood.  
 
 
 
 
* [[anticodons]]
 
* [[anticodons]]
 
+
The sequential set of three nucleotides in transfer RNA that interacts with its complement in messenger RNA, the codon, during translation in the ribosome.  
The sequential set of three nucleotides in transfer RNA that interacts with its complement in messenger RNA, the codon, during translation in the ribosome.  
 
 
 
 
* [[antifouling activities]]
 
* [[antifouling activities]]
 
+
The process of removing or preventing undesirable accumulation of microorganisms, plants, and animals on artificial surfaces immersed in marine environment.  
The process of removing or preventing undesirable accumulation of microorganisms, plants, and animals on artificial surfaces immersed in marine environment.  
 
 
 
 
* [[antifouling agents]]
 
* [[antifouling agents]]
 
+
substances that prevent surfaces from becoming encrusted, clogged or choked with foreign matter.  
substances that prevent surfaces from becoming encrusted, clogged or choked with foreign matter.  
 
 
 
 
* [[antifreeze proteins]]
 
* [[antifreeze proteins]]
 
+
Proteins that bind to ice and modify the growth of ice crystals. They perform a cryoprotective role in a variety of organisms.  
Proteins that bind to ice and modify the growth of ice crystals. They perform a cryoprotective role in a variety of organisms.  
 
 
 
 
* [[antigen-antibody complex]]
 
* [[antigen-antibody complex]]
 
+
The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes immune complex diseases.  
The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes immune complex diseases.  
 
 
 
 
* [[antigen presentation]]
 
* [[antigen presentation]]
 
+
The process by which antigen is presented to lymphocytes in a form they can recognize. This is performed by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Some antigens require processing before they can be recognized. Antigen processing consists of ingestion and partial digestion of the antigen by the APC, followed by presentation of fragments on the cell surface.  
The process by which antigen is presented to lymphocytes in a form they can recognize. This is performed by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Some antigens require processing before they can be recognized. Antigen processing consists of ingestion and partial digestion of the antigen by the APC, followed by presentation of fragments on the cell surface.  
 
 
 
 
* [[antilipemic agents]]
 
* [[antilipemic agents]]
 
+
Substances that lower the lipid levels in the blood.  
Substances that lower the lipid levels in the blood.  
 
 
 
 
* [[antimicrobial packaging]]
 
* [[antimicrobial packaging]]
 
+
A packaging system or material that contains antimicrobial agents and is able to inhibit the growth of pathogenic microbes, thus increasing the shelf-life of foods and other products.  
A packaging system or material that contains antimicrobial agents and is able to inhibit the growth of pathogenic microbes, thus increasing the shelf-life of foods and other products.  
 
 
 
 
* [[antimitotic agents]]
 
* [[antimitotic agents]]
 
+
Agents that arrest cells in mitosis.  
Agents that arrest cells in mitosis.  
 
 
 
 
* [[antimycin A]]
 
* [[antimycin A]]
 
+
An antibiotic substance produced by Streptomyces species. It inhibits mitochondrial respiration and may deplete cellular levels of ATP. Antimycin A1 has been used as a fungicide, insecticide, and miticide.  
An antibiotic substance produced by Streptomyces species. It inhibits mitochondrial respiration and may deplete cellular levels of ATP. Antimycin A1 has been used as a fungicide, insecticide, and miticide.  
 
 
 
 
* [[antineoplastic activity]]
 
* [[antineoplastic activity]]
 
+
The property of a substance to inhibit or prevent the proliferation of a neoplasm that has already developed.  
The property of a substance to inhibit or prevent the proliferation of a neoplasm that has already developed.  
 
 
 
 
* [[antineoplastic agents]]
 
* [[antineoplastic agents]]
 
+
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of neoplasms.  
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of neoplasms.  
 
 
 
 
* [[antioxidant enzymes]]
 
* [[antioxidant enzymes]]
 
+
A part of the antioxidant defense mechanism which reduces oxidative stress by catalyzing a redox reaction with a reactive oxidant.  
A part of the antioxidant defense mechanism which reduces oxidative stress by catalyzing a redox reaction with a reactive oxidant.  
 
 
 
 
* [[antiplatyhelmintic agents]]
 
* [[antiplatyhelmintic agents]]
 
+
Agents used to treat cestode, trematode, or other flatworm infestations in man or animals.  
Agents used to treat cestode, trematode, or other flatworm infestations in man or animals.  
 
 
 
 
* [[antiporters]]
 
* [[antiporters]]
 
+
Membrane transporters that co-transport two or more dissimilar molecules in the opposite direction across a membrane. Usually the transport of one ion or molecule is against its electrochemical gradient and is "powered" by the movement of another ion or molecule with its electrochemical gradient.  
Membrane transporters that co-transport two or more dissimilar molecules in the opposite direction across a membrane. Usually the transport of one ion or molecule is against its electrochemical gradient and is "powered" by the movement of another ion or molecule with its electrochemical gradient.  
 
 
 
 
* [[antipyretics]]
 
* [[antipyretics]]
 
+
Drugs used to reduce body temperature in fever.  
Drugs used to reduce body temperature in fever.  
 
 
 
 
* [[Antiquities Act]]
 
* [[Antiquities Act]]
 
+
The Antiquities Act of 1906 provides for the protection of historic or prehistoric remains, or any object of antiquity, on Federal lands; establishes criminal sanctions for unauthorized destruction or appropriation of antiquities and authorizes scientific investigation of antiquities on Federal lands, subject to permit and regulations.  
The Antiquities Act of 1906 provides for the protection of historic or prehistoric remains, or any object of antiquity, on Federal lands; establishes criminal sanctions for unauthorized destruction or appropriation of antiquities and authorizes scientific investigation of antiquities on Federal lands, subject to permit and regulations.  
 
 
 
 
* [[antiserum]]
 
* [[antiserum]]
 
+
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by antigen injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.  
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by antigen injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.  
 
 
 
 
* [[antistaling agents]]
 
* [[antistaling agents]]
 
+
Agents used to maintain softness, moisture, texture, and color of baked goods or fresh-cut flowers, produce etc.  
Agents used to maintain softness, moisture, texture, and color of baked goods or fresh-cut flowers, produce etc.  
 
 
 
 
* [[antithrombin III]]
 
* [[antithrombin III]]
 
+
A plasma alpha 2 glycoprotein that accounts for the major antithrombin activity of normal plasma and also inhibits several other enzymes. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.  
A plasma alpha 2 glycoprotein that accounts for the major antithrombin activity of normal plasma and also inhibits several other enzymes. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.  
 
 
 
 
* [[antithrombin proteins]]
 
* [[antithrombin proteins]]
 
+
An endogenous family of proteins belonging to the serpin superfamily that neutralizes the action of thrombin. Six naturally occurring antithrombins have been identified and are designated by Roman numerals I to VI. Of these, antithrombin I (see fibrin) and antithrombin III appear to be of major importance.  
An endogenous family of proteins belonging to the serpin superfamily that neutralizes the action of thrombin. Six naturally occurring antithrombins have been identified and are designated by Roman numerals I to VI. Of these, antithrombin I (see fibrin) and antithrombin III appear to be of major importance.  
 
 
 
 
* [[antithrombins]]
 
* [[antithrombins]]
 
+
Endogenous factors and drugs that directly inhibit the action of thrombin, usually by blocking its enzymatic activity. They are distinguished from indirect thrombin inhibitors, such as heparin, which act by enhancing the inhibitory effects of antithrombins.  
Endogenous factors and drugs that directly inhibit the action of thrombin, usually by blocking its enzymatic activity. They are distinguished from indirect thrombin inhibitors, such as heparin, which act by enhancing the inhibitory effects of antithrombins.  
 
 
 
 
* [[antitussive agents]]
 
* [[antitussive agents]]
 
+
Agents that suppress cough. They act centrally on the medullary cough center.  
Agents that suppress cough. They act centrally on the medullary cough center.  
 
 
 
 
* [[aphidophagous predators]]
 
* [[aphidophagous predators]]
 
+
Feeding on aphids or parasitoids of aphids.  
Feeding on aphids or parasitoids of aphids.  
 
 
 
 
* [[aphrodisiacs]]
 
* [[aphrodisiacs]]
 
+
Any substance that stimulates sexual response.  
Any substance that stimulates sexual response.  
 
 
 
 
* [[Aphthovirus]]
 
* [[Aphthovirus]]
 
+
A genus of the family Picornaviridae infecting mainly cloven-hoofed animals. They cause vesicular lesions and upper respiratory tract infections. Foot and mouth disease virus is the type species.  
A genus of the family Picornaviridae infecting mainly cloven-hoofed animals. They cause vesicular lesions and upper respiratory tract infections. Foot and mouth disease virus is the type species.  
 
 
 
 
* [[apicoplast genome]]
 
* [[apicoplast genome]]
 
+
The genetic complement of apicoplasts as represented in their DNA.  
The genetic complement of apicoplasts as represented in their DNA.  
 
 
 
 
* [[apolysis]]
 
* [[apolysis]]
 
+
The separation of old endocuticle or exoskeleton from the underlying epidermis, as seen in insects, arthropods etc. During this process, an organism may hide to protect itself and becomes inactive. Apolysis is usually followed by ecdysis.  
The separation of old endocuticle or exoskeleton from the underlying epidermis, as seen in insects, arthropods etc. During this process, an organism may hide to protect itself and becomes inactive. Apolysis is usually followed by ecdysis.  
 
 
 
 
* [[apomixis]]
 
* [[apomixis]]
 
+
Biological reproduction without fertilization, meiosis, or production of gametes, resulting in seeds that are genetically identical to the parent plant.  
Biological reproduction without fertilization, meiosis, or production of gametes, resulting in seeds that are genetically identical to the parent plant.  
 
 
 
 
* [[apoplast]]
 
* [[apoplast]]
 
+
The outer compartment of a plant cell external to the plasma membrane. Formed in adjacent cells by the continuum of cell walls, intercellular material and extracellular space, it facilitates the transport of water and solutes.  
The outer compartment of a plant cell external to the plasma membrane. Formed in adjacent cells by the continuum of cell walls, intercellular material and extracellular space, it facilitates the transport of water and solutes.  
 
 
 
 
* [[Appalachian region]]
 
* [[Appalachian region]]
 
+
Region in North America, extending from Newfoundland to central Alabama. (In the United States, includes areas of Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Maryland, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia and West Virginia).  
Region in North America, extending from Newfoundland to central Alabama. (In the United States, includes areas of Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Maryland, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia and West Virginia).  
 
 
 
 
* [[appetite suppressants]]
 
* [[appetite suppressants]]
 
+
Agents or drugs used for suppressing appetite.  
Agents or drugs used for suppressing appetite.  
 
 
 
 
* [[appetizers]]
 
* [[appetizers]]
 
+
A small amount of food, generally eaten just before the main meal.  
A small amount of food, generally eaten just before the main meal.  
 
 
 
 
* [[application programming interface]]
 
* [[application programming interface]]
 
+
An Application Programming Interface, or API, is a set of software instructions and standards that allows machine to machine communication-like when a website uses a widget to share a link on Twitter or Facebook.  
An Application Programming Interface, or API, is a set of software instructions and standards that allows machine to machine communication-like when a website uses a widget to share a link on Twitter or Facebook.  
 
 
 
 
* [[appropriate level of protection]]
 
* [[appropriate level of protection]]
 
+
Degree of health protection considered acceptable by a member government establishing a sanitary or phytosanitary measure.  
Degree of health protection considered acceptable by a member government establishing a sanitary or phytosanitary measure.  
 
 
 
 
* [[apramycin]]
 
* [[apramycin]]
 
+
An antibiotic complex and broad-spectrum antibiotic substance of nebramycin complex produced by Streptomyces tenebrarius.  
An antibiotic complex and broad-spectrum antibiotic substance of nebramycin complex produced by Streptomyces tenebrarius.  
 
 
 
 
* [[aquaculture]]
 
* [[aquaculture]]
 
+
The cultivation of aquatic animals and plants, including freshwater and marine species, for food or other purposes.  
The cultivation of aquatic animals and plants, including freshwater and marine species, for food or other purposes.  
 
 
 
 
* [[aquaponics]]
 
* [[aquaponics]]
 
+
A system combining aquaculture with hydroponics in which aquatic animals and hydroponically-grown plants are cultivated together.  
A system combining aquaculture with hydroponics in which aquatic animals and hydroponically-grown plants are cultivated together.  
 
 
 
 
* [[aquatic ecosystems]]
 
* [[aquatic ecosystems]]
 
+
Interaction of living organisms with the physical or chemical environment in a body of water.  
Interaction of living organisms with the physical or chemical environment in a body of water.  
 
 
 
 
* [[aquatic environment]]
 
* [[aquatic environment]]
 
+
Waters, including wetlands, that serve as habitat for interrelated and interacting communities and populations of plants and animals.  
Waters, including wetlands, that serve as habitat for interrelated and interacting communities and populations of plants and animals.  
 
 
 
 
* [[aquatic plant culture]]
 
* [[aquatic plant culture]]
 
+
The cultivation of aquatic plants for food or other purposes.  
The cultivation of aquatic plants for food or other purposes.  
 
 
 
 
* [[aquatic plants]]
 
* [[aquatic plants]]
 
+
Plants that grow in water either floating on the surface, growing up from the bottom of the body of water or growing under the surface of the water.  
Plants that grow in water either floating on the surface, growing up from the bottom of the body of water or growing under the surface of the water.  
 
 
 
 
* [[aquic regimes]]
 
* [[aquic regimes]]
 
+
The aquic moisture regime occurs when the soil is saturated by water for significant periods of time and is virtually free of dissolved oxygen.  
The aquic moisture regime occurs when the soil is saturated by water for significant periods of time and is virtually free of dissolved oxygen.  
 
 
 
 
* [[aquiclude]]
 
* [[aquiclude]]
 
+
An impermeable body of rock that may absorb water slowly, but does not transmit it.  
An impermeable body of rock that may absorb water slowly, but does not transmit it.  
 
 
 
 
* [[aquifers]]
 
* [[aquifers]]
 
+
A geologic formation or structure that transmits water in sufficient quantity to supply the needs for a water development, such as a well. The term "water-bearing" is sometimes used synonymously with "aquifer" when a stratum furnishes water for a specific use. Aquifers are usually saturated sands, gravel, fractured rock, or cavernous and vesicular rock.  
A geologic formation or structure that transmits water in sufficient quantity to supply the needs for a water development, such as a well. The term "water-bearing" is sometimes used synonymously with "aquifer" when a stratum furnishes water for a specific use. Aquifers are usually saturated sands, gravel, fractured rock, or cavernous and vesicular rock.  
 
 
 
 
* [[Arabs]]
 
* [[Arabs]]
 
+
People who identify their nationality, ethnic identity, ancestry or first language as Arabic.  
People who identify their nationality, ethnic identity, ancestry or first language as Arabic.  
 
 
 
 
* [[arboviruses]]
 
* [[arboviruses]]
 
+
Arthropod-borne viruses. A non-taxonomic designation for viruses that can replicate in both vertebrate hosts and arthropod vectors.  
Arthropod-borne viruses. A non-taxonomic designation for viruses that can replicate in both vertebrate hosts and arthropod vectors.  
 
 
 
 
* [[archaeology]]
 
* [[archaeology]]
 
+
The study of past human cultures through the excavation and analysis of artifacts or other material remains recovered from archaeological sites.  
The study of past human cultures through the excavation and analysis of artifacts or other material remains recovered from archaeological sites.  
 
 
 
 
* [[argillite]]
 
* [[argillite]]
 
+
A compact argillaceous (clayey) rock differing from shale in being cemented by silica and from slate in having no slaty cleavage.  
A compact argillaceous (clayey) rock differing from shale in being cemented by silica and from slate in having no slaty cleavage.  
 
 
 
 
* [[arginine vasopressin]]
 
* [[arginine vasopressin]]
 
+
The predominant form of mammalian antidiuretic hormone. It is a nonapeptide containing an arginine at residue 8 and two disulfide-linked cysteines at residues of 1 and 6. Arg-vasopressin is used to treat diabetes insipidus or to improve vasomotor tone and blood pressure.  
The predominant form of mammalian antidiuretic hormone. It is a nonapeptide containing an arginine at residue 8 and two disulfide-linked cysteines at residues of 1 and 6. Arg-vasopressin is used to treat diabetes insipidus or to improve vasomotor tone and blood pressure.  
 
 
 
 
* [[arid lands]]
 
* [[arid lands]]
 
+
Barren, desert or semi-desert land that is typically dry with less than 10 inches of annual precipitation.  
Barren, desert or semi-desert land that is typically dry with less than 10 inches of annual precipitation.  
 
 
 
 
* [[arid zones]]
 
* [[arid zones]]
 
+
Dry climatic type with less than 10 inches of precipitation per year.  
Dry climatic type with less than 10 inches of precipitation per year.  
 
 
 
 
* [[aridic regimes]]
 
* [[aridic regimes]]
 
+
The aridic moisture regime has limited plant available water since the soil is dry for at least half of the growing season and is moist for less than 90 consecutive days. This regime is characteristic of arid zones.  
The aridic moisture regime has limited plant available water since the soil is dry for at least half of the growing season and is moist for less than 90 consecutive days. This regime is characteristic of arid zones.  
 
 
 
 
* [[aril]]
 
* [[aril]]
 
+
A special, usually fleshy seed covering of certain seeds that commonly develops from the ovule integument(s) or seed stalk (funiculus, raphe, etc.). It partially or completely surrounds the seed of some plants.  
A special, usually fleshy seed covering of certain seeds that commonly develops from the ovule integument(s) or seed stalk (funiculus, raphe, etc.). It partially or completely surrounds the seed of some plants.  
 
 
 
 
* [[aroclors]]
 
* [[aroclors]]
 
+
Industrial chemicals which have become widespread environmental pollutants. Each aroclor is a mixture of chlorinated biphenyls (1200 series) or chlorinated terphenyls (5400 series) or a combination of both (4400 series).  
Industrial chemicals which have become widespread environmental pollutants. Each aroclor is a mixture of chlorinated biphenyls (1200 series) or chlorinated terphenyls (5400 series) or a combination of both (4400 series).  
 
 
 
 
* [[arrhenotoky]]
 
* [[arrhenotoky]]
 
+
Parthenogenetic production of males from unfertilized eggs.  
Parthenogenetic production of males from unfertilized eggs.  
 
 
 
 
* [[arrhythmia]]
 
* [[arrhythmia]]
 
+
Any disturbances of the normal rhythmic beating of the heart or myocardial contraction. Cardiac arrhythmias can be classified by the abnormalities in heart rate, disorders of electrical impulse generation, or impulse conduction.  
Any disturbances of the normal rhythmic beating of the heart or myocardial contraction. Cardiac arrhythmias can be classified by the abnormalities in heart rate, disorders of electrical impulse generation, or impulse conduction.  
 
 
 
 
* [[arteries]]
 
* [[arteries]]
 
+
The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.  
The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.  
 
 
 
 
* [[arterioles]]
 
* [[arterioles]]
 
+
The smallest divisions of the arteries located between the muscular arteries and the capillaries.  
The smallest divisions of the arteries located between the muscular arteries and the capillaries.  
 
 
 
 
* [[arthrodesis]]
 
* [[arthrodesis]]
 
+
The surgical fixation of a joint by a procedure designed to accomplish fusion of the joint surfaces by promoting the proliferation of bone cells.  
The surgical fixation of a joint by a procedure designed to accomplish fusion of the joint surfaces by promoting the proliferation of bone cells.  
 
 
 
 
* [[arthropod proteins]]
 
* [[arthropod proteins]]
 
+
Proteins synthesized by organisms belonging to the phylum Arthropoda. Included in this heading are proteins from the subdivisions Arachnida; Crustacea; and horseshoe crabs. Note that a separate heading for insect proteins is listed under this heading.  
Proteins synthesized by organisms belonging to the phylum Arthropoda. Included in this heading are proteins from the subdivisions Arachnida; Crustacea; and horseshoe crabs. Note that a separate heading for insect proteins is listed under this heading.  
 
 
 
 
* [[arthroscopy]]
 
* [[arthroscopy]]
 
+
Endoscopic examination, therapy and surgery of the joint.  
Endoscopic examination, therapy and surgery of the joint.  
 
 
 
 
* [[artificial cells]]
 
* [[artificial cells]]
 
+
Chemically engineered, microscopic cell-like structures, which resemble biological cells in one or more functions.  
Chemically engineered, microscopic cell-like structures, which resemble biological cells in one or more functions.  
 
 
 
 
* [[artificial insemination]]
 
* [[artificial insemination]]
 
+
The delivery of semen into the uterus of the female animal usually by injection with a syringe-like apparatus for the purpose of achieving fertilization and sexual reproduction.  
The delivery of semen into the uterus of the female animal usually by injection with a syringe-like apparatus for the purpose of achieving fertilization and sexual reproduction.  
 
 
 
 
* [[artificial intelligence]]
 
* [[artificial intelligence]]
 
+
A discipline concerned with development of computer and extended-robotic systems that can exhibit intelligent action. May also be defined as a subfield of computer science concerned with concepts and methods of symbolic inference by a computer and the symbolic representation of the knowledge to be used in making inferences.  
A discipline concerned with development of computer and extended-robotic systems that can exhibit intelligent action. May also be defined as a subfield of computer science concerned with concepts and methods of symbolic inference by a computer and the symbolic representation of the knowledge to be used in making inferences.  
 
 
 
 
* [[artificial pacemaker]]
 
* [[artificial pacemaker]]
 
+
A device designed to stimulate, by electric impulses, contraction of the heart muscles. It may be temporary (external) or permanent (internal or internal-external).  
A device designed to stimulate, by electric impulses, contraction of the heart muscles. It may be temporary (external) or permanent (internal or internal-external).  
 
 
 
 
* [[artificial pneumoperitoneum]]
 
* [[artificial pneumoperitoneum]]
 
+
Deliberate introduction of air into the peritoneal cavity.  
Deliberate introduction of air into the peritoneal cavity.  
 
 
 
 
* [[artificial rearing]]
 
* [[artificial rearing]]
 
+
Rearing occuring in a non-natural environment.  
Rearing occuring in a non-natural environment.  
 
 
 
 
* [[artificial reefs]]
 
* [[artificial reefs]]
 
+
Manmade structures constructed in coastal waters or marine environments which provide a sheltered habitat for aquaculture or fishing.  
Manmade structures constructed in coastal waters or marine environments which provide a sheltered habitat for aquaculture or fishing.  
 
 
 
 
* [[artisanal fishing]]
 
* [[artisanal fishing]]
 
+
Fishing practices using traditional (low-technology) fishing boats and gear for local, small-scale food subsistence.  
Fishing practices using traditional (low-technology) fishing boats and gear for local, small-scale food subsistence.  
 
 
 
 
* [[asbestos]]
 
* [[asbestos]]
 
+
Fibrous incombustible mineral composed of magnesium and calcium silicates with or without other elements. It is relatively inert chemically and used in thermal insulation and fireproofing. Inhalation of dust causes asbestosis and later lung and gastrointestinal neoplasms.  
Fibrous incombustible mineral composed of magnesium and calcium silicates with or without other elements. It is relatively inert chemically and used in thermal insulation and fireproofing. Inhalation of dust causes asbestosis and later lung and gastrointestinal neoplasms.  
 
 
 
 
* [[ascites]]
 
* [[ascites]]
 
+
Accumulation or retention of free fluid within the peritoneal cavity.  
Accumulation or retention of free fluid within the peritoneal cavity.  
 
 
 
 
* [[ascomata]]
 
* [[ascomata]]
 
+
A closed sporebearing structure found in ascomycete fungi.  
A closed sporebearing structure found in ascomycete fungi.  
 
 
 
 
* [[aseptic conditions]]
 
* [[aseptic conditions]]
 
+
An environmental state which is free of microorganisms, especially pathogens.  
An environmental state which is free of microorganisms, especially pathogens.  
 
 
 
 
* [[ash (inorganic matter)]]
 
* [[ash (inorganic matter)]]
 
+
The inorganic matter left after combustion of an organic substance.  
The inorganic matter left after combustion of an organic substance.  
 
 
 
 
* [[Asians]]
 
* [[Asians]]
 
+
People identify themselves as having origins in any of the original peoples of the Far East, Southeast Asia, or the India subcontinent.  
People identify themselves as having origins in any of the original peoples of the Far East, Southeast Asia, or the India subcontinent.  
 
 
 
 
* [[aspartate-tRNA ligase]]
 
* [[aspartate-tRNA ligase]]
 
+
An enzyme that activates aspartic acid with its specific transfer RNA.  
An enzyme that activates aspartic acid with its specific transfer RNA.  
 
 
 
 
* [[asphyxia]]
 
* [[asphyxia]]
 
+
A pathological condition caused by lack of oxygen, manifested in impending or actual cessation of life.  
A pathological condition caused by lack of oxygen, manifested in impending or actual cessation of life.  
 
 
 
 
* [[assisted living facilities]]
 
* [[assisted living facilities]]
 
+
A housing and health care alternative combining independence with personal care. It provides a combination of housing, personalized supportive services and health care designed to meet the needs, both scheduled and unscheduled, of those who need help with activities of daily living.  
A housing and health care alternative combining independence with personal care. It provides a combination of housing, personalized supportive services and health care designed to meet the needs, both scheduled and unscheduled, of those who need help with activities of daily living.  
 
 
 
 
* [[assisted reproductive technologies]]
 
* [[assisted reproductive technologies]]
 
+
Techniques used to increase fertility and achieve pregnancy.  
Techniques used to increase fertility and achieve pregnancy.  
 
 
 
 
* [[assistive technologies]]
 
* [[assistive technologies]]
 
+
Systems and devices engineered for the disabled which assist them during their daily activities.  
Systems and devices engineered for the disabled which assist them during their daily activities.  
 
 
 
 
* [[Association for Assessment and Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care International]]
 
* [[Association for Assessment and Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care International]]
 
+
AAALAC International is a private, nonprofit organization that promotes the humane treatment of animals in science through voluntary accreditation and assessment programs.  
AAALAC International is a private, nonprofit organization that promotes the humane treatment of animals in science through voluntary accreditation and assessment programs.  
 
 
 
 
* [[aster (cell structure)]]
 
* [[aster (cell structure)]]
 
+
A star-shaped arrangement of microtubular filaments which radiate from the centrosome during mitosis and meiosis.  
A star-shaped arrangement of microtubular filaments which radiate from the centrosome during mitosis and meiosis.  
 
 
 
 
* [[Aster frikartii]]
 
* [[Aster frikartii]]
 
+
Interspecific hybrid of Aster amellus x Aster thomsonii.  
Interspecific hybrid of Aster amellus x Aster thomsonii.  
 
 
 
 
* [[aster yellows]]
 
* [[aster yellows]]
 
+
A disease of various plants, caused by phytoplasmas transmitted by leafhoppers, resulting in dwarfing and yellowing of the plant.  
A disease of various plants, caused by phytoplasmas transmitted by leafhoppers, resulting in dwarfing and yellowing of the plant.  
 
 
 
 
* [[astrocytoma]]
 
* [[astrocytoma]]
 
+
Neoplasms of the brain and spinal cord derived from glial cells which vary from histologically benign forms to highly anaplastic and malignant tumors.  
Neoplasms of the brain and spinal cord derived from glial cells which vary from histologically benign forms to highly anaplastic and malignant tumors.  
 
 
 
 
* [[asynapsis]]
 
* [[asynapsis]]
 
+
Failure of homologous chromosomes to pair during meiosis.  
Failure of homologous chromosomes to pair during meiosis.  
 
 
 
 
* [[at-risk population]]
 
* [[at-risk population]]
 
+
Any group which is more susceptible to adverse events than the general population, due their health or any economic, physical, emotional, environmental, or social factors.  
Any group which is more susceptible to adverse events than the general population, due their health or any economic, physical, emotional, environmental, or social factors.  
 
 
 
 
* [[ataxia (disorder)]]
 
* [[ataxia (disorder)]]
 
+
Impairment of the ability to perform smoothly coordinated voluntary movements. This condition may affect the limbs, trunk, eyes, pharnyx, larnyx, and other structures. Ataxia may result from impaired sensory or motor function.  
Impairment of the ability to perform smoothly coordinated voluntary movements. This condition may affect the limbs, trunk, eyes, pharnyx, larnyx, and other structures. Ataxia may result from impaired sensory or motor function.  
 
 
 
 
* [[atemoyas]]
 
* [[atemoyas]]
 
+
Interspecific cross between cherimoyas and sweetsops (Annona cherimola X Annona squamosa).  
Interspecific cross between cherimoyas and sweetsops (Annona cherimola X Annona squamosa).  
 
 
 
 
* [[atherosclerosis]]
 
* [[atherosclerosis]]
 
+
A thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of arteries that occurs with formation of atherosclerotic plaques within the arterial intima.  
A thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of arteries that occurs with formation of atherosclerotic plaques within the arterial intima.  
 
 
 
 
* [[atmospheric chemistry]]
 
* [[atmospheric chemistry]]
 
+
Study of the production, transport, modification, and removal of atmospheric constituents in the troposphere and stratosphere.  
Study of the production, transport, modification, and removal of atmospheric constituents in the troposphere and stratosphere.  
 
 
 
 
* [[atmospheric deposition]]
 
* [[atmospheric deposition]]
 
+
The process by which chemical substances, such as pollutants, are transferred from the atmosphere to the earth's surface.  
The process by which chemical substances, such as pollutants, are transferred from the atmosphere to the earth's surface.  
 
 
 
 
* [[atmospheric pressure]]
 
* [[atmospheric pressure]]
 
+
The total pressure exerted by the atmosphere of Earth.  
The total pressure exerted by the atmosphere of Earth.  
 
 
 
 
* [[atolls]]
 
* [[atolls]]
 
+
Coral reef islands that form a circular, oval or crescent shape surrounding a central lagoon and are commonly found in the tropical waters of the Pacific and Indian Oceans.  
Coral reef islands that form a circular, oval or crescent shape surrounding a central lagoon and are commonly found in the tropical waters of the Pacific and Indian Oceans.  
 
 
 
 
* [[atomic force microscopy]]
 
* [[atomic force microscopy]]
 
+
A type of scanning probe microscopy in which a probe systematically rides across the surface of a sample being scanned in a raster pattern. The vertical position is recorded as a spring attached to the probe rises and falls in response to peaks and valleys on the surface. These deflections produce a topographic map of the sample.  
A type of scanning probe microscopy in which a probe systematically rides across the surface of a sample being scanned in a raster pattern. The vertical position is recorded as a spring attached to the probe rises and falls in response to peaks and valleys on the surface. These deflections produce a topographic map of the sample.  
 
 
 
 
* [[atopic dermatitis]]
 
* [[atopic dermatitis]]
 
+
A chronic inflammatory genetically determined disease of the skin marked by increased ability to form reagin (IgE), with increased susceptibility to allergic rhinitis and asthma, and hereditary disposition to a lowered threshold for pruritus.  
A chronic inflammatory genetically determined disease of the skin marked by increased ability to form reagin (IgE), with increased susceptibility to allergic rhinitis and asthma, and hereditary disposition to a lowered threshold for pruritus.  
 
 
 
 
* [[atrial fibrillation]]
 
* [[atrial fibrillation]]
 
+
Abnormal cardiac rhythm that is characterized by rapid, uncoordinated firing of electrical impulses in the upper chambers of the heart (heart atria). In such case, blood cannot be effectively pumped into the lower chambers of the heart (heart ventricles). It is caused by abnormal impulse generation.  
Abnormal cardiac rhythm that is characterized by rapid, uncoordinated firing of electrical impulses in the upper chambers of the heart (heart atria). In such case, blood cannot be effectively pumped into the lower chambers of the heart (heart ventricles). It is caused by abnormal impulse generation.  
 
 
 
 
* [[atrial natriuretic peptide]]
 
* [[atrial natriuretic peptide]]
 
+
A potent natriuretic and vasodilatory peptide or mixture of different-sized low molecular weight peptides derived from a common precursor and secreted mainly by the heart atrium. All these peptides share a sequence of about 20 amino acids.  
A potent natriuretic and vasodilatory peptide or mixture of different-sized low molecular weight peptides derived from a common precursor and secreted mainly by the heart atrium. All these peptides share a sequence of about 20 amino acids.  
 
 
 
 
* [[atrophy]]
 
* [[atrophy]]
 
+
Decrease in the size of a cell, tissue, organ, or multiple organs, associated with a variety of pathological conditions such as abnormal cellular changes, ischemia, malnutrition, or hormonal changes.  
Decrease in the size of a cell, tissue, organ, or multiple organs, associated with a variety of pathological conditions such as abnormal cellular changes, ischemia, malnutrition, or hormonal changes.  
 
 
 
 
* [[attainable yield]]
 
* [[attainable yield]]
 
+
Yields expected through use of known technology.  
Yields expected through use of known technology.  
 
 
 
 
* [[attributional life cycle assessment]]
 
* [[attributional life cycle assessment]]
 
+
A life cycle modeling method that describes flows of material, energy and emissions within a discrete product or system.  
A life cycle modeling method that describes flows of material, energy and emissions within a discrete product or system.  
 
 
 
 
* [[atypical chemokine receptor 3]]
 
* [[atypical chemokine receptor 3]]
 
+
Atypical chemokine receptor 3 is a member of the G-protein coupled receptor family. It is considered to be an orphan receptor, in that its endogenous ligand has not been identified. The protein is also a coreceptor for human immunodeficiency virus.  
Atypical chemokine receptor 3 is a member of the G-protein coupled receptor family. It is considered to be an orphan receptor, in that its endogenous ligand has not been identified. The protein is also a coreceptor for human immunodeficiency virus.  
 
 
 
 
* [[auctions]]
 
* [[auctions]]
 
+
Public sale of property in which bids are made by multiple parties; usually the property goes to the highest bidder.  
Public sale of property in which bids are made by multiple parties; usually the property goes to the highest bidder.  
 
 
 
 
* [[audience assessment]]
 
* [[audience assessment]]
 
+
Gathering and interpreting information about the recipients of oral, written, or visual communication  
Gathering and interpreting information about the recipients of oral, written, or visual communication  
 
 
 
 
* [[audience involvement]]
 
* [[audience involvement]]
 
+
The degree of interest of an audience in the communication process.  
The degree of interest of an audience in the communication process.  
 
 
 
 
* [[audiometry]]
 
* [[audiometry]]
 
+
The testing of the acuity of the sense of hearing to determine the thresholds of the lowest intensity levels at which an individual can hear a set of tones. The frequencies between 125 and 8000 Hz are used to test air conduction thresholds and the frequencies between 250 and 4000 Hz are used to test bone conduction thresholds.  
The testing of the acuity of the sense of hearing to determine the thresholds of the lowest intensity levels at which an individual can hear a set of tones. The frequencies between 125 and 8000 Hz are used to test air conduction thresholds and the frequencies between 250 and 4000 Hz are used to test bone conduction thresholds.  
 
 
 
 
* [[audits]]
 
* [[audits]]
 
+
Systematic, independent and objective reviews of verifiable information, documentation or records.  
Systematic, independent and objective reviews of verifiable information, documentation or records.  
 
 
 
 
* [[Aujeszky disease]]
 
* [[Aujeszky disease]]
 
+
A highly contagious herpesvirus infection affecting the central nervous system of swine, cattle, dogs, cats, rats, and other animals.  
A highly contagious herpesvirus infection affecting the central nervous system of swine, cattle, dogs, cats, rats, and other animals.  
 
 
 
 
* [[Australasian region]]
 
* [[Australasian region]]
 
+
Region generally including the islands of the southwest Pacific Ocean, Australia, New Zealand, New Guinea and the Malay Archipelago.  
Region generally including the islands of the southwest Pacific Ocean, Australia, New Zealand, New Guinea and the Malay Archipelago.  
 
 
 
 
* [[autism]]
 
* [[autism]]
 
+
A disorder beginning in childhood. It is marked by the presence of markedly abnormal or impaired development in social interaction and communication and a markedly restricted repertoire of activity and interest. Manifestations of the disorder vary greatly depending on the developmental level and chronological age of the individual.  
A disorder beginning in childhood. It is marked by the presence of markedly abnormal or impaired development in social interaction and communication and a markedly restricted repertoire of activity and interest. Manifestations of the disorder vary greatly depending on the developmental level and chronological age of the individual.  
 
 
 
 
* [[autoclaving]]
 
* [[autoclaving]]
 
+
Sterilizing with high pressure steam.  
Sterilizing with high pressure steam.  
 
 
 
 
* [[autocorrelation]]
 
* [[autocorrelation]]
 
+
The statistical covariance (correlation) between variables at different points in time.  
The statistical covariance (correlation) between variables at different points in time.  
 
 
 
 
* [[autocrine signaling]]
 
* [[autocrine signaling]]
 
+
Mode of communication wherein a bound hormone affects the function of the cell type that produced the hormone.  
Mode of communication wherein a bound hormone affects the function of the cell type that produced the hormone.  
 
 
 
 
* [[autogenous vaccines]]
 
* [[autogenous vaccines]]
 
+
Bacterial vaccines prepared from non-pathogenic, autologous bacteria of human origin. In Eastern Europe they are used in humans to treat chronic inflammatory disorders that are resistant to standard treatments. Worldwide they have veterinary use in all types of infectious disease.  
Bacterial vaccines prepared from non-pathogenic, autologous bacteria of human origin. In Eastern Europe they are used in humans to treat chronic inflammatory disorders that are resistant to standard treatments. Worldwide they have veterinary use in all types of infectious disease.  
 
 
 
 
* [[autogeny]]
 
* [[autogeny]]
 
+
Reproduction in which a blood meal or ingested food is not required for egg development.  
Reproduction in which a blood meal or ingested food is not required for egg development.  
 
 
 
 
* [[autografting]]
 
* [[autografting]]
 
+
Transplantation of an individual's own tissue from one site to another site.  
Transplantation of an individual's own tissue from one site to another site.  
 
 
 
 
* [[autoimmune hepatitis]]
 
* [[autoimmune hepatitis]]
 
+
A chronic self-perpetuating hepatocellular inflammation of unknown cause, usually with hypergammaglobulinemia and serum autoantibodies.  
A chronic self-perpetuating hepatocellular inflammation of unknown cause, usually with hypergammaglobulinemia and serum autoantibodies.  
 
 
 
 
* [[autophagy]]
 
* [[autophagy]]
 
+
The segregation and degradation of damaged or unwanted cytoplasmic constituents by autophagic vacuoles (cytolysosomes) composed of lysosomes containing cellular components in the process of digestion; it plays an important role in biological metamorphosis of amphibians, in the removal of bone by osteoclasts, and in the degradation of normal cell components in nutritional deficiency states.  
The segregation and degradation of damaged or unwanted cytoplasmic constituents by autophagic vacuoles (cytolysosomes) composed of lysosomes containing cellular components in the process of digestion; it plays an important role in biological metamorphosis of amphibians, in the removal of bone by osteoclasts, and in the degradation of normal cell components in nutritional deficiency states.  
 
 
 
 
* [[autopolyploidy]]
 
* [[autopolyploidy]]
 
+
Polyploidy in which the individual or strain has two or more multiples of the haploid sets of chromosomes. Both sets of chromosomes from parents have been duplicated in the offspring, sometimes resulting in the formation of a new species.  
Polyploidy in which the individual or strain has two or more multiples of the haploid sets of chromosomes. Both sets of chromosomes from parents have been duplicated in the offspring, sometimes resulting in the formation of a new species.  
 
 
 
 
* [[autoradiography]]
 
* [[autoradiography]]
 
+
A technique for visualizing the radiation emitted from radioactively labeled material in a specimen by recording the image produced from such radiation on photographic film.  
A technique for visualizing the radiation emitted from radioactively labeled material in a specimen by recording the image produced from such radiation on photographic film.  
 
 
 
 
* [[autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease]]
 
* [[autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease]]
 
+
Kidney disorders with autosomal dominant inheritance and characterized by multiple cysts in both kidneys with progressive deterioration of renal function.  
Kidney disorders with autosomal dominant inheritance and characterized by multiple cysts in both kidneys with progressive deterioration of renal function.  
 
 
 
 
* [[autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease]]
 
* [[autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease]]
 
+
A genetic disorder with autosomal recessive inheritance, characterized by multiple cysts in both kidneys and associated liver lesions. Serious manifestations are usually present at birth with high perinatal mortality.  
A genetic disorder with autosomal recessive inheritance, characterized by multiple cysts in both kidneys and associated liver lesions. Serious manifestations are usually present at birth with high perinatal mortality.  
 
 
 
 
* [[autotetraploidy]]
 
* [[autotetraploidy]]
 
+
A form of autopolyploidy in which each chromosome or genome is present in four copies in an organism or a cell.  
A form of autopolyploidy in which each chromosome or genome is present in four copies in an organism or a cell.  
 
 
 
 
* [[autotoxicity]]
 
* [[autotoxicity]]
 
+
A specific type of allelopathy where the presence of adult plants of a species interferes with the germination and development of seedlings from that species.  
A specific type of allelopathy where the presence of adult plants of a species interferes with the germination and development of seedlings from that species.  
 
 
 
 
* [[autotrophs]]
 
* [[autotrophs]]
 
+
Organisms which are capable of producing organic matter from inorganic materials by utilizing energy, such as chlorophyll-containing plants and bacteria. Contrast with heterotrophs.  
Organisms which are capable of producing organic matter from inorganic materials by utilizing energy, such as chlorophyll-containing plants and bacteria. Contrast with heterotrophs.  
 
 
 
 
* [[auxins]]
 
* [[auxins]]
 
+
A natural or synthetic phytohormone that regulates plant growth and development.  
A natural or synthetic phytohormone that regulates plant growth and development.  
 
 
 
 
* [[auxotrophs]]
 
* [[auxotrophs]]
 
+
An organism that has mutated and has lost its ability to synthesize substances required for its growth and metabolism. The mutant organism requires specific substances as a nutritional supplement in order to grow.  
An organism that has mutated and has lost its ability to synthesize substances required for its growth and metabolism. The mutant organism requires specific substances as a nutritional supplement in order to grow.  
 
 
 
 
* [[avalanches]]
 
* [[avalanches]]
 
+
The rapid downslope movement of large quantities of snow.  
The rapid downslope movement of large quantities of snow.  
 
 
 
 
* [[Avena glabrata]]
 
* [[Avena glabrata]]
 
+
Interspecific hybrid of Avena sativa x Avena fatua.  
Interspecific hybrid of Avena sativa x Avena fatua.  
 
 
 
 
* [[average daily gain]]
 
* [[average daily gain]]
 
+
A growing animal's average body weight increase expressed as pounds, kilograms or grams per day.  
A growing animal's average body weight increase expressed as pounds, kilograms or grams per day.  
 
 
 
 
* [[average daily intake]]
 
* [[average daily intake]]
 
+
The intake of a biological, chemical or physical agent that is averaged over a specified time period taking into account the frequency, duration, and intensity of exposure. Usually expressed in units of mg/kg/day.  
The intake of a biological, chemical or physical agent that is averaged over a specified time period taking into account the frequency, duration, and intensity of exposure. Usually expressed in units of mg/kg/day.  
 
 
 
 
* [[Avian encephalomyelitis virus]]
 
* [[Avian encephalomyelitis virus]]
 
+
A tentative species in the genus Hepatovirus infecting primarily young chicks, but also found in turkeys, pheasants, and guinea fowl. It causes a fatal neuronal degeneration and is transmitted by mechanical contact.  
A tentative species in the genus Hepatovirus infecting primarily young chicks, but also found in turkeys, pheasants, and guinea fowl. It causes a fatal neuronal degeneration and is transmitted by mechanical contact.  
 
 
 
 
* [[avian influenza]]
 
* [[avian influenza]]
 
+
An Influenza A viral infection of wild birds or domestic fowl, certain strains of which cause high mortality in poultry.  
An Influenza A viral infection of wild birds or domestic fowl, certain strains of which cause high mortality in poultry.  
 
 
 
 
* [[avian malaria]]
 
* [[avian malaria]]
 
+
Any of a group of infections of fowl caused by protozoa of the genera Plasmodium, Leucocytozoon, and Haemoproteus. The life cycles of these parasites and the disease produced bears strong resemblance to those observed in human malaria.  
Any of a group of infections of fowl caused by protozoa of the genera Plasmodium, Leucocytozoon, and Haemoproteus. The life cycles of these parasites and the disease produced bears strong resemblance to those observed in human malaria.  
 
 
 
 
* [[avidin]]
 
* [[avidin]]
 
+
A biotin-binding protein from egg albumen.  
A biotin-binding protein from egg albumen.  
 
 
 
 
* [[avoidance behavior]]
 
* [[avoidance behavior]]
 
+
Behaviors by which an animal keeps away from painful or anxiety-producing environmental conditions or situations.  
Behaviors by which an animal keeps away from painful or anxiety-producing environmental conditions or situations.  
 
 
 
 
* [[avoparcin]]
 
* [[avoparcin]]
 
+
Glycopeptide antibiotic from Streptomyces candidus; antibiotic growth promoter for improving growth rates & feed conversion efficiency of broiler chickens and pigs.  
Glycopeptide antibiotic from Streptomyces candidus; antibiotic growth promoter for improving growth rates & feed conversion efficiency of broiler chickens and pigs.  
 
 
 
 
* [[awns]]
 
* [[awns]]
 
+
A bristle-like appendage, especially on the floral bracts of grasses or on the achenes of composites; the "beards" of wheat, rye etc., are awns.  
A bristle-like appendage, especially on the floral bracts of grasses or on the achenes of composites; the "beards" of wheat, rye etc., are awns.  
 
 
 
 
* [[axenic culture]]
 
* [[axenic culture]]
 
+
A culture of a single species not contaminated by or associated with any other living organisms.  
A culture of a single species not contaminated by or associated with any other living organisms.  
 
 
 
 
* [[axonal transport]]
 
* [[axonal transport]]
 
+
The directed transport of organelles and molecules along nerve cell axons. Transport can be anterograde (from the cell body) or retrograde (toward the cell body).  
The directed transport of organelles and molecules along nerve cell axons. Transport can be anterograde (from the cell body) or retrograde (toward the cell body).  
 
 
 
 
* [[axons]]
 
* [[axons]]
 
+
Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.  
Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.  
 
 
 
 
* [[Ayurvedic medicine]]
 
* [[Ayurvedic medicine]]
 
+
The traditional Hindu system of medicine which is based on customs, beliefs, and practices of the Hindu culture. Ayurveda means "the science of Life": veda - science, ayur - life.  
The traditional Hindu system of medicine which is based on customs, beliefs, and practices of the Hindu culture. Ayurveda means "the science of Life": veda - science, ayur - life.  
 
 
 
 
* [[azepines]]
 
* [[azepines]]
 
+
Seven membered heterocyclic rings containing a nitrogen atom.  
Seven membered heterocyclic rings containing a nitrogen atom.  
 
 
 
 
* [[azithromycin]]
 
* [[azithromycin]]
 
+
A semi-synthetic macrolide antibiotic structurally related to erythromycin. It has been used in the treatment of Mycobacterium avium intracellulare infections, toxoplasmosis, and cryptosporidiosis.  
A semi-synthetic macrolide antibiotic structurally related to erythromycin. It has been used in the treatment of Mycobacterium avium intracellulare infections, toxoplasmosis, and cryptosporidiosis.  
 
 
 
 
* [[aztreonam]]
 
* [[aztreonam]]
 +
A monocyclic beta-lactam antibiotic originally isolated from Chromobacterium violaceum. It is resistant to beta-lactamases and is used in gram-negative infections, especially of the meninges, bladder, and kidneys. It may cause a superinfection with gram-positive organisms.
  
A monocyclic beta-lactam antibiotic originally isolated from Chromobacterium violaceum. It is resistant to beta-lactamases and is used in gram-negative infections, especially of the meninges, bladder, and kidneys. It may cause a superinfection with gram-positive organisms.
+
{{catz}}
 
+
== B ==
 
* [[B-cell lymphoma]]
 
* [[B-cell lymphoma]]
 
+
A group of heterogeneous lymphoid tumors generally expressing one or more B-cell antigens or representing malignant transformations of B-lymphocytes.  
A group of heterogeneous lymphoid tumors generally expressing one or more B-cell antigens or representing malignant transformations of B-lymphocytes.  
 
 
 
 
* [[B chromosomes]]
 
* [[B chromosomes]]
 
+
B chromosomes are extra chromosomes to the normal chromosomal set of an organism and are found in some species. They are small sized, mostly heterochromatic, dispensable, and are transmitted in a non-Mendelian manner.  
B chromosomes are extra chromosomes to the normal chromosomal set of an organism and are found in some species. They are small sized, mostly heterochromatic, dispensable, and are transmitted in a non-Mendelian manner.  
 
 
 
 
* [[babassu oil]]
 
* [[babassu oil]]
 
+
The oil extracted from kernels (seeds) of the babassu palm, Attalea speciosa. The oil is used in food, cosmetics and soaps, having properties similar to coconut oil.  
The oil extracted from kernels (seeds) of the babassu palm, Attalea speciosa. The oil is used in food, cosmetics and soaps, having properties similar to coconut oil.  
 
 
 
 
* [[babesiosis]]
 
* [[babesiosis]]
 
+
A group of tick-borne diseases of mammals including zoonoses in humans. They are caused by genus Babesia, which parasitize erythrocytes, producing hemolysis. In the U.S., the organism's natural host is mice and transmission is by the deer tick Ixodes scapularis.  
A group of tick-borne diseases of mammals including zoonoses in humans. They are caused by genus Babesia, which parasitize erythrocytes, producing hemolysis. In the U.S., the organism's natural host is mice and transmission is by the deer tick Ixodes scapularis.  
 
 
 
 
* [[bacitracin]]
 
* [[bacitracin]]
 
+
A complex of cyclic peptide antibiotics produced by the Tracy-I strain of Bacillus subtilis. The commercial preparation is a mixture of at least nine bacitracins with bacitracin A as the major constituent. It is used topically to treat open infections such as infected eczema and infected dermal ulcers.  
A complex of cyclic peptide antibiotics produced by the Tracy-I strain of Bacillus subtilis. The commercial preparation is a mixture of at least nine bacitracins with bacitracin A as the major constituent. It is used topically to treat open infections such as infected eczema and infected dermal ulcers.  
 
 
 
 
* [[backcrossing]]
 
* [[backcrossing]]
 
+
A cross between a hybrid and either one of its parents.  
A cross between a hybrid and either one of its parents.  
 
 
 
 
* [[bacteremia]]
 
* [[bacteremia]]
 
+
The presence of bacteria circulating in the blood.  
The presence of bacteria circulating in the blood.  
 
 
 
 
* [[bacterial antibodies]]
 
* [[bacterial antibodies]]
 
+
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to bacterial antigens.  
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to bacterial antigens.  
 
 
 
 
* [[bacterial pneumonia]]
 
* [[bacterial pneumonia]]
 
+
Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is caused by bacterial infections.  
Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is caused by bacterial infections.  
 
 
 
 
* [[bacterial shedding]]
 
* [[bacterial shedding]]
 
+
The expelling of bacteria from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract.  
The expelling of bacteria from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract.  
 
 
 
 
* [[bacterial toxins]]
 
* [[bacterial toxins]]
 
+
Toxins or poisonous substances produced by bacteria.  
Toxins or poisonous substances produced by bacteria.  
 
 
 
 
* [[bacterial vaccines]]
 
* [[bacterial vaccines]]
 
+
Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.  
Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.  
 
 
 
 
* [[bacterial wilt]]
 
* [[bacterial wilt]]
 
+
A plant disease caused by bacteria which causes wilting and shriveling of the stems and leaves.  
A plant disease caused by bacteria which causes wilting and shriveling of the stems and leaves.  
 
 
 
 
* [[bacteriochlorophyll]]
 
* [[bacteriochlorophyll]]
 
+
Pyrrole containing pigments found in photosynthetic bacteria.  
Pyrrole containing pigments found in photosynthetic bacteria.  
 
 
 
 
* [[bacteriocins]]
 
* [[bacteriocins]]
 
+
Substances elaborated by specific strains of bacteria that are lethal against other strains of the same or related species. They are protein or lipopolysaccharide-protein complexes used in taxonomy studies of bacteria.  
Substances elaborated by specific strains of bacteria that are lethal against other strains of the same or related species. They are protein or lipopolysaccharide-protein complexes used in taxonomy studies of bacteria.  
 
 
 
 
* [[bacteriome]]
 
* [[bacteriome]]
 
+
A symbiotic body cavity in the abdomen of some arthropods that harbors the obligate symbiont. It consists of bacteriocytes or mycetocytes enclosed by an epithelial membrane.  
A symbiotic body cavity in the abdomen of some arthropods that harbors the obligate symbiont. It consists of bacteriocytes or mycetocytes enclosed by an epithelial membrane.  
 
 
 
 
* [[bacteriophages]]
 
* [[bacteriophages]]
 
+
Viruses whose host are bacterial cells.  
Viruses whose host are bacterial cells.  
 
 
 
 
* [[bacterioplankton]]
 
* [[bacterioplankton]]
 
+
The free-floating bacterial component of plankton.  
The free-floating bacterial component of plankton.  
 
 
 
 
* [[bacteriorhodopsins]]
 
* [[bacteriorhodopsins]]
 
+
Rhodopsins found in the purple membrane of halophilic archaea such as Halobacterium halobium. Bacteriorhodopsins function as an energy transducers, converting light energy into electrochemical energy via proton pumps.  
Rhodopsins found in the purple membrane of halophilic archaea such as Halobacterium halobium. Bacteriorhodopsins function as an energy transducers, converting light energy into electrochemical energy via proton pumps.  
 
 
 
 
* [[badlands]]
 
* [[badlands]]
 
+
A land type consisting of steep or very steep barren land, usually broken by an intricate maze of narrow ravines, sharp crests, and pinnacles resulting from serious erosion of soft geologic materials.  
A land type consisting of steep or very steep barren land, usually broken by an intricate maze of narrow ravines, sharp crests, and pinnacles resulting from serious erosion of soft geologic materials.  
 
 
 
 
* [[bakers yeast]]
 
* [[bakers yeast]]
 
+
Dried cells of one or more strains of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, used as a leavening in baking.  
Dried cells of one or more strains of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, used as a leavening in baking.  
 
 
 
 
* [[balantidiasis]]
 
* [[balantidiasis]]
 
+
Infection by parasites of the genus Balantidium. The presence of Balantidium in the large intestine leads to diarrhea; dysentery; and occasionally ulcer.  
Infection by parasites of the genus Balantidium. The presence of Balantidium in the large intestine leads to diarrhea; dysentery; and occasionally ulcer.  
 
 
 
 
* [[balers]]
 
* [[balers]]
 
+
A machine that picks up a windrow of forage, compresses it, forms it into a rectangular or cylindrical bale, wraps it, and discharges it either onto the ground or into a trailing, convenient hauling vehicle. Bale size is highly variable among models.  
A machine that picks up a windrow of forage, compresses it, forms it into a rectangular or cylindrical bale, wraps it, and discharges it either onto the ground or into a trailing, convenient hauling vehicle. Bale size is highly variable among models.  
 
 
 
 
* [[Balkans]]
 
* [[Balkans]]
 
+
Countries occupying the Balkan Peninsula.  
Countries occupying the Balkan Peninsula.  
 
 
 
 
* [[ballast water]]
 
* [[ballast water]]
 
+
Fresh or salt water taken in and released by ships to improve their stability. Organisms transported from one port to another may become invasive species (pests).  
Fresh or salt water taken in and released by ships to improve their stability. Organisms transported from one port to another may become invasive species (pests).  
 
 
 
 
* [[Baltic States]]
 
* [[Baltic States]]
 
+
The countries of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania on the east shore of the Baltic Sea.  
The countries of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania on the east shore of the Baltic Sea.  
 
 
 
 
* [[bambermycin]]
 
* [[bambermycin]]
 
+
Antibiotic complex obtained from Streptomyces bambergiensis containing mainly Moenomycins A and C. They are used as feed additives and growth promoters for poultry, swine, and cattle.  
Antibiotic complex obtained from Streptomyces bambergiensis containing mainly Moenomycins A and C. They are used as feed additives and growth promoters for poultry, swine, and cattle.  
 
 
 
 
* [[bank erosion]]
 
* [[bank erosion]]
 
+
Loss of bank material as individual particles or aggregates by fluvial and sub-aerial processes.  
Loss of bank material as individual particles or aggregates by fluvial and sub-aerial processes.  
 
 
 
 
* [[bankruptcy]]
 
* [[bankruptcy]]
 
+
A legal process in which a debtor unable to pay debts has his assets liquidated and the debtor is relieved of further liability for those debts.  
A legal process in which a debtor unable to pay debts has his assets liquidated and the debtor is relieved of further liability for those debts.  
 
 
 
 
* [[bargaining cooperatives]]
 
* [[bargaining cooperatives]]
 
+
A type of cooperative which negotiates price, quality, and delivery terms with buyers.  
A type of cooperative which negotiates price, quality, and delivery terms with buyers.  
 
 
 
 
* [[bariatric surgery]]
 
* [[bariatric surgery]]
 
+
Surgical techniques, such as gastric banding, gastric bypass, gastroplasty, and biliopancreatic diversion, performed on the stomach and/or intestines of severely obese individuals for weight reduction.  
Surgical techniques, such as gastric banding, gastric bypass, gastroplasty, and biliopancreatic diversion, performed on the stomach and/or intestines of severely obese individuals for weight reduction.  
 
 
 
 
* [[barium compounds]]
 
* [[barium compounds]]
 
+
Inorganic compounds that contain barium as an integral part of the molecule.  
Inorganic compounds that contain barium as an integral part of the molecule.  
 
 
 
 
* [[barns]]
 
* [[barns]]
 
+
A large agricultural building that can be used for a variety of farm activities including storing hay, feed grains, and farm equipment or as protective shelter for livestock.  
A large agricultural building that can be used for a variety of farm activities including storing hay, feed grains, and farm equipment or as protective shelter for livestock.  
 
 
 
 
* [[barrows]]
 
* [[barrows]]
 
+
Male hogs that have been castrated before reaching sexual maturity.  
Male hogs that have been castrated before reaching sexual maturity.  
 
 
 
 
* [[basal metabolic rate]]
 
* [[basal metabolic rate]]
 
+
the energy required to sustain basal metabolism  
the energy required to sustain basal metabolism  
 
 
 
 
* [[basal metabolism]]
 
* [[basal metabolism]]
 
+
the basic essential metabolic processes required to keep the body alive, healthy and, where applicable, growing.  
the basic essential metabolic processes required to keep the body alive, healthy and, where applicable, growing.  
 
 
 
 
* [[basalt]]
 
* [[basalt]]
 
+
A dark gray to black colored, dense to fine-grained igneous rock composed of augite, pyroxene, feldspar and iron.  
A dark gray to black colored, dense to fine-grained igneous rock composed of augite, pyroxene, feldspar and iron.  
 
 
 
 
* [[base maps]]
 
* [[base maps]]
 
+
A map layer that contains only the essential parts of the terrain needed to identify that location and is the basis of detailed thematic maps.  
A map layer that contains only the essential parts of the terrain needed to identify that location and is the basis of detailed thematic maps.  
 
 
 
 
* [[base saturation]]
 
* [[base saturation]]
 
+
The ratio of the quantity of exchangeable bases to the cation exchange capacity.  
The ratio of the quantity of exchangeable bases to the cation exchange capacity.  
 
 
 
 
* [[basic-leucine zipper transcription factors]]
 
* [[basic-leucine zipper transcription factors]]
 
+
A large superfamily of transcription factors that contain a region rich in basic amino acid residues followed by a leucine zipper domain.  
A large superfamily of transcription factors that contain a region rich in basic amino acid residues followed by a leucine zipper domain.  
 
 
 
 
* [[basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors]]
 
* [[basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors]]
 
+
A family of DNA-binding transcription factors that contain a basic helix-loop-helix motif.  
A family of DNA-binding transcription factors that contain a basic helix-loop-helix motif.  
 
 
 
 
* [[basic reproduction number]]
 
* [[basic reproduction number]]
 
+
The expected number of new cases of an infection caused by an infected individual, in a population consisting of susceptible contacts only.  
The expected number of new cases of an infection caused by an infected individual, in a population consisting of susceptible contacts only.  
 
 
 
 
* [[basidiomata]]
 
* [[basidiomata]]
 
+
A sporebearing structure found in basidiomycete fungi.  
A sporebearing structure found in basidiomycete fungi.  
 
 
 
 
* [[basin irrigation]]
 
* [[basin irrigation]]
 
+
An irrigation system in which a field or orchard is divided into basins which are filled with water.  
An irrigation system in which a field or orchard is divided into basins which are filled with water.  
 
 
 
 
* [[beach erosion]]
 
* [[beach erosion]]
 
+
The retreat of the shoreline of large lakes and coastal waters caused by wave action, shore currents or causes other than subsidence.  
The retreat of the shoreline of large lakes and coastal waters caused by wave action, shore currents or causes other than subsidence.  
 
 
 
 
* [[beaches]]
 
* [[beaches]]
 
+
A barren land subcategory. Includes the area adjacent to the shore of an ocean, sea, large river, or lake that is washed by the tide or waves.  
A barren land subcategory. Includes the area adjacent to the shore of an ocean, sea, large river, or lake that is washed by the tide or waves.  
 
 
 
 
* [[bean sprouts]]
 
* [[bean sprouts]]
 
+
The edible seedlings of bean plants, especially those of the mung bean.  
The edible seedlings of bean plants, especially those of the mung bean.  
 
 
 
 
* [[bedload]]
 
* [[bedload]]
 
+
Bedload is that portion of the total sediment in transport that is carried by intermittent contact with the streambed by rolling, sliding, and bouncing.  
Bedload is that portion of the total sediment in transport that is carried by intermittent contact with the streambed by rolling, sliding, and bouncing.  
 
 
 
 
* [[bedrock]]
 
* [[bedrock]]
 
+
The more or less solid rock is place either on or beneath the surface of the earth. It may be soft or hard and have a smooth or irregular surface.  
The more or less solid rock is place either on or beneath the surface of the earth. It may be soft or hard and have a smooth or irregular surface.  
 
 
 
 
* [[bee pollen]]
 
* [[bee pollen]]
 
+
Bee pollen is the pollen that bees collect from flowers and mix with nectar, honey and bee secretions which is stored in the comb and is fed to growing bee larvae.  
Bee pollen is the pollen that bees collect from flowers and mix with nectar, honey and bee secretions which is stored in the comb and is fed to growing bee larvae.  
 
 
 
 
* [[bee pollination]]
 
* [[bee pollination]]
 
+
Pollination of flowers by bees.  
Pollination of flowers by bees.  
 
 
 
 
* [[beefaloes]]
 
* [[beefaloes]]
 
+
Beefalo are a cross between bison (American buffalo) and domestic cattle. This produces meat very low in fat and cholesterol.  
Beefalo are a cross between bison (American buffalo) and domestic cattle. This produces meat very low in fat and cholesterol.  
 
 
 
 
* [[beers]]
 
* [[beers]]
 
+
A fermented, carbonated, alcoholic beverage containing one-half of 1 percent or more of alcohol by volume. Generally brewed from malt (mostly barley malt), hops (for flavoring) and water. Other cereals such as corn and rice may be used.  
A fermented, carbonated, alcoholic beverage containing one-half of 1 percent or more of alcohol by volume. Generally brewed from malt (mostly barley malt), hops (for flavoring) and water. Other cereals such as corn and rice may be used.  
 
 
 
 
* [[bees]]
 
* [[bees]]
 
+
Insect members of the superfamily Apoidea, found almost everywhere, particularly on flowers. About 3500 species occur in North America. They differ from most wasps in that their young are fed honey and pollen rather than animal food.  
Insect members of the superfamily Apoidea, found almost everywhere, particularly on flowers. About 3500 species occur in North America. They differ from most wasps in that their young are fed honey and pollen rather than animal food.  
 
 
 
 
* [[behavior change]]
 
* [[behavior change]]
 
+
Changes in behavior due to intervention or spontaneous occurrence.  
Changes in behavior due to intervention or spontaneous occurrence.  
 
 
 
 
* [[behavior disorders]]
 
* [[behavior disorders]]
 
+
Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.  
Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.  
 
 
 
 
* [[behavior modification]]
 
* [[behavior modification]]
 
+
Alteration of behavior by the use of conditioning techniques.  
Alteration of behavior by the use of conditioning techniques.  
 
 
 
 
* [[behavioral resistance]]
 
* [[behavioral resistance]]
 
+
Behavioral response of the pest to control agents that enables it to avoid being harmed by the control agent.  
Behavioral response of the pest to control agents that enables it to avoid being harmed by the control agent.  
 
 
 
 
* [[benthic organisms]]
 
* [[benthic organisms]]
 
+
Underwater organisms that live on or in the bottom of a body of water.  
Underwater organisms that live on or in the bottom of a body of water.  
 
 
 
 
* [[benthic zone]]
 
* [[benthic zone]]
 
+
The habitat at the bottom of a body of water, such as the sea floor or a lake bottom.  
The habitat at the bottom of a body of water, such as the sea floor or a lake bottom.  
 
 
 
 
* [[benzofurans]]
 
* [[benzofurans]]
 
+
Compounds that contain a benzene ring fused to a furan ring.  
Compounds that contain a benzene ring fused to a furan ring.  
 
 
 
 
* [[benzylpenicillin]]
 
* [[benzylpenicillin]]
 
+
A penicillin derivative commonly used in the form of its sodium or potassium salts in the treatment of a variety of infections. It is effective against most gram-positive bacteria and against gram-negative cocci. It has also been used as an experimental convulsant because of its actions on gamma-aminobutyric acid mediated synaptic transmission.  
A penicillin derivative commonly used in the form of its sodium or potassium salts in the treatment of a variety of infections. It is effective against most gram-positive bacteria and against gram-negative cocci. It has also been used as an experimental convulsant because of its actions on gamma-aminobutyric acid mediated synaptic transmission.  
 
 
 
 
* [[Berberis mentorensis]]
 
* [[Berberis mentorensis]]
 
+
Interspecific hybrid of Berberis julianae x Berberis thunbergii.  
Interspecific hybrid of Berberis julianae x Berberis thunbergii.  
 
 
 
 
* [[best available technology]]
 
* [[best available technology]]
 
+
A concept applied in the language of regulations on pollution control, especially as applied to abatement practices; as new technology becomes available and social values change, what is currently regarded as "best available" will change also.  
A concept applied in the language of regulations on pollution control, especially as applied to abatement practices; as new technology becomes available and social values change, what is currently regarded as "best available" will change also.  
 
 
 
 
* [[best management practices]]
 
* [[best management practices]]
 
+
A practice or system of practices designed to prevent or mitigate damage or adverse effects caused by farming, construction, manufacturing, or other anthropogenic activities.  
A practice or system of practices designed to prevent or mitigate damage or adverse effects caused by farming, construction, manufacturing, or other anthropogenic activities.  
 
 
 
 
* [[beta-1 adrenergic receptors]]
 
* [[beta-1 adrenergic receptors]]
 
+
beta-1-adrenergic receptor is an integral membrane protein receptor for catecholamine epinephrine and norepinephrine neurotransmitters that activates adenylate cyclase through G protein action. ADRB1 phosphorylation by beta-adrenergic receptor kinase mediates receptor desensitization.  
beta-1-adrenergic receptor is an integral membrane protein receptor for catecholamine epinephrine and norepinephrine neurotransmitters that activates adenylate cyclase through G protein action. ADRB1 phosphorylation by beta-adrenergic receptor kinase mediates receptor desensitization.  
 
 
 
 
* [[beta-2 adrenergic receptors]]
 
* [[beta-2 adrenergic receptors]]
 
+
beta-2 adrenergic receptor directly associates with one of its effectors, class C L-type calcium channel Ca(V)1.2. This receptor-channel complex also contains a G protein, an adenylyl cyclase, cAMP-dependent kinase, and the counterbalancing phosphatase, PP2A. This signaling complex assembly ensures specific and rapid signaling by this G protein-coupled receptor that stimulates adenylyl cyclase activity.  
beta-2 adrenergic receptor directly associates with one of its effectors, class C L-type calcium channel Ca(V)1.2. This receptor-channel complex also contains a G protein, an adenylyl cyclase, cAMP-dependent kinase, and the counterbalancing phosphatase, PP2A. This signaling complex assembly ensures specific and rapid signaling by this G protein-coupled receptor that stimulates adenylyl cyclase activity.  
 
 
 
 
* [[beta-3 adrenergic receptors]]
 
* [[beta-3 adrenergic receptors]]
 
+
A subclass of beta-adrenergic receptors (receptors, adrenergic, beta). The beta-3 adrenergic receptors are the predominant beta-adrenergic receptor type expressed in white and brown adipocytes and are involved in modulating energy metabolism and thermogenesis.  
A subclass of beta-adrenergic receptors (receptors, adrenergic, beta). The beta-3 adrenergic receptors are the predominant beta-adrenergic receptor type expressed in white and brown adipocytes and are involved in modulating energy metabolism and thermogenesis.  
 
 
 
 
* [[beta-adrenergic agonists]]
 
* [[beta-adrenergic agonists]]
 
+
Drugs that selectively bind to and activate beta-adrenergic receptors.  
Drugs that selectively bind to and activate beta-adrenergic receptors.  
 
 
 
 
* [[beta-adrenergic antagonists]]
 
* [[beta-adrenergic antagonists]]
 
+
Drugs that bind to but do not activate beta-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of beta-adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic beta-antagonists are used for treatment of hypertension, cardiac arrythmias, angina pectoris, glaucoma, migraine headaches, and anxiety.  
Drugs that bind to but do not activate beta-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of beta-adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic beta-antagonists are used for treatment of hypertension, cardiac arrythmias, angina pectoris, glaucoma, migraine headaches, and anxiety.  
 
 
 
 
* [[beta-lactamase]]
 
* [[beta-lactamase]]
 
+
Enzymes found in many bacteria which catalyze the hydrolysis of the amide bond in the beta-lactam ring. Well known antibiotics destroyed by these enzymes are penicillins and cephalosporins.  
Enzymes found in many bacteria which catalyze the hydrolysis of the amide bond in the beta-lactam ring. Well known antibiotics destroyed by these enzymes are penicillins and cephalosporins.  
 
 
 
 
* [[beta-lactoglobulin]]
 
* [[beta-lactoglobulin]]
 
+
The major whey protein of cow's milk and milks of ruminants and other mammals, but not humans.  
The major whey protein of cow's milk and milks of ruminants and other mammals, but not humans.  
 
 
 
 
* [[beta-phellandrene]]
 
* [[beta-phellandrene]]
 
+
A terpene with a density of about 0.84 and an index of refraction of about 1.48, both at 25° C (77° F).  
A terpene with a density of about 0.84 and an index of refraction of about 1.48, both at 25° C (77° F).  
 
 
 
 
* [[beta-pinene]]
 
* [[beta-pinene]]
 
+
A terpene with a density of about 0.867 and an index of refraction of about 1.477, both at 25° C (77° F).  
A terpene with a density of about 0.867 and an index of refraction of about 1.477, both at 25° C (77° F).  
 
 
 
 
* [[beta adrenergic receptors]]
 
* [[beta adrenergic receptors]]
 
+
One of two major pharmacologically defined classes of adrenergic receptors. The beta adrenergic receptors play an important role in regulating cardiac muscle contraction, smooth muscle relaxation, and glycogenolysis.  
One of two major pharmacologically defined classes of adrenergic receptors. The beta adrenergic receptors play an important role in regulating cardiac muscle contraction, smooth muscle relaxation, and glycogenolysis.  
 
 
 
 
* [[beta catenin]]
 
* [[beta catenin]]
 
+
A multi-functional catenin that participates in cell adhesion and nuclear signaling. Beta catenin binds cadherins and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to the actin in the cytoskeleton via alpha catenin. It also serves as a transcriptional co-activator and downstream component of WNT protein-mediated signal transduction pathways.  
A multi-functional catenin that participates in cell adhesion and nuclear signaling. Beta catenin binds cadherins and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to the actin in the cytoskeleton via alpha catenin. It also serves as a transcriptional co-activator and downstream component of WNT protein-mediated signal transduction pathways.  
 
 
 
 
* [[beta chemokines]]
 
* [[beta chemokines]]
 
+
Group of chemokines with adjacent cysteines that are chemoattractants for lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils but not neutrophils.  
Group of chemokines with adjacent cysteines that are chemoattractants for lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils but not neutrophils.  
 
 
 
 
* [[beta oxidation]]
 
* [[beta oxidation]]
 
+
The catabolic breakdown of fatty acids via metabolic intermediates into acetyl coenzyme A, which then enters the tricarboxylic acid cycle.  
The catabolic breakdown of fatty acids via metabolic intermediates into acetyl coenzyme A, which then enters the tricarboxylic acid cycle.  
 
 
 
 
* [[betel]]
 
* [[betel]]
 
+
A masticatory (also known as betel quid) used in India and Southeast Asia, consisting of a piece of Areca nut (sometimes inaccurately called the betel nut) rolled up with mineral lime in a leaf of Piper betle (betel leaf). It is a stimulant and astringent, with a wide range of medicinal properties.  
A masticatory (also known as betel quid) used in India and Southeast Asia, consisting of a piece of Areca nut (sometimes inaccurately called the betel nut) rolled up with mineral lime in a leaf of Piper betle (betel leaf). It is a stimulant and astringent, with a wide range of medicinal properties.  
 
 
 
 
* [[bezoars]]
 
* [[bezoars]]
 
+
Concretions of swallowed hair, fruit or vegetable fibers, or similar substances found in the alimentary canal.  
Concretions of swallowed hair, fruit or vegetable fibers, or similar substances found in the alimentary canal.  
 
 
 
 
* [[bias]]
 
* [[bias]]
 
+
Systematic error introduced into sampling or analysis by selecting or encouraging one outcome or answer over others.  
Systematic error introduced into sampling or analysis by selecting or encouraging one outcome or answer over others.  
 
 
 
 
* [[bibliometric analysis]]
 
* [[bibliometric analysis]]
 
+
The use of statistical methods in the analysis of a body of literature to reveal the historical development of subject fields and patterns of authorship, publication, and use. Formerly called statistical bibliography.  
The use of statistical methods in the analysis of a body of literature to reveal the historical development of subject fields and patterns of authorship, publication, and use. Formerly called statistical bibliography.  
 
 
 
 
* [[biennials]]
 
* [[biennials]]
 
+
A plant that lives for two years, producing vegetative growth the first year, usually blooming and fruiting in the second year, and then dying.  
A plant that lives for two years, producing vegetative growth the first year, usually blooming and fruiting in the second year, and then dying.  
 
 
 
 
* [[binding agents]]
 
* [[binding agents]]
 
+
Substances which hold particles, mixtures or blended products together, especially used in foods.  
Substances which hold particles, mixtures or blended products together, especially used in foods.  
 
 
 
 
* [[binding sites]]
 
* [[binding sites]]
 
+
A region on a protein, DNA, RNA or macromolecule to which other molecules form chemical complexes.  
A region on a protein, DNA, RNA or macromolecule to which other molecules form chemical complexes.  
 
 
 
 
* [[binge eating disorder]]
 
* [[binge eating disorder]]
 
+
A disorder characterized by episodes where individuals eat large amounts of food while feeling a lack of control over the amount being eaten. Unlike bulimia, people with binge eating disorder do not purge.  
A disorder characterized by episodes where individuals eat large amounts of food while feeling a lack of control over the amount being eaten. Unlike bulimia, people with binge eating disorder do not purge.  
 
 
 
 
* [[binging]]
 
* [[binging]]
 
+
Periodic excessive or uncontrolled eating or drinking.  
Periodic excessive or uncontrolled eating or drinking.  
 
 
 
 
* [[binocular vision]]
 
* [[binocular vision]]
 
+
The blending of separate images seen by each eye into one composite image.  
The blending of separate images seen by each eye into one composite image.  
 
 
 
 
* [[binomial distribution]]
 
* [[binomial distribution]]
 
+
The probability distribution associated with two mutually exclusive outcomes; used to model cumulative incidence rates and prevalence rates. The Bernoulli distribution is a special case of binomial distribution.  
The probability distribution associated with two mutually exclusive outcomes; used to model cumulative incidence rates and prevalence rates. The Bernoulli distribution is a special case of binomial distribution.  
 
 
 
 
* [[bio-packaging]]
 
* [[bio-packaging]]
 
+
Packaging made of renewable or biodegradable materials.  
Packaging made of renewable or biodegradable materials.  
 
 
 
 
* [[bioaccumulation]]
 
* [[bioaccumulation]]
 
+
The net accumulation of a substance by an organism as a result of uptake from and or all routes of exposure.  
The net accumulation of a substance by an organism as a result of uptake from and or all routes of exposure.  
 
 
 
 
* [[bioaccumulation factor]]
 
* [[bioaccumulation factor]]
 
+
The concentration of a substance in tissue of an organism divided by its concentration in an environmental medium in situations where the organism and its food are exposed (i.e., accounting for food chain exposure as well as direct chemical uptake).  
The concentration of a substance in tissue of an organism divided by its concentration in an environmental medium in situations where the organism and its food are exposed (i.e., accounting for food chain exposure as well as direct chemical uptake).  
 
 
 
 
* [[bioacoustics]]
 
* [[bioacoustics]]
 
+
The study of the production, transmission, and detection (hearing) of sounds produced by organisms, such as those involved in communication.  
The study of the production, transmission, and detection (hearing) of sounds produced by organisms, such as those involved in communication.  
 
 
 
 
* [[bioactive compounds]]
 
* [[bioactive compounds]]
 
+
A class of chemical found in plants and certain foods which have biological activity in human or animals.  
A class of chemical found in plants and certain foods which have biological activity in human or animals.  
 
 
 
 
* [[bioaerosols]]
 
* [[bioaerosols]]
 
+
An airborne suspension of microorganisms, pathogens or particles released from living organisms.  
An airborne suspension of microorganisms, pathogens or particles released from living organisms.  
 
 
 
 
* [[bioassays]]
 
* [[bioassays]]
 
+
A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using a living organism in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions.  
A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using a living organism in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions.  
 
 
 
 
* [[bioaugmentation]]
 
* [[bioaugmentation]]
 
+
Introduction of specific microbes, nutrients, and other growth factors to enhance the biodegradative capacity of microbes already present in wastewater and other pollution degrading systems.  
Introduction of specific microbes, nutrients, and other growth factors to enhance the biodegradative capacity of microbes already present in wastewater and other pollution degrading systems.  
 
 
 
 
* [[bioavailability]]
 
* [[bioavailability]]
 
+
The availability of a substance to be taken up and used by living biological organisms.  
The availability of a substance to be taken up and used by living biological organisms.  
 
 
 
 
* [[biobased products]]
 
* [[biobased products]]
 
+
Biobased products are fuels, chemicals, materials, or electric power or heat produced from biomass. Including any energy, commercial or industrial product (other than food or feed) that utilizes biological products or renewable domestic agricultural (plant, animal, and marine) or forestry materials.  
Biobased products are fuels, chemicals, materials, or electric power or heat produced from biomass. Including any energy, commercial or industrial product (other than food or feed) that utilizes biological products or renewable domestic agricultural (plant, animal, and marine) or forestry materials.  
 
 
 
 
* [[biobleaching]]
 
* [[biobleaching]]
 
+
Use of microorganisms or enzymes in the bleaching of materials or products, such as pulp.  
Use of microorganisms or enzymes in the bleaching of materials or products, such as pulp.  
 
 
 
 
* [[biocatalysis]]
 
* [[biocatalysis]]
 
+
The facilitation of biochemical reactions with the aid of naturally occurring catalysts such as enzymes.  
The facilitation of biochemical reactions with the aid of naturally occurring catalysts such as enzymes.  
 
 
 
 
* [[biocatalysts]]
 
* [[biocatalysts]]
 
+
A catalyst of biological origin, such as an enzyme, hormone, or cell, that initiates or increases the rate of a chemical reaction but is not consumed or changed at the end of the reaction.  
A catalyst of biological origin, such as an enzyme, hormone, or cell, that initiates or increases the rate of a chemical reaction but is not consumed or changed at the end of the reaction.  
 
 
 
 
* [[biocenosis]]
 
* [[biocenosis]]
 
+
A group of interacting organisms that live in a particular habitat and form an ecological community.  
A group of interacting organisms that live in a particular habitat and form an ecological community.  
 
 
 
 
* [[biochar]]
 
* [[biochar]]
 
+
A fine-grained porous charcoal produced from organic matter via pyrolysis (i.e. under low temperature and anoxic conditions), often used as a soil amendment to increase soil fertility and tilth and to sequester carbon.  
A fine-grained porous charcoal produced from organic matter via pyrolysis (i.e. under low temperature and anoxic conditions), often used as a soil amendment to increase soil fertility and tilth and to sequester carbon.  
 
 
 
 
* [[biochemical oxygen demand]]
 
* [[biochemical oxygen demand]]
 
+
A measurement of the amount of organic pollution in water.  
A measurement of the amount of organic pollution in water.  
 
 
 
 
* [[biochemical polymorphism]]
 
* [[biochemical polymorphism]]
 
+
Biochemical variations found in different individuals in a species, or within an individual organism.  
Biochemical variations found in different individuals in a species, or within an individual organism.  
 
 
 
 
* [[biocides]]
 
* [[biocides]]
 
+
Natural or synthetic chemical substances used to kill living organisms.  
Natural or synthetic chemical substances used to kill living organisms.  
 
 
 
 
* [[bioclimatology]]
 
* [[bioclimatology]]
 
+
The effects of climate on living organisms.  
The effects of climate on living organisms.  
 
 
 
 
* [[biocoal]]
 
* [[biocoal]]
 
+
A biomass fuel processed by torrefaction of agricultural wastes such as wood residues into a high density, energy-concentrated fuel product in the form of pellets or briquettes.  
A biomass fuel processed by torrefaction of agricultural wastes such as wood residues into a high density, energy-concentrated fuel product in the form of pellets or briquettes.  
 
 
 
 
* [[biocompatible materials]]
 
* [[biocompatible materials]]
 
+
Synthetic or natural materials, other than drugs, that are used to replace or repair any body tissues or bodily function.  
Synthetic or natural materials, other than drugs, that are used to replace or repair any body tissues or bodily function.  
 
 
 
 
* [[biocomposites]]
 
* [[biocomposites]]
 
+
Manufactured products comprising at least one material derived from living organisms, such as natural fibers.  
Manufactured products comprising at least one material derived from living organisms, such as natural fibers.  
 
 
 
 
* [[biodiesel]]
 
* [[biodiesel]]
 
+
A biofuel for use in diesel engines produced through the transesterfication of organically-derived oils or fats combined with alcohol (ethanol or methanol) in the presence of a catalyst. It may be used either as a replacement for or as a component of diesel fuel.  
A biofuel for use in diesel engines produced through the transesterfication of organically-derived oils or fats combined with alcohol (ethanol or methanol) in the presence of a catalyst. It may be used either as a replacement for or as a component of diesel fuel.  
 
 
 
 
* [[biodiversity]]
 
* [[biodiversity]]
 
+
The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.  
The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.  
 
 
 
 
* [[biodynamic farming]]
 
* [[biodynamic farming]]
 
+
Biodynamics is a science of life-forces, a recognition of the basic principles at work in nature, and an approach to agriculture which takes these principles into account to bring about balance and healing. In a very real way, then, Biodynamics is an ongoing path of knowledge rather than an assemblage of methods and techniques.  
Biodynamics is a science of life-forces, a recognition of the basic principles at work in nature, and an approach to agriculture which takes these principles into account to bring about balance and healing. In a very real way, then, Biodynamics is an ongoing path of knowledge rather than an assemblage of methods and techniques.  
 
 
 
 
* [[bioeconomic models]]
 
* [[bioeconomic models]]
 
+
Models used to estimate and predict impacts of various agricultural and natural resource management strategies alterations on economic, environmental and sustainability objectives.  
Models used to estimate and predict impacts of various agricultural and natural resource management strategies alterations on economic, environmental and sustainability objectives.  
 
 
 
 
* [[bioeconomics]]
 
* [[bioeconomics]]
 
+
A branch of economics which integrates the disciplines of biology and economics in order to explain economic activities on a biological basis and vice versa.  
A branch of economics which integrates the disciplines of biology and economics in order to explain economic activities on a biological basis and vice versa.  
 
 
 
 
* [[bioelectricity]]
 
* [[bioelectricity]]
 
+
The biological phenomenon of production of low-power electric currents and electric potentials within living cells or organisms.  
The biological phenomenon of production of low-power electric currents and electric potentials within living cells or organisms.  
 
 
 
 
* [[bioencapsulation]]
 
* [[bioencapsulation]]
 
+
The coating of tissues or biological active substances in semipermeable membranes or specialized coatings which allows for extended shelf life, increased effectiveness and controlled release.  
The coating of tissues or biological active substances in semipermeable membranes or specialized coatings which allows for extended shelf life, increased effectiveness and controlled release.  
 
 
 
 
* [[bioenergy]]
 
* [[bioenergy]]
 
+
The term "bioenergy" means biomass used in the production of energy (electricity; liquid, solid, and gaseous fuels; and heat).  
The term "bioenergy" means biomass used in the production of energy (electricity; liquid, solid, and gaseous fuels; and heat).  
 
 
 
 
* [[bioengineering]]
 
* [[bioengineering]]
 
+
The application of engineering principles and methods to living organisms or biological systems.  
The application of engineering principles and methods to living organisms or biological systems.  
 
 
 
 
* [[bioerosion]]
 
* [[bioerosion]]
 
+
Removal or destruction of consolidated minerals or substrates by biological activity of organisms.  
Removal or destruction of consolidated minerals or substrates by biological activity of organisms.  
 
 
 
 
* [[bioethanol]]
 
* [[bioethanol]]
 
+
An alcohol fuel made by fermentation of carbohydrates in sugar- or starch-rich crops such as corn or sugarcane, or other biomass sources including grasses.  
An alcohol fuel made by fermentation of carbohydrates in sugar- or starch-rich crops such as corn or sugarcane, or other biomass sources including grasses.  
 
 
 
 
* [[biofabrication]]
 
* [[biofabrication]]
 
+
The production of complex living and non-living biological products from raw biological materials or biochemical molecules.  
The production of complex living and non-living biological products from raw biological materials or biochemical molecules.  
 
 
 
 
* [[biofilm]]
 
* [[biofilm]]
 
+
A thin layer of living cells, usually microorganisms, coating a surface.  
A thin layer of living cells, usually microorganisms, coating a surface.  
 
 
 
 
* [[biofiltration]]
 
* [[biofiltration]]
 
+
A technology using microorganisms on a substrate to biologically degrade emissions or effluents (such as sewage, wastewaters, volatile organic compounds).  
A technology using microorganisms on a substrate to biologically degrade emissions or effluents (such as sewage, wastewaters, volatile organic compounds).  
 
 
 
 
* [[biofloc technology]]
 
* [[biofloc technology]]
 
+
The use of aggregates of bacteria, algae, or protozoa, held together in a matrix along with particulate organic matter for the purpose of improving water quality, waste treatment and disease prevention in intensive aquaculture systems. Consumption of bioflocs also provides nutritional value to cultured species.  
The use of aggregates of bacteria, algae, or protozoa, held together in a matrix along with particulate organic matter for the purpose of improving water quality, waste treatment and disease prevention in intensive aquaculture systems. Consumption of bioflocs also provides nutritional value to cultured species.  
 
 
 
 
* [[biofortification]]
 
* [[biofortification]]
 
+
An increase in the nutritional value of plant foods obtained through convential crop breeding methods or through crop genetic engineering techniques. This contrasts with postharvest fortification in which nutrients are added during processing.  
An increase in the nutritional value of plant foods obtained through convential crop breeding methods or through crop genetic engineering techniques. This contrasts with postharvest fortification in which nutrients are added during processing.  
 
 
 
 
* [[biofouling]]
 
* [[biofouling]]
 
+
The accumulation of undesirable organisms, including bacteria, fungi, diatoms, algae, plants or animals, causing surfaces to become encrusted, clogged or otherwise degraded.  
The accumulation of undesirable organisms, including bacteria, fungi, diatoms, algae, plants or animals, causing surfaces to become encrusted, clogged or otherwise degraded.  
 
 
 
 
* [[biofumigation]]
 
* [[biofumigation]]
 
+
A fumigation technique for pest and disease control dependent upon the biocidal properties of natural fumigants released from such organisms as glucosinolate-containing plants.  
A fumigation technique for pest and disease control dependent upon the biocidal properties of natural fumigants released from such organisms as glucosinolate-containing plants.  
 
 
 
 
* [[biogas]]
 
* [[biogas]]
 
+
Gas resulting from the decomposition of organic matter under anaerobic conditions. The principal constituents are methane and carbon dioxide.  
Gas resulting from the decomposition of organic matter under anaerobic conditions. The principal constituents are methane and carbon dioxide.  
 
 
 
 
* [[biogasification]]
 
* [[biogasification]]
 
+
The process of converting biomass to biogas.  
The process of converting biomass to biogas.  
 
 
 
 
* [[biogenesis]]
 
* [[biogenesis]]
 
+
The origin of life. It includes studies of the potential basis for life in organic compounds but excludes studies of the development of altered forms of life through mutation and natural selection, which is biological evolution.  
The origin of life. It includes studies of the potential basis for life in organic compounds but excludes studies of the development of altered forms of life through mutation and natural selection, which is biological evolution.  
 
 
 
 
* [[biogeochemical cycles]]
 
* [[biogeochemical cycles]]
 
+
The circulation (cycling) of chemical elements such as nitrogen, carbon, etc. in specific pathways from the abiotic portions of the environment into the organic substances in the flora and fauna and then back again into abiotic forms.  
The circulation (cycling) of chemical elements such as nitrogen, carbon, etc. in specific pathways from the abiotic portions of the environment into the organic substances in the flora and fauna and then back again into abiotic forms.  
 
 
 
 
* [[biogeography]]
 
* [[biogeography]]
 
+
The study of the distribution of organisms around the globe, and the factors that influence that distribution.  
The study of the distribution of organisms around the globe, and the factors that influence that distribution.  
 
 
 
 
* [[biohydrogen]]
 
* [[biohydrogen]]
 
+
Hydrogen produced from biological sources such as bacteria and algae, with potential for use as a biofuel.  
Hydrogen produced from biological sources such as bacteria and algae, with potential for use as a biofuel.  
 
 
 
 
* [[bioimaging]]
 
* [[bioimaging]]
 
+
Multi-dimensional detection, characterization and visualization of biological processes or cells.  
Multi-dimensional detection, characterization and visualization of biological processes or cells.  
 
 
 
 
* [[bioinformatics]]
 
* [[bioinformatics]]
 
+
A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories applicable to molecular biology and areas of computer-based techniques for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.  
A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories applicable to molecular biology and areas of computer-based techniques for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.  
 
 
 
 
* [[biolistics]]
 
* [[biolistics]]
 
+
Techniques where DNA is delivered directly into organelles at high speed using projectiles coated with nucleic acid, shot from a helium-powered gun (gene gun).  
Techniques where DNA is delivered directly into organelles at high speed using projectiles coated with nucleic acid, shot from a helium-powered gun (gene gun).  
 
 
 
 
* [[biological assessment]]
 
* [[biological assessment]]
 
+
That part of an environmental assessment that specifically evaluates the potential risks to plant and animal communities and their habitats.  
That part of an environmental assessment that specifically evaluates the potential risks to plant and animal communities and their habitats.  
 
 
 
 
* [[biological clocks]]
 
* [[biological clocks]]
 
+
The physiological mechanisms that govern the rhythmic occurrence of certain biochemical, physiological, and behavioral phenomena.  
The physiological mechanisms that govern the rhythmic occurrence of certain biochemical, physiological, and behavioral phenomena.  
 
 
 
 
* [[biological corridors]]
 
* [[biological corridors]]
 
+
Areas connecting separated habitats which allow movement to and access by wild species. These spaces make gene flow between isolated populations possible and may ameliorate negative effects of habitat fragmentation.  
Areas connecting separated habitats which allow movement to and access by wild species. These spaces make gene flow between isolated populations possible and may ameliorate negative effects of habitat fragmentation.  
 
 
 
 
* [[biological half-life]]
 
* [[biological half-life]]
 
+
The time it takes for an organism to eliminate, usually by excretion, half of the admistered dose of a substance, such as a drug.  
The time it takes for an organism to eliminate, usually by excretion, half of the admistered dose of a substance, such as a drug.  
 
 
 
 
* [[biological hazards]]
 
* [[biological hazards]]
 
+
An organism, or substance derived from an organism, that poses a threat to human or animal health. This can include medical waste, samples of a microorganism, virus, or toxin (from a biological source) that can impact human health.  
An organism, or substance derived from an organism, that poses a threat to human or animal health. This can include medical waste, samples of a microorganism, virus, or toxin (from a biological source) that can impact human health.  
 
 
 
 
* [[biological models]]
 
* [[biological models]]
 
+
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.  
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.  
 
 
 
 
* [[biological pest control]]
 
* [[biological pest control]]
 
+
Biological pest control mitigates agricultural pest damage by introducing or enhancing the population of pathogens, parasites or predators which prey upon the targeted pest. Biological control is often used in tandem with other pest management strategies, including physical control, cultural control and chemical controls.  
Biological pest control mitigates agricultural pest damage by introducing or enhancing the population of pathogens, parasites or predators which prey upon the targeted pest. Biological control is often used in tandem with other pest management strategies, including physical control, cultural control and chemical controls.  
 
 
 
 
* [[biological production]]
 
* [[biological production]]
 
+
Production of a chemical or biochemical by organisms or enzymes for use as commercial products.  
Production of a chemical or biochemical by organisms or enzymes for use as commercial products.  
 
 
 
 
* [[biological resistance]]
 
* [[biological resistance]]
 
+
The natural or genetic ability of an organism to avoid or repel attack by biotic agents (pathogens, pests, parasites, etc.) or to withstand the effects of abiotic agents (chemicals, pesticides, salt, wind, heavy metals, etc).  
The natural or genetic ability of an organism to avoid or repel attack by biotic agents (pathogens, pests, parasites, etc.) or to withstand the effects of abiotic agents (chemicals, pesticides, salt, wind, heavy metals, etc).  
 
 
 
 
* [[biological soil crusts]]
 
* [[biological soil crusts]]
 
+
Also called microbiotic, microphytic, cryptobiotic or cryptogamic crusts. A living community of bacteria, microfungi, cyanobacteria, green algae, mosses, liverworts, and lichens that grow on or just below the soil surface.  
Also called microbiotic, microphytic, cryptobiotic or cryptogamic crusts. A living community of bacteria, microfungi, cyanobacteria, green algae, mosses, liverworts, and lichens that grow on or just below the soil surface.  
 
 
 
 
* [[biological speciation]]
 
* [[biological speciation]]
 
+
The evolution of new species.  
The evolution of new species.  
 
 
 
 
* [[biological specimen banks]]
 
* [[biological specimen banks]]
 
+
Facilities that collect, store, and distribute tissues, e.g., cell lines, microorganisms, blood, sperm, milk, breast tissue, for use by others. Other uses may include transplantation and comparison of diseased tissues in the identification of cancer.  
Facilities that collect, store, and distribute tissues, e.g., cell lines, microorganisms, blood, sperm, milk, breast tissue, for use by others. Other uses may include transplantation and comparison of diseased tissues in the identification of cancer.  
 
 
 
 
* [[biomarkers]]
 
* [[biomarkers]]
 
+
An indicator of changes or events in biological systems. Biological markers of exposure are cellular, biochemical, analytical, or molecular measures that are obtained from biological media such as tissues, cells, or fluids and are indicative of exposure to an agent. Biomarkers of effect are quantifiable changes, indicating exposure to a compound, while biomarkers of susceptibility are characteristics that make an individual susceptible to the effects of an exposure.  
An indicator of changes or events in biological systems. Biological markers of exposure are cellular, biochemical, analytical, or molecular measures that are obtained from biological media such as tissues, cells, or fluids and are indicative of exposure to an agent. Biomarkers of effect are quantifiable changes, indicating exposure to a compound, while biomarkers of susceptibility are characteristics that make an individual susceptible to the effects of an exposure.  
 
 
 
 
* [[biomass]]
 
* [[biomass]]
 
+
The total amount of organic matter present in an organism, population, ecosystem or given area.  
The total amount of organic matter present in an organism, population, ecosystem or given area.  
 
 
 
 
* [[biomass burning]]
 
* [[biomass burning]]
 
+
Burning of living and or dead vegetation or organic matter.  
Burning of living and or dead vegetation or organic matter.  
 
 
 
 
* [[biomass gasification]]
 
* [[biomass gasification]]
 
+
It is defined as a “process of converting solid biomass fuel into gaseous combustible gas which involves incomplete combustion of biomass in the presence of gasification agent including air, steam, oxygen or combination of these.” In this process, results obtained in the form of combustible gas is a mixture of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane and other light and heavy hydrocarbons. The resulting gas mixture obtained at the end of gasification is called syngas or producer gas. This process involves drying, pyrolysis, oxidation and reduction.  
It is defined as a “process of converting solid biomass fuel into gaseous combustible gas which involves incomplete combustion of biomass in the presence of gasification agent including air, steam, oxygen or combination of these.” In this process, results obtained in the form of combustible gas is a mixture of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane and other light and heavy hydrocarbons. The resulting gas mixture obtained at the end of gasification is called syngas or producer gas. This process involves drying, pyrolysis, oxidation and reduction.  
 
 
 
 
* [[biomechanics]]
 
* [[biomechanics]]
 
+
The study of the mechanical structure and properties of living organisms, and the effects of dynamic processes and forces on an organism or its parts.  
The study of the mechanical structure and properties of living organisms, and the effects of dynamic processes and forces on an organism or its parts.  
 
 
 
 
* [[biomedical materials]]
 
* [[biomedical materials]]
 
+
Substances used in biomedicine or dentistry predominantly for their physical, as opposed to chemical, properties.  
Substances used in biomedicine or dentistry predominantly for their physical, as opposed to chemical, properties.  
 
 
 
 
* [[biometry]]
 
* [[biometry]]
 
+
The use of statistical methods to analyze biological observations and phenomena.  
The use of statistical methods to analyze biological observations and phenomena.  
 
 
 
 
* [[biomimetic materials]]
 
* [[biomimetic materials]]
 
+
Materials fabricated by biomimetics techniques, i.e., based on natural processes found in biological systems.  
Materials fabricated by biomimetics techniques, i.e., based on natural processes found in biological systems.  
 
 
 
 
* [[biomimetic synthesis]]
 
* [[biomimetic synthesis]]
 
+
A synthesis or synthetic process that imitates biochemical pathways which are relevant to physiological conditions by using reagents similar to those found in biological systems.  
A synthesis or synthetic process that imitates biochemical pathways which are relevant to physiological conditions by using reagents similar to those found in biological systems.  
 
 
 
 
* [[biomimetics]]
 
* [[biomimetics]]
 
+
An interdisciplinary field in materials science, engineering, and biology, studying the use of biological principles for synthesis or fabrication of biomimetic materials.  
An interdisciplinary field in materials science, engineering, and biology, studying the use of biological principles for synthesis or fabrication of biomimetic materials.  
 
 
 
 
* [[biomineralization]]
 
* [[biomineralization]]
 
+
The taxonomically widespread process by which living organisms produce minerals for, inter alia, support, defence, and feeding. These minerals often form structural features such as shells of mollusks, skeletons of corals, tests of echinoderms, and bones of vertebrates.  
The taxonomically widespread process by which living organisms produce minerals for, inter alia, support, defence, and feeding. These minerals often form structural features such as shells of mollusks, skeletons of corals, tests of echinoderms, and bones of vertebrates.  
 
 
 
 
* [[biopesticides]]
 
* [[biopesticides]]
 
+
Biopesticides are certain types of pesticides derived from such natural materials as animals, plants, bacteria, and certain minerals. For example, canola oil and baking soda have pesticidal applications and are considered biopesticides. Biopesticides fall into three major classes: 1. Microbial pesticides, 2. Plant-Incorporated-Protectants (PIPs) and 3. Biochemical pesticides.  
Biopesticides are certain types of pesticides derived from such natural materials as animals, plants, bacteria, and certain minerals. For example, canola oil and baking soda have pesticidal applications and are considered biopesticides. Biopesticides fall into three major classes: 1. Microbial pesticides, 2. Plant-Incorporated-Protectants (PIPs) and 3. Biochemical pesticides.  
 
 
 
 
* [[biopharmaceuticals]]
 
* [[biopharmaceuticals]]
 
+
Drugs, vaccines, growth hormones or other biologics produced by organisms that have been genetically altered to yield these products.  
Drugs, vaccines, growth hormones or other biologics produced by organisms that have been genetically altered to yield these products.  
 
 
 
 
* [[biophotonics]]
 
* [[biophotonics]]
 
+
The science, research and applications of photons (quantum units of light) in their interactions within and on biological or bioengineered materials.  
The science, research and applications of photons (quantum units of light) in their interactions within and on biological or bioengineered materials.  
 
 
 
 
* [[biophysics]]
 
* [[biophysics]]
 
+
The branch of science that applies the principles of physics and physical chemistry to biological processes.  
The branch of science that applies the principles of physics and physical chemistry to biological processes.  
 
 
 
 
* [[biopreservation]]
 
* [[biopreservation]]
 
+
The use of products from plants and microorganisms to preserve products.  
The use of products from plants and microorganisms to preserve products.  
 
 
 
 
* [[biopreservatives]]
 
* [[biopreservatives]]
 
+
A wide range of products from plants and microorganisms which can be used to preserve foods.  
A wide range of products from plants and microorganisms which can be used to preserve foods.  
 
 
 
 
* [[bioprinting]]
 
* [[bioprinting]]
 
+
A material transfer technique used for assembling biological material or cells into a prescribed organization to create functional structures such as microchip analytic devices, cell microarrays, or three dimensional anatomical structures.  
A material transfer technique used for assembling biological material or cells into a prescribed organization to create functional structures such as microchip analytic devices, cell microarrays, or three dimensional anatomical structures.  
 
 
 
 
* [[bioprocess engineering]]
 
* [[bioprocess engineering]]
 
+
The application of engineering principles to the design and development of bioprocessing methods, equipment and biobased products.  
The application of engineering principles to the design and development of bioprocessing methods, equipment and biobased products.  
 
 
 
 
* [[biopsy]]
 
* [[biopsy]]
 
+
Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.  
Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.  
 
 
 
 
* [[bioreactors]]
 
* [[bioreactors]]
 
+
Tools or devices for generating products using the synthetic or chemical conversion capacity of a biological system. They can be classical fermentors, cell culture perfusion systems, or enzyme bioreactors. For production of proteins or enzymes, recombinant microorganisms such as bacteria, mammalian cells, or insect or plant cells are usually chosen.  
Tools or devices for generating products using the synthetic or chemical conversion capacity of a biological system. They can be classical fermentors, cell culture perfusion systems, or enzyme bioreactors. For production of proteins or enzymes, recombinant microorganisms such as bacteria, mammalian cells, or insect or plant cells are usually chosen.  
 
 
 
 
* [[biorefining]]
 
* [[biorefining]]
 
+
The conversion of biomass into fuels, chemicals and power.  
The conversion of biomass into fuels, chemicals and power.  
 
 
 
 
* [[bioscouring]]
 
* [[bioscouring]]
 
+
The application of enzymes, bioproducts or cells to remove hydrophobic materials such as natural waxes, esters, grease, dirt, oil or other impurities from textile or other products (raw wool, cotton, yarn, fiber etc.) to improve wettability of the products.  
The application of enzymes, bioproducts or cells to remove hydrophobic materials such as natural waxes, esters, grease, dirt, oil or other impurities from textile or other products (raw wool, cotton, yarn, fiber etc.) to improve wettability of the products.  
 
 
 
 
* [[biosensors]]
 
* [[biosensors]]
 
+
The coupling of a biological material (for example, enzyme, receptor, antibody, whole cell, organelle) with a microelectronic system or device to enable rapid, accurate, low level detection of various substances in body fluids, water, and air.  
The coupling of a biological material (for example, enzyme, receptor, antibody, whole cell, organelle) with a microelectronic system or device to enable rapid, accurate, low level detection of various substances in body fluids, water, and air.  
 
 
 
 
* [[biosolids]]
 
* [[biosolids]]
 
+
The organic solids product of wastewater treatment that can be beneficially utilized.  
The organic solids product of wastewater treatment that can be beneficially utilized.  
 
 
 
 
* [[biosorption]]
 
* [[biosorption]]
 
+
The sequestration of chemical substances, such as heavy metals, by a biological system.  
The sequestration of chemical substances, such as heavy metals, by a biological system.  
 
 
 
 
* [[biosphere]]
 
* [[biosphere]]
 
+
That part of the earth's crust, waters and surrounding air-layer which is inhabited by living organisms.  
That part of the earth's crust, waters and surrounding air-layer which is inhabited by living organisms.  
 
 
 
 
* [[biostatistics]]
 
* [[biostatistics]]
 
+
The application of statistics to biological systems and organisms involving the retrieval or collection, analysis, reduction, and interpretation of qualitative and quantitative data.  
The application of statistics to biological systems and organisms involving the retrieval or collection, analysis, reduction, and interpretation of qualitative and quantitative data.  
 
 
 
 
* [[biostratigraphy]]
 
* [[biostratigraphy]]
 
+
A branch of stratigraphy that determines the relative geologic age of the rocks by using fossils contained in them.  
A branch of stratigraphy that determines the relative geologic age of the rocks by using fossils contained in them.  
 
 
 
 
* [[biosurfactants]]
 
* [[biosurfactants]]
 
+
Surfactants that are synthesized by living cells or organisms, including microorganisms such as bacteria and yeasts.  
Surfactants that are synthesized by living cells or organisms, including microorganisms such as bacteria and yeasts.  
 
 
 
 
* [[biosynthesis]]
 
* [[biosynthesis]]
 
+
Used for the anabolic formation of chemical substances in organisms, in living cells, or by subcellular fractions.  
Used for the anabolic formation of chemical substances in organisms, in living cells, or by subcellular fractions.  
 
 
 
 
* [[biotechnology]]
 
* [[biotechnology]]
 
+
The use of living organisms, cells or cell constituents for the purpose of developing products, improve animals or plants, or improve biological processes.  
The use of living organisms, cells or cell constituents for the purpose of developing products, improve animals or plants, or improve biological processes.  
 
 
 
 
* [[biotelemetry]]
 
* [[biotelemetry]]
 
+
The remote sensing and evaluation of biological data of organisms.  
The remote sensing and evaluation of biological data of organisms.  
 
 
 
 
* [[bioterrorism]]
 
* [[bioterrorism]]
 
+
The use of biological agents, such as agricultural pathogens or pests, for terrorist purposes.  
The use of biological agents, such as agricultural pathogens or pests, for terrorist purposes.  
 
 
 
 
* [[biotic factors]]
 
* [[biotic factors]]
 
+
Any living thing or a component derived from them, or a process caused by them that might affect other organisms and the environment.  
Any living thing or a component derived from them, or a process caused by them that might affect other organisms and the environment.  
 
 
 
 
* [[biotic potential]]
 
* [[biotic potential]]
 
+
The inherent ability of an organism to multiply in the absence of extrinsic controlling factors. This potential depends on the number of live, fertile offspring produced at each reproduction, the frequency of reproduction and, where sex is involved, the sex ratio.  
The inherent ability of an organism to multiply in the absence of extrinsic controlling factors. This potential depends on the number of live, fertile offspring produced at each reproduction, the frequency of reproduction and, where sex is involved, the sex ratio.  
 
 
 
 
* [[biotic stress]]
 
* [[biotic stress]]
 
+
Harmful effects on living organisms from other organisms including bacteria, fungi, viruses, parasites, damaging insects, invasive species, weeds and other pests.  
Harmful effects on living organisms from other organisms including bacteria, fungi, viruses, parasites, damaging insects, invasive species, weeds and other pests.  
 
 
 
 
* [[biotinylation]]
 
* [[biotinylation]]
 
+
Incorporation of biotinyl groups into molecules.  
Incorporation of biotinyl groups into molecules.  
 
 
 
 
* [[bioturbation]]
 
* [[bioturbation]]
 
+
For the mixing and turning of soil caused by organisms moving through the soil.  
For the mixing and turning of soil caused by organisms moving through the soil.  
 
 
 
 
* [[biotypes]]
 
* [[biotypes]]
 
+
Populations of organisms sharing an identical genotype.  
Populations of organisms sharing an identical genotype.  
 
 
 
 
* [[bioventing]]
 
* [[bioventing]]
 
+
Bioventing is an in situ remediation technology that uses indigenous microorganisms to biodegrade organic constituents adsorbed to soils in the unsaturated zone. Soils in the capillary fringe and the saturated zone are not affected. The activity of the indigenous bacteria is enhanced by inducing air (or oxygen) flow into the unsaturated zone.  
Bioventing is an in situ remediation technology that uses indigenous microorganisms to biodegrade organic constituents adsorbed to soils in the unsaturated zone. Soils in the capillary fringe and the saturated zone are not affected. The activity of the indigenous bacteria is enhanced by inducing air (or oxygen) flow into the unsaturated zone.  
 
 
 
 
* [[bipolar disorder]]
 
* [[bipolar disorder]]
 
+
A major affective disorder marked by severe mood swings (manic or major depressive episodes) and a tendency to remission and recurrence.  
A major affective disorder marked by severe mood swings (manic or major depressive episodes) and a tendency to remission and recurrence.  
 
 
 
 
* [[bird pollination]]
 
* [[bird pollination]]
 
+
Pollination of flowers by bird species.  
Pollination of flowers by bird species.  
 
 
 
 
* [[birds-eye wood]]
 
* [[birds-eye wood]]
 
+
Small localized areas in wood with the fibers indented and otherwise contorted to form few to many small circular or elliptical figures remotely resembling birds' eyes on the tangential surface. Sometimes found in sugar maple and used for decorative purposes; rare in other hardwood species.  
Small localized areas in wood with the fibers indented and otherwise contorted to form few to many small circular or elliptical figures remotely resembling birds' eyes on the tangential surface. Sometimes found in sugar maple and used for decorative purposes; rare in other hardwood species.  
 
 
 
 
* [[birds of prey]]
 
* [[birds of prey]]
 
+
A bird that kills and eats other animals for food.  
A bird that kills and eats other animals for food.  
 
 
 
 
* [[bitter pit]]
 
* [[bitter pit]]
 
+
Pits developing on apple fruits which result in a bitter tasting apple. The cause is due to a deficiency of calcium and/or an excess of potassium or magnesium within the apple fruit itself, and not necessarily due to soil fertility or whole plant nutrient status.  
Pits developing on apple fruits which result in a bitter tasting apple. The cause is due to a deficiency of calcium and/or an excess of potassium or magnesium within the apple fruit itself, and not necessarily due to soil fertility or whole plant nutrient status.  
 
 
 
 
* [[bitumen]]
 
* [[bitumen]]
 
+
Dark-colored (solid, semisolid, or viscous) cementitious substances, natural or manufactured, composed principally of high molecular weight hydrocarbons, of which asphalts, tars, pitches, and asphaltenes are typical.  
Dark-colored (solid, semisolid, or viscous) cementitious substances, natural or manufactured, composed principally of high molecular weight hydrocarbons, of which asphalts, tars, pitches, and asphaltenes are typical.  
 
 
 
 
* [[Black Hills region]]
 
* [[Black Hills region]]
 
+
A mountainous area in western South Dakota and northeast Wyoming.  
A mountainous area in western South Dakota and northeast Wyoming.  
 
 
 
 
* [[black rice]]
 
* [[black rice]]
 
+
An unmilled, medium grain rice with black bran.  
An unmilled, medium grain rice with black bran.  
 
 
 
 
* [[blackleg (animal disease)]]
 
* [[blackleg (animal disease)]]
 
+
An acute clostridial infection of cattle, characterized by swelling beneath the skin due to gas formation in the tissues.  
An acute clostridial infection of cattle, characterized by swelling beneath the skin due to gas formation in the tissues.  
 
 
 
 
* [[Blacks]]
 
* [[Blacks]]
 
+
People who identify themselves as having origins in any of the black racial groups of Africa.  
People who identify themselves as having origins in any of the black racial groups of Africa.  
 
 
 
 
* [[bladder calculi]]
 
* [[bladder calculi]]
 
+
Stones of the urinary bladder; also known as vesical calculi or bladder stones, and cystoliths.  
Stones of the urinary bladder; also known as vesical calculi or bladder stones, and cystoliths.  
 
 
 
 
* [[blasticidin S]]
 
* [[blasticidin S]]
 
+
A nucleoside antibiotic produced by Streptomyces griseochromogenes. It is a protein synthesis inhibitor in both prokaryltic and eukaryotic cells.  
A nucleoside antibiotic produced by Streptomyces griseochromogenes. It is a protein synthesis inhibitor in both prokaryltic and eukaryotic cells.  
 
 
 
 
* [[blastospores]]
 
* [[blastospores]]
 
+
Asexual fungal spores formed by budding, as in yeast cells.  
Asexual fungal spores formed by budding, as in yeast cells.  
 
 
 
 
* [[blisters]]
 
* [[blisters]]
 
+
Visible accumulations of fluid within or beneath the epidermis.  
Visible accumulations of fluid within or beneath the epidermis.  
 
 
 
 
* [[bloat]]
 
* [[bloat]]
 
+
A severe distension of the abdomen caused by gas; usually in ruminant animals. The problem is greatest with sudden access to lush pastures or vegetative stage alfalfa--foods that are too easily digested.  
A severe distension of the abdomen caused by gas; usually in ruminant animals. The problem is greatest with sudden access to lush pastures or vegetative stage alfalfa--foods that are too easily digested.  
 
 
 
 
* [[blood banks]]
 
* [[blood banks]]
 
+
Centers for collecting the blood from donors; characterizing, storing and preserving blood or its components for future use.  
Centers for collecting the blood from donors; characterizing, storing and preserving blood or its components for future use.  
 
 
 
 
* [[blood cell counts]]
 
* [[blood cell counts]]
 
+
The number of leukocytes and erythrocytes per unit volume in a sample of venous blood. A complete blood count (CBC) also includes measurement of the hemoglobin; hematocrit; and erythrocyte indices.  
The number of leukocytes and erythrocytes per unit volume in a sample of venous blood. A complete blood count (CBC) also includes measurement of the hemoglobin; hematocrit; and erythrocyte indices.  
 
 
 
 
* [[blood circulation]]
 
* [[blood circulation]]
 
+
The movement of the blood as it is pumped through the cardiovascular system.  
The movement of the blood as it is pumped through the cardiovascular system.  
 
 
 
 
* [[blood coagulation disorders]]
 
* [[blood coagulation disorders]]
 
+
Hemorrhagic and thrombotic disorders that occur as a consequence of abnormalities in blood coagulation. These abnormalities may be due to coagulation protein or platelet dysfunctions, or to other factors, such as nutritional conditions.  
Hemorrhagic and thrombotic disorders that occur as a consequence of abnormalities in blood coagulation. These abnormalities may be due to coagulation protein or platelet dysfunctions, or to other factors, such as nutritional conditions.  
 
 
 
 
* [[blood group antigens]]
 
* [[blood group antigens]]
 
+
Sets of cell surface antigens located on blood cells. They are usually membrane glycoproteins or glycolipids that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.  
Sets of cell surface antigens located on blood cells. They are usually membrane glycoproteins or glycolipids that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.  
 
 
 
 
* [[blood groups]]
 
* [[blood groups]]
 
+
The genetically determined classification of blood based on the presence or absence of different antigens located on erythrocytes.  
The genetically determined classification of blood based on the presence or absence of different antigens located on erythrocytes.  
 
 
 
 
* [[blood meal]]
 
* [[blood meal]]
 
+
Meal produced from fresh animal blood which is high in lysine content (about 9% of the crude protein.)  
Meal produced from fresh animal blood which is high in lysine content (about 9% of the crude protein.)  
 
 
 
 
* [[blood proteins]]
 
* [[blood proteins]]
 
+
Proteins that are present in blood serum, including serum albumin; blood coagulation factors; and many other types of proteins.  
Proteins that are present in blood serum, including serum albumin; blood coagulation factors; and many other types of proteins.  
 
 
 
 
* [[blood serum]]
 
* [[blood serum]]
 
+
The clear, watery portion of blood that separates out when blood coagulates. It lacks blood clotting factors such as fibrogen and prothrombin.  
The clear, watery portion of blood that separates out when blood coagulates. It lacks blood clotting factors such as fibrogen and prothrombin.  
 
 
 
 
* [[blood volume]]
 
* [[blood volume]]
 
+
Volume of circulating blood. It is the sum of the plasma volume and erythrocyte volume.  
Volume of circulating blood. It is the sum of the plasma volume and erythrocyte volume.  
 
 
 
 
* [[bloodstream forms]]
 
* [[bloodstream forms]]
 
+
Morphologic stage in the life cycle of trypanosomes during infection of the mammalian host.  
Morphologic stage in the life cycle of trypanosomes during infection of the mammalian host.  
 
 
 
 
* [[blubber]]
 
* [[blubber]]
 
+
A thick layer of insulating adipose tissue found beneath the skin of aquatic mammals such as whales, seals, walruses and manatees.  
A thick layer of insulating adipose tissue found beneath the skin of aquatic mammals such as whales, seals, walruses and manatees.  
 
 
 
 
* [[blue-stain fungi]]
 
* [[blue-stain fungi]]
 
+
Blue stain fungi infect the sapwood of trees and cause a bluish/grayish discoloration of the lumber products, but do not cause wood decay or reduce the strength of the wood.  
Blue stain fungi infect the sapwood of trees and cause a bluish/grayish discoloration of the lumber products, but do not cause wood decay or reduce the strength of the wood.  
 
 
 
 
* [[blue box]]
 
* [[blue box]]
 
+
Direct payments exempt from the amber box reduction requirements. These include subsidies based on fixed areas or yields, fixed number of livestock, or on 85% or less of the base level of production.  
Direct payments exempt from the amber box reduction requirements. These include subsidies based on fixed areas or yields, fixed number of livestock, or on 85% or less of the base level of production.  
 
 
 
 
* [[blue carbon]]
 
* [[blue carbon]]
 
+
Carbon stored in the Earth's coastal and marine ecosystems.  
Carbon stored in the Earth's coastal and marine ecosystems.  
 
 
 
 
* [[blue light]]
 
* [[blue light]]
 
+
Blue light is the 440-492 nm wavelengths of the visible light spectrum (approximately 400-700 nm) which appears blue to the eye.  
Blue light is the 440-492 nm wavelengths of the visible light spectrum (approximately 400-700 nm) which appears blue to the eye.  
 
 
 
 
* [[Blue Mountain region (Oregon)]]
 
* [[Blue Mountain region (Oregon)]]
 
+
A mountain range in northeast Oregon and southeast Washington.  
A mountain range in northeast Oregon and southeast Washington.  
 
 
 
 
* [[Blue Ridge Mountain region]]
 
* [[Blue Ridge Mountain region]]
 
+
The eastern and southeastern area of the Appalachian Mountain Region which encompasses the Great Smoky Mountains and extends from Pennsylvania to north Georgia.  
The eastern and southeastern area of the Appalachian Mountain Region which encompasses the Great Smoky Mountains and extends from Pennsylvania to north Georgia.  
 
 
 
 
* [[bluetongue]]
 
* [[bluetongue]]
 
+
An arthropod-borne reoviral infection, chiefly of sheep but also affecting cattle and wild ruminants, characterized by a swollen blue tongue and often by inflammation of sensitive laminae of the feet and coronet.  
An arthropod-borne reoviral infection, chiefly of sheep but also affecting cattle and wild ruminants, characterized by a swollen blue tongue and often by inflammation of sensitive laminae of the feet and coronet.  
 
 
 
 
* [[Bluetongue virus]]
 
* [[Bluetongue virus]]
 
+
The type species of Orbivirus causing a serious disease in sheep, especially lambs. It may also infect wild ruminants and other domestic animals.  
The type species of Orbivirus causing a serious disease in sheep, especially lambs. It may also infect wild ruminants and other domestic animals.  
 
 
 
 
* [[boars]]
 
* [[boars]]
 
+
An adult, uncastrated male pig, typically weighing about 500 pounds.  
An adult, uncastrated male pig, typically weighing about 500 pounds.  
 
 
 
 
* [[body image]]
 
* [[body image]]
 
+
Individuals' concept of their own bodies.  
Individuals' concept of their own bodies.  
 
 
 
 
* [[body mass index]]
 
* [[body mass index]]
 
+
Body mass index is a ratio of a person's height to weight: BMI = (705 X weight in pounds)/(height in inches, squared)  
Body mass index is a ratio of a person's height to weight: BMI = (705 X weight in pounds)/(height in inches, squared)  
 
 
 
 
* [[body water]]
 
* [[body water]]
 
+
Fluids composed mainly of water found within the body.  
Fluids composed mainly of water found within the body.  
 
 
 
 
* [[bogs]]
 
* [[bogs]]
 
+
Wetlands that accumulate appreciable peat deposits. Bogs depend primarily on precipitation for their water source, and are usually acidic and rich in plant residue with a conspicuous mat of living green moss.  
Wetlands that accumulate appreciable peat deposits. Bogs depend primarily on precipitation for their water source, and are usually acidic and rich in plant residue with a conspicuous mat of living green moss.  
 
 
 
 
* [[bone fractures]]
 
* [[bone fractures]]
 
+
Breaks in bone or cartilage.  
Breaks in bone or cartilage.  
 
 
 
 
* [[bone meal]]
 
* [[bone meal]]
 
+
Animal meal produced from bones that are steamed under pressure and then ground. It contains 1.5-2.5% nitrogen, 12-15% phosphorus, and 20-34% calcium.  
Animal meal produced from bones that are steamed under pressure and then ground. It contains 1.5-2.5% nitrogen, 12-15% phosphorus, and 20-34% calcium.  
 
 
 
 
* [[bone morphogenetic proteins]]
 
* [[bone morphogenetic proteins]]
 
+
Bone-growth regulatory factors that are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins. They are synthesized as large precursor molecules which are cleaved by proteolytic enzymes.  
Bone-growth regulatory factors that are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins. They are synthesized as large precursor molecules which are cleaved by proteolytic enzymes.  
 
 
 
 
* [[bone resorption]]
 
* [[bone resorption]]
 
+
Bone loss due to osteoclastic activity.  
Bone loss due to osteoclastic activity.  
 
 
 
 
* [[bone substitutes]]
 
* [[bone substitutes]]
 
+
Synthetic or natural materials for the replacement of bones or bone tissue. They include hard tissue replacement polymers, natural coral, hydroxyapatite, beta-tricalcium phosphate, and various other biomaterials. The bone substitutes as inert materials can be incorporated into surrounding tissue or gradually replaced by original tissue.  
Synthetic or natural materials for the replacement of bones or bone tissue. They include hard tissue replacement polymers, natural coral, hydroxyapatite, beta-tricalcium phosphate, and various other biomaterials. The bone substitutes as inert materials can be incorporated into surrounding tissue or gradually replaced by original tissue.  
 
 
 
 
* [[bonsai]]
 
* [[bonsai]]
 
+
The art and practice of growing miniature trees, shrubs or landscapes in shallow trays or pots by rigorous training techniques and pruning of roots and branches.  
The art and practice of growing miniature trees, shrubs or landscapes in shallow trays or pots by rigorous training techniques and pruning of roots and branches.  
 
 
 
 
* [[book classification]]
 
* [[book classification]]
 
+
A general term covering bibliographical and bibliothecal classifications. It mostly refers to library classification for arrangement of books and documents on the shelves.  
A general term covering bibliographical and bibliothecal classifications. It mostly refers to library classification for arrangement of books and documents on the shelves.  
 
 
 
 
* [[book collecting]]
 
* [[book collecting]]
 
+
Seeking, locating, acquiring, organizing, cataloging, displaying, storing, and maintaining whatever books are of interest to a given individual collector.  
Seeking, locating, acquiring, organizing, cataloging, displaying, storing, and maintaining whatever books are of interest to a given individual collector.  
 
 
 
 
* [[booting stage]]
 
* [[booting stage]]
 
+
Growth stage when a grass seedhead is enclosed by the sheath of the uppermost (flag) leaf.  
Growth stage when a grass seedhead is enclosed by the sheath of the uppermost (flag) leaf.  
 
 
 
 
* [[boranes]]
 
* [[boranes]]
 
+
The collective name for the boron hydrides, which are analogous to the alkanes and silanes. Numerous boranes are known. Some have high calorific values and are used in high-energy fuels.  
The collective name for the boron hydrides, which are analogous to the alkanes and silanes. Numerous boranes are known. Some have high calorific values and are used in high-energy fuels.  
 
 
 
 
* [[border disease]]
 
* [[border disease]]
 
+
Congenital disorder of sheep and goats caused by Border disease virus. The disease is characterized by infertility, abortion and abnormalities in lambs.  
Congenital disorder of sheep and goats caused by Border disease virus. The disease is characterized by infertility, abortion and abnormalities in lambs.  
 
 
 
 
* [[border irrigation]]
 
* [[border irrigation]]
 
+
An irrigation system for sloping land in which parallel levees are built and the area between  
An irrigation system for sloping land in which parallel levees are built and the area between  
 
 
 
 
* [[borderline leprosy]]
 
* [[borderline leprosy]]
 
+
A form of leprosy in which there are clinical manifestations of both principal types (lepromatous and tuberculoid). The disease may shift toward one of these two polar or principal forms.  
A form of leprosy in which there are clinical manifestations of both principal types (lepromatous and tuberculoid). The disease may shift toward one of these two polar or principal forms.  
 
 
 
 
* [[boreal forests]]
 
* [[boreal forests]]
 
+
General term for northern coniferous forests.  
General term for northern coniferous forests.  
 
 
 
 
* [[Borna disease]]
 
* [[Borna disease]]
 
+
An encephalomyelitis of horses, sheep and cattle caused by Borna disease virus.  
An encephalomyelitis of horses, sheep and cattle caused by Borna disease virus.  
 
 
 
 
* [[Borneo]]
 
* [[Borneo]]
 
+
An island in the Malay Archipelago forming part of Malaysia in the northern region and part of Indonesia in the southern region.  
An island in the Malay Archipelago forming part of Malaysia in the northern region and part of Indonesia in the southern region.  
 
 
 
 
* [[boron compounds]]
 
* [[boron compounds]]
 
+
Inorganic or organic compounds that contain boron as an integral part of the molecule.  
Inorganic or organic compounds that contain boron as an integral part of the molecule.  
 
 
 
 
* [[boronic acids]]
 
* [[boronic acids]]
 
+
Inorganic or organic compounds that contain the basic structure RB(OH)2.  
Inorganic or organic compounds that contain the basic structure RB(OH)2.  
 
 
 
 
* [[botanical composition]]
 
* [[botanical composition]]
 
+
The percentage of plant species that comprise a plant community.  
The percentage of plant species that comprise a plant community.  
 
 
 
 
* [[bottom ash]]
 
* [[bottom ash]]
 
+
Incombustible matter resulting from combustion that does not leave as fly ash.  
Incombustible matter resulting from combustion that does not leave as fly ash.  
 
 
 
 
* [[botulinum toxin]]
 
* [[botulinum toxin]]
 
+
Toxic proteins produced from the species Clostridium botulinum.  
Toxic proteins produced from the species Clostridium botulinum.  
 
 
 
 
* [[bound tariffs]]
 
* [[bound tariffs]]
 
+
The most-favored-nation tariff resulting from negotiations under the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and incorporated as the integral component of a country's schedule of concessions; a commitment not to raise a tariff above a specified level.  
The most-favored-nation tariff resulting from negotiations under the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and incorporated as the integral component of a country's schedule of concessions; a commitment not to raise a tariff above a specified level.  
 
 
 
 
* [[boutonneuse fever]]
 
* [[boutonneuse fever]]
 
+
A febrile disease of the Mediterranean area, the Crimea, Africa, and India, caused by infection with Rickettsia conorii.  
A febrile disease of the Mediterranean area, the Crimea, Africa, and India, caused by infection with Rickettsia conorii.  
 
 
 
 
* [[bovine anaplasmosis]]
 
* [[bovine anaplasmosis]]
 
+
A bacterial disease of cattle caused by parasitization of the red blood cells by Anaplasma.  
A bacterial disease of cattle caused by parasitization of the red blood cells by Anaplasma.  
 
 
 
 
* [[bovine ephemeral fever]]
 
* [[bovine ephemeral fever]]
 
+
An Ephemerovirus infection of cattle caused by bovine ephemeral fever virus. It is characterized by respiratory symptoms, increased oropharyngeal secretions and lacrimation, joint pains, tremor, and stiffness.  
An Ephemerovirus infection of cattle caused by bovine ephemeral fever virus. It is characterized by respiratory symptoms, increased oropharyngeal secretions and lacrimation, joint pains, tremor, and stiffness.  
 
 
 
 
* [[bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency]]
 
* [[bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency]]
 
+
An autosomal recessive hereditary disease affecting young Holstein calves. Homozygous individuals die from extreme susceptibility to infection, caused by an inability of leukocytes to pass from the blood stream into infected tissue. This inability is due to the lack of beta-2 integrin adhesion protein on the surface of the white blood cells due to two point mutations in the CD18 gene.  
An autosomal recessive hereditary disease affecting young Holstein calves. Homozygous individuals die from extreme susceptibility to infection, caused by an inability of leukocytes to pass from the blood stream into infected tissue. This inability is due to the lack of beta-2 integrin adhesion protein on the surface of the white blood cells due to two point mutations in the CD18 gene.  
 
 
 
 
* [[bovine mastitis]]
 
* [[bovine mastitis]]
 
+
An infection and inflammation of the udder in cows.  
An infection and inflammation of the udder in cows.  
 
 
 
 
* [[bovine spongiform encephalopathy]]
 
* [[bovine spongiform encephalopathy]]
 
+
A transmissible encephalopathy of cattle characterized by a spongiform structure of the brain tissue, and associated with abnormal prion proteins in the brain.  
A transmissible encephalopathy of cattle characterized by a spongiform structure of the brain tissue, and associated with abnormal prion proteins in the brain.  
 
 
 
 
* [[bovine trypanosomiasis]]
 
* [[bovine trypanosomiasis]]
 
+
Infection in cattle caused by various species of trypanosomes.  
Infection in cattle caused by various species of trypanosomes.  
 
 
 
 
* [[bovine viral diarrhea]]
 
* [[bovine viral diarrhea]]
 
+
Acute disease of cattle caused by the bovine viral diarrhea viruses. Often mouth ulcerations are the only sign but fever, diarrhea, drop in milk yield, and loss of appetite are also seen. Severity of clinical disease varies and is strain dependent. Outbreaks are characterized by low morbidity and high mortality.  
Acute disease of cattle caused by the bovine viral diarrhea viruses. Often mouth ulcerations are the only sign but fever, diarrhea, drop in milk yield, and loss of appetite are also seen. Severity of clinical disease varies and is strain dependent. Outbreaks are characterized by low morbidity and high mortality.  
 
 
 
 
* [[Bowen ratio]]
 
* [[Bowen ratio]]
 
+
The ratio of the sensible heat flux to the latent heat flux from a surface.  
The ratio of the sensible heat flux to the latent heat flux from a surface.  
 
 
 
 
* [[Bowman-Birk inhibitor]]
 
* [[Bowman-Birk inhibitor]]
 
+
A low-molecular-weight protein (minimum molecular weight 8000) which has the ability to inhibit trypsin as well as chymotrypsin at independent binding sites. It is characterized by a high cystine content and the absence of glycine.  
A low-molecular-weight protein (minimum molecular weight 8000) which has the ability to inhibit trypsin as well as chymotrypsin at independent binding sites. It is characterized by a high cystine content and the absence of glycine.  
 
 
 
 
* [[box planting]]
 
* [[box planting]]
 
+
A linear planting arrangement where the shape of the cultivated area is lined with woody perennials on the borders and crops.  
A linear planting arrangement where the shape of the cultivated area is lined with woody perennials on the borders and crops.  
 
 
 
 
* [[boxed beef]]
 
* [[boxed beef]]
 
+
Cuts of beef sealed in vacuum packs to be shipped in cardbard boxes, often ready for retail sale.  
Cuts of beef sealed in vacuum packs to be shipped in cardbard boxes, often ready for retail sale.  
 
 
 
 
* [[brachytherapy]]
 
* [[brachytherapy]]
 
+
A collective term for interstitial, intracavity, and surface radiotherapy. It uses small sealed or partly-sealed sources that may be placed on or near the body surface or within a natural body cavity or implanted directly into the tissues.  
A collective term for interstitial, intracavity, and surface radiotherapy. It uses small sealed or partly-sealed sources that may be placed on or near the body surface or within a natural body cavity or implanted directly into the tissues.  
 
 
 
 
* [[brackish water]]
 
* [[brackish water]]
 
+
A combination of fresh and salt water. Most of the water in the Bay is brackish.  
A combination of fresh and salt water. Most of the water in the Bay is brackish.  
 
 
 
 
* [[bracts]]
 
* [[bracts]]
 
+
A leaflike or scalelike organ subtending a flower or aggregation of flowers ; a modified inflorescence leaf.  
A leaflike or scalelike organ subtending a flower or aggregation of flowers ; a modified inflorescence leaf.  
 
 
 
 
* [[brain stem]]
 
* [[brain stem]]
 
+
The part of the brain that connects the cerebral hemispheres with the spinal cord. It consists of the mesencephalon; pons; and medulla oblongata.  
The part of the brain that connects the cerebral hemispheres with the spinal cord. It consists of the mesencephalon; pons; and medulla oblongata.  
 
 
 
 
* [[brain waves]]
 
* [[brain waves]]
 
+
Wave-like oscillations of electric potential between parts of the brain recorded by EEG.  
Wave-like oscillations of electric potential between parts of the brain recorded by EEG.  
 
 
 
 
* [[brashness]]
 
* [[brashness]]
 
+
A condition that causes some pieces of wood to be relatively low in shock resistance for the species and, when broken in bending, to fail abruptly without splintering at comparatively small deflections.  
A condition that causes some pieces of wood to be relatively low in shock resistance for the species and, when broken in bending, to fail abruptly without splintering at comparatively small deflections.  
 
 
 
 
* [[Brassicoraphanus]]
 
* [[Brassicoraphanus]]
 
+
Intergeneric hybrid between Brassica x Raphanus.  
Intergeneric hybrid between Brassica x Raphanus.  
 
 
 
 
* [[breadfruits]]
 
* [[breadfruits]]
 
+
An oval or round fruit with creamy white meat and a yellow-green rind with small rounded spines. It is usually boiled and eaten as a vegetable and resembles potato in flavor. It is a staple food in South Pacific and Malaysian cuisines.  
An oval or round fruit with creamy white meat and a yellow-green rind with small rounded spines. It is usually boiled and eaten as a vegetable and resembles potato in flavor. It is a staple food in South Pacific and Malaysian cuisines.  
 
 
 
 
* [[breadings]]
 
* [[breadings]]
 
+
Bread or cracker crumbs used to coat foods.  
Bread or cracker crumbs used to coat foods.  
 
 
 
 
* [[breath tests]]
 
* [[breath tests]]
 
+
Any tests done on exhaled air.  
Any tests done on exhaled air.  
 
 
 
 
* [[breeding season]]
 
* [[breeding season]]
 
+
The particular season of the year in which animals mate and reproduce.  
The particular season of the year in which animals mate and reproduce.  
 
 
 
 
* [[breeding sites]]
 
* [[breeding sites]]
 
+
Habitats where animals go to mate and reproduce.  
Habitats where animals go to mate and reproduce.  
 
 
 
 
* [[breeding soundness]]
 
* [[breeding soundness]]
 
+
The condition of an animal that is healthy and fit for mating, with normal external genitalia that are well-formed with no signs of disease and with no lameness or other disability that would prevent its success in breeding.  
The condition of an animal that is healthy and fit for mating, with normal external genitalia that are well-formed with no signs of disease and with no lameness or other disability that would prevent its success in breeding.  
 
 
 
 
* [[breeding stock]]
 
* [[breeding stock]]
 
+
Plants or animals used in breeding, selected for traits desired in producing the next generation.  
Plants or animals used in breeding, selected for traits desired in producing the next generation.  
 
 
 
 
* [[breeding value]]
 
* [[breeding value]]
 
+
The calculated value expressing the ability of a parent to pass on superior traits to its offspring and is used for ranking breeding performance of the parent relative to the population average.  
The calculated value expressing the ability of a parent to pass on superior traits to its offspring and is used for ranking breeding performance of the parent relative to the population average.  
 
 
 
 
* [[brefeldin A]]
 
* [[brefeldin A]]
 
+
A fungal metabolite which is a macrocyclic lactone exhibiting a wide range of antibiotic activity.  
A fungal metabolite which is a macrocyclic lactone exhibiting a wide range of antibiotic activity.  
 
 
 
 
* [[brewers yeast]]
 
* [[brewers yeast]]
 
+
Yeast used or suitable for use in brewing; specifically the dried pulverized cells of such a yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). A nutritional supplement for its rich content of vitamins (particularly B complex), minerals and amino acids.  
Yeast used or suitable for use in brewing; specifically the dried pulverized cells of such a yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). A nutritional supplement for its rich content of vitamins (particularly B complex), minerals and amino acids.  
 
 
 
 
* [[brining]]
 
* [[brining]]
 
+
The treatment of a food or material by soaking in a solution saturated with or containing large amounts of a salt, especially sodium chloride.  
The treatment of a food or material by soaking in a solution saturated with or containing large amounts of a salt, especially sodium chloride.  
 
 
 
 
* [[broadcast seeding]]
 
* [[broadcast seeding]]
 
+
Process of scattering seed on the surface of the soil prior to natural or artificial means of covering the seed with soil.  
Process of scattering seed on the surface of the soil prior to natural or artificial means of covering the seed with soil.  
 
 
 
 
* [[broadcasters]]
 
* [[broadcasters]]
 
+
A device designed to apply seeds, fertilizers or soil amendments to land. The broadcaster typically consists of a hopper from which the material is supplied to a revolving fanlike mechanism that disperses it.  
A device designed to apply seeds, fertilizers or soil amendments to land. The broadcaster typically consists of a hopper from which the material is supplied to a revolving fanlike mechanism that disperses it.  
 
 
 
 
* [[broadleaved evergreens]]
 
* [[broadleaved evergreens]]
 
+
A plant that retains its leaves in the fall (in contrast to deciduous plants) and is not a needle-type conifer.  
A plant that retains its leaves in the fall (in contrast to deciduous plants) and is not a needle-type conifer.  
 
 
 
 
* [[broiler chickens]]
 
* [[broiler chickens]]
 
+
Young chickens produced for meat.  
Young chickens produced for meat.  
 
 
 
 
* [[bromobenzenes]]
 
* [[bromobenzenes]]
 
+
Derivatives of benzene in which one or more hydrogen atoms on the benzene ring are replaced by bromine atoms.  
Derivatives of benzene in which one or more hydrogen atoms on the benzene ring are replaced by bromine atoms.  
 
 
 
 
* [[bromocriptine]]
 
* [[bromocriptine]]
 
+
A semisynthetic ergotamine alkaloid that is a dopamine D2 agonist. It suppresses prolactin secretion.  
A semisynthetic ergotamine alkaloid that is a dopamine D2 agonist. It suppresses prolactin secretion.  
 
 
 
 
* [[bronchi]]
 
* [[bronchi]]
 
+
The larger air passages of the lungs arising from the terminal bifurcation of the trachea. They include the largest two primary bronchi which branch out into secondary bronchi, and tertiary bronchi which extend into bronchioles and pulmonary alveoli.  
The larger air passages of the lungs arising from the terminal bifurcation of the trachea. They include the largest two primary bronchi which branch out into secondary bronchi, and tertiary bronchi which extend into bronchioles and pulmonary alveoli.  
 
 
 
 
* [[bronchioles]]
 
* [[bronchioles]]
 
+
The small airways branching off the tertiary bronchi. Terminal bronchioles lead into several orders of respiratory bronchioles which in turn lead into alveolar ducts and then into pulmonary alveoli.  
The small airways branching off the tertiary bronchi. Terminal bronchioles lead into several orders of respiratory bronchioles which in turn lead into alveolar ducts and then into pulmonary alveoli.  
 
 
 
 
* [[bronchiolitis]]
 
* [[bronchiolitis]]
 
+
Airway obstruction due to acute inflammation, swelling and mucus buildup in the bronchioles.  
Airway obstruction due to acute inflammation, swelling and mucus buildup in the bronchioles.  
 
 
 
 
* [[bronchitis]]
 
* [[bronchitis]]
 
+
Inflammation of the large airways in the lung including any part of the bronchi, from the primary bronchi to the tertiary bronchi.  
Inflammation of the large airways in the lung including any part of the bronchi, from the primary bronchi to the tertiary bronchi.  
 
 
 
 
* [[bronchopneumonia]]
 
* [[bronchopneumonia]]
 
+
Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is associated with bronchitis, usually involving lobular areas from terminal bronchioles to the pulmonary alveoli.  
Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is associated with bronchitis, usually involving lobular areas from terminal bronchioles to the pulmonary alveoli.  
 
 
 
 
* [[bronchoscopy]]
 
* [[bronchoscopy]]
 
+
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the bronchi.  
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the bronchi.  
 
 
 
 
* [[brood parasitism]]
 
* [[brood parasitism]]
 
+
The parasitic laying of eggs in the nests of other animals without providing parental care as observed in birds and other animals.  
The parasitic laying of eggs in the nests of other animals without providing parental care as observed in birds and other animals.  
 
 
 
 
* [[brooders]]
 
* [[brooders]]
 
+
A heated enclosure for raising chicks or other baby animals.  
A heated enclosure for raising chicks or other baby animals.  
 
 
 
 
* [[brown-rot fungi]]
 
* [[brown-rot fungi]]
 
+
A group of decay fungi that are able to degrade cellulose and hemicellulose in wood, but not lignin. Compare with white rot fungi.  
A group of decay fungi that are able to degrade cellulose and hemicellulose in wood, but not lignin. Compare with white rot fungi.  
 
 
 
 
* [[brown adipocytes]]
 
* [[brown adipocytes]]
 
+
Fat cells with dark coloration due to the densely packed mitochondria. They contain numerous small lipid droplets or vacuoles. Their stored lipids can be converted directly to energy as heat by the mitochondria.  
Fat cells with dark coloration due to the densely packed mitochondria. They contain numerous small lipid droplets or vacuoles. Their stored lipids can be converted directly to energy as heat by the mitochondria.  
 
 
 
 
* [[brown rice]]
 
* [[brown rice]]
 
+
Rice from which only the hulls have been removed revealing the brown bran layers.  
Rice from which only the hulls have been removed revealing the brown bran layers.  
 
 
 
 
* [[brownfields]]
 
* [[brownfields]]
 
+
Areas of previously used land, the redevelopment or reuse of which may be hindered due to actual or perceived environmental contamination.  
Areas of previously used land, the redevelopment or reuse of which may be hindered due to actual or perceived environmental contamination.  
 
 
 
 
* [[browse plants]]
 
* [[browse plants]]
 
+
Woody plants (shrubs or low trees) whose leaves and young stems are eaten in the field by animals.  
Woody plants (shrubs or low trees) whose leaves and young stems are eaten in the field by animals.  
 
 
 
 
* [[browsing]]
 
* [[browsing]]
 
+
Feeding on sprouts, twigs, stems, vines and leaves of shrubs or trees by livestock and wildlife.  
Feeding on sprouts, twigs, stems, vines and leaves of shrubs or trees by livestock and wildlife.  
 
 
 
 
* [[brucellosis]]
 
* [[brucellosis]]
 
+
A contagious disease usually occurring in beef and dairy cattle, but also in sheep, pigs and other mammals which causes abortion. In humans the disease is known as undulant fever.  
A contagious disease usually occurring in beef and dairy cattle, but also in sheep, pigs and other mammals which causes abortion. In humans the disease is known as undulant fever.  
 
 
 
 
* [[brush border membrane vesicles]]
 
* [[brush border membrane vesicles]]
 
+
Artificial intestinal cell preparations derived by homogenization and centrifugation. The cell preparations are devoid of any basolateral membrane and cellular components and are characterized as having a high sucrase activity.  
Artificial intestinal cell preparations derived by homogenization and centrifugation. The cell preparations are devoid of any basolateral membrane and cellular components and are characterized as having a high sucrase activity.  
 
 
 
 
* [[bryostatins]]
 
* [[bryostatins]]
 
+
A group of 20-member macrolactones in which there are three remotely substituted pyran rings that are linked by a methylene bridge and an E-disubstituted alkene, and have geminal dimethyls at C8 and C18 carbons. Some interact with protein kinase C.  
A group of 20-member macrolactones in which there are three remotely substituted pyran rings that are linked by a methylene bridge and an E-disubstituted alkene, and have geminal dimethyls at C8 and C18 carbons. Some interact with protein kinase C.  
 
 
 
 
* [[bud sport]]
 
* [[bud sport]]
 
+
A part of a plant such as a flower, inflorescence, leaf or shoot that looks different from the rest of the plant. It is caused by a somatic mutation in the bud cells.  
A part of a plant such as a flower, inflorescence, leaf or shoot that looks different from the rest of the plant. It is caused by a somatic mutation in the bud cells.  
 
 
 
 
* [[budbreak]]
 
* [[budbreak]]
 
+
The start of growth from a bud.  
The start of growth from a bud.  
 
 
 
 
* [[buffering capacity]]
 
* [[buffering capacity]]
 
+
The ability of a substance to resist changes in pH when acid or bases are added.  
The ability of a substance to resist changes in pH when acid or bases are added.  
 
 
 
 
* [[bulgur]]
 
* [[bulgur]]
 
+
Wheat that has been parboiled, dried, and partially debranned for later use in cracked or whole grain form.  
Wheat that has been parboiled, dried, and partially debranned for later use in cracked or whole grain form.  
 
 
 
 
* [[bulimia nervosa]]
 
* [[bulimia nervosa]]
 
+
An eating disorder that is characterized by a cycle of binge eating (bulimia or bingeing) followed by inappropriate acts (purging) to avert weight gain. Purging methods often include self-induced vomiting, use of laxatives or diuretics, excessive exercise, and fasting.  
An eating disorder that is characterized by a cycle of binge eating (bulimia or bingeing) followed by inappropriate acts (purging) to avert weight gain. Purging methods often include self-induced vomiting, use of laxatives or diuretics, excessive exercise, and fasting.  
 
 
 
 
* [[bulk commodities]]
 
* [[bulk commodities]]
 
+
Generally, high volume, low value unprocessed agricultural commodities, which are treated as though they are homogeneous (fungible) in nature prior to processing. Grains, oilseeds, and cotton are considered bulk commodities. Contrasting categories are high value commodities, semiprocessed and processed commodities, and consumer ready commodities.  
Generally, high volume, low value unprocessed agricultural commodities, which are treated as though they are homogeneous (fungible) in nature prior to processing. Grains, oilseeds, and cotton are considered bulk commodities. Contrasting categories are high value commodities, semiprocessed and processed commodities, and consumer ready commodities.  
 
 
 
 
* [[bulking agents]]
 
* [[bulking agents]]
 
+
Agents or additives added to increase the weight or volume without imparting any functionality or utility.  
Agents or additives added to increase the weight or volume without imparting any functionality or utility.  
 
 
 
 
* [[bullocks]]
 
* [[bullocks]]
 
+
Young bulls under 24 months of age.  
Young bulls under 24 months of age.  
 
 
 
 
* [[bulls]]
 
* [[bulls]]
 
+
Male mammals that have reached sexual maturity, usually referring to domestic cattle, buffaloes and other bovines, but also to elephants, camels, moose, seals and other species.  
Male mammals that have reached sexual maturity, usually referring to domestic cattle, buffaloes and other bovines, but also to elephants, camels, moose, seals and other species.  
 
 
 
 
* [[bullying]]
 
* [[bullying]]
 
+
Aggressive behavior by a more powerful party that results in physical harm to or emotional distress of the victim.  
Aggressive behavior by a more powerful party that results in physical harm to or emotional distress of the victim.  
 
 
 
 
* [[bunds]]
 
* [[bunds]]
 
+
Low ridges of earth built along the contour of the lower edge of a field to control soil erosion.  
Low ridges of earth built along the contour of the lower edge of a field to control soil erosion.  
 
 
 
 
* [[bunker silos]]
 
* [[bunker silos]]
 
+
Trenches with concrete floors and concrete or earthen walls filled and packed with tractors and loaders and usually covered with a plastic tarp.  
Trenches with concrete floors and concrete or earthen walls filled and packed with tractors and loaders and usually covered with a plastic tarp.  
 
 
 
 
* [[buprenorphine]]
 
* [[buprenorphine]]
 
+
A derivative of the opioid alkaloid thebaine that is a more potent and longer lasting analgesic than morphine. It appears to act as a partial agonist at mu and kappa opioid receptors and as an antagonist at delta receptors. The lack of delta-agonist activity has been suggested to account for the observation that buprenorphine tolerance may not develop with chronic use.  
A derivative of the opioid alkaloid thebaine that is a more potent and longer lasting analgesic than morphine. It appears to act as a partial agonist at mu and kappa opioid receptors and as an antagonist at delta receptors. The lack of delta-agonist activity has been suggested to account for the observation that buprenorphine tolerance may not develop with chronic use.  
 
 
 
 
* [[burden of disease]]
 
* [[burden of disease]]
 
+
A measure of loss of health and mortality due to injuries, diseases, and risk factors.  
A measure of loss of health and mortality due to injuries, diseases, and risk factors.  
 
 
 
 
* [[burl wood]]
 
* [[burl wood]]
 
+
A hard, woody outgrowth on a tree, more or less rounded in form, usually resulting from the entwined growth of a cluster of adventitious buds. Such burls are the source of the highly figured burl veneers used for purely ornamental purposes.  
A hard, woody outgrowth on a tree, more or less rounded in form, usually resulting from the entwined growth of a cluster of adventitious buds. Such burls are the source of the highly figured burl veneers used for purely ornamental purposes.  
 
 
 
 
* [[burns (injuries)]]
 
* [[burns (injuries)]]
 
+
Injuries to tissues caused by contact with heat, steam, chemicals, electricity, or the like.  
Injuries to tissues caused by contact with heat, steam, chemicals, electricity, or the like.  
 
 
 
 
* [[business enterprises]]
 
* [[business enterprises]]
 
+
An organization engaged in the production, distribution and/or sale of goods or services in order to satisfy customer requirements and make a profit.  
An organization engaged in the production, distribution and/or sale of goods or services in order to satisfy customer requirements and make a profit.  
 
 
 
 
* [[butadienes]]
 
* [[butadienes]]
 
+
Four carbon unsaturated hydrocarbons containing two double bonds.  
Four carbon unsaturated hydrocarbons containing two double bonds.  
 
 
 
 
* [[butorphanol]]
 
* [[butorphanol]]
 
+
A synthetic morphinan analgesic with narcotic antagonist action. It is used in the management of severe pain.  
A synthetic morphinan analgesic with narcotic antagonist action. It is used in the management of severe pain.  
 
 
 
 
* [[butter oil]]
 
* [[butter oil]]
 
+
A dairy product made from cream or butter containing at least 99.5% milk fat and 0.20% moisture.  
A dairy product made from cream or butter containing at least 99.5% milk fat and 0.20% moisture.  
 
 
 
 
* [[buttermilk]]
 
* [[buttermilk]]
 
+
Natural buttermilk is the byproduct of churning cream into butter. Cultured buttermilk is usually made from skim milk by adding a starter culture and incubating until lactic acid develops to about 0.8%.  
Natural buttermilk is the byproduct of churning cream into butter. Cultured buttermilk is usually made from skim milk by adding a starter culture and incubating until lactic acid develops to about 0.8%.  
 
 
 
 
* [[bycatch]]
 
* [[bycatch]]
 
+
Species caught inadvertently by fishermen during the capture of another species.  
Species caught inadvertently by fishermen during the capture of another species.  
 
 
 
 
* [[byproduct utilization]]
 
* [[byproduct utilization]]
 
+
The use of agricultural and industrial byproducts to add economic value to agricultural systems, while reducing the environmental impact of production.  
The use of agricultural and industrial byproducts to add economic value to agricultural systems, while reducing the environmental impact of production.  
 
 
 
 
* [[byproducts]]
 
* [[byproducts]]
 
+
Products, including chemical substances, made during the manufacture, processing, or synthesis of something else.  
Products, including chemical substances, made during the manufacture, processing, or synthesis of something else.  
 
 
 
 
* [[byssinosis]]
 
* [[byssinosis]]
 +
A condition of bronchoconstriction resulting from hypersensitive reaction to inhaled dust during the initial processing of cotton, flax, or hemp in the textile industry.
  
A condition of bronchoconstriction resulting from hypersensitive reaction to inhaled dust during the initial processing of cotton, flax, or hemp in the textile industry.
+
{{catz}}
 
+
== C ==
 
* [[C-reactive protein]]
 
* [[C-reactive protein]]
 
+
A plasma protein that circulates in increased amounts during inflammation and after tissue damage.  
A plasma protein that circulates in increased amounts during inflammation and after tissue damage.  
 
 
 
 
* [[C3 plants]]
 
* [[C3 plants]]
 
+
Plants in which the CO2 is initially fixed by the Calvin cycle in photosynthesis.  
Plants in which the CO2 is initially fixed by the Calvin cycle in photosynthesis.  
 
 
 
 
* [[C4 plants]]
 
* [[C4 plants]]
 
+
Plants where the initial carbon fixation occurs in the outer mesophyll cells, and the Calvin cycle occurs in the inner bundle sheath cells.  
Plants where the initial carbon fixation occurs in the outer mesophyll cells, and the Calvin cycle occurs in the inner bundle sheath cells.  
 
 
 
 
* [[Ca2-transporting ATPase]]
 
* [[Ca2-transporting ATPase]]
 
+
Cation-transporting proteins that utilize the energy of ATP hydrolysis for the transport of calcium. They differ from calcium channels which allow calcium to pass through a membrane without the use of energy.  
Cation-transporting proteins that utilize the energy of ATP hydrolysis for the transport of calcium. They differ from calcium channels which allow calcium to pass through a membrane without the use of energy.  
 
 
 
 
* [[cabs (equipment)]]
 
* [[cabs (equipment)]]
 
+
The closed part of a vehicle where the driver sits.  
The closed part of a vehicle where the driver sits.  
 
 
 
 
* [[CAC performance criterion]]
 
* [[CAC performance criterion]]
 
+
The effect in frequency and/or concentration of a hazard in a food that must be achieved by the application of one or more control measures to provide or contribute to a PO [performance objective] or an FSO [food safety objective].  
The effect in frequency and/or concentration of a hazard in a food that must be achieved by the application of one or more control measures to provide or contribute to a PO [performance objective] or an FSO [food safety objective].  
 
 
 
 
* [[CAC performance objective]]
 
* [[CAC performance objective]]
 
+
The maximum frequency and/or concentration of a hazard in a food at a specified step in the food chain before the time of consumption that provides or contributes to an FSO [food safety objective] or ALOP [appropriate level of protection], as applicable.  
The maximum frequency and/or concentration of a hazard in a food at a specified step in the food chain before the time of consumption that provides or contributes to an FSO [food safety objective] or ALOP [appropriate level of protection], as applicable.  
 
 
 
 
* [[cachexia]]
 
* [[cachexia]]
 
+
A profound and marked state of constitutional disorder, general ill health, malnutrition, and weight loss.  
A profound and marked state of constitutional disorder, general ill health, malnutrition, and weight loss.  
 
 
 
 
* [[cadaver]]
 
* [[cadaver]]
 
+
A dead body, usually a human body.  
A dead body, usually a human body.  
 
 
 
 
* [[cadherins]]
 
* [[cadherins]]
 
+
Calcium-dependent cell adhesion proteins. They are important in the formation of adherens junctions between cells. Cadherins are classified by their distinct immunological and tissue specificities, either by letters (E- for epithelial, N- for neural, and P- for placental cadherins) or by numbers (cadherin-12 or N-cadherin 2 for brain-cadherin). Cadherins promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism as in the construction of tissues and of the whole animal body.  
Calcium-dependent cell adhesion proteins. They are important in the formation of adherens junctions between cells. Cadherins are classified by their distinct immunological and tissue specificities, either by letters (E- for epithelial, N- for neural, and P- for placental cadherins) or by numbers (cadherin-12 or N-cadherin 2 for brain-cadherin). Cadherins promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism as in the construction of tissues and of the whole animal body.  
 
 
 
 
* [[cage culture]]
 
* [[cage culture]]
 
+
The production method for raising aquatic species using enclosures made of wire or netting around rigid frames which are placed in water.  
The production method for raising aquatic species using enclosures made of wire or netting around rigid frames which are placed in water.  
 
 
 
 
* [[Calamagrostis acutiflora]]
 
* [[Calamagrostis acutiflora]]
 
+
Interspecific hybrid between Calamagrostis arundinacea x Calamagrostis epigeios.  
Interspecific hybrid between Calamagrostis arundinacea x Calamagrostis epigeios.  
 
 
 
 
* [[calcareous soils]]
 
* [[calcareous soils]]
 
+
Calcareous soils are soils with free calcium carbonate (CaCO3) in the soil profile.  
Calcareous soils are soils with free calcium carbonate (CaCO3) in the soil profile.  
 
 
 
 
* [[calcicoles]]
 
* [[calcicoles]]
 
+
Plants that thrive in lime-rich, alkaline, or calcareous soils, and do not thrive in acid soils.  
Plants that thrive in lime-rich, alkaline, or calcareous soils, and do not thrive in acid soils.  
 
 
 
 
* [[calcifuges]]
 
* [[calcifuges]]
 
+
Plants that thrive in acid soils and that do not thrive in lime-rich, calcareous, or alkaline soils.  
Plants that thrive in acid soils and that do not thrive in lime-rich, calcareous, or alkaline soils.  
 
 
 
 
* [[calcinosis]]
 
* [[calcinosis]]
 
+
Pathologic deposition of calcium salts in tissues.  
Pathologic deposition of calcium salts in tissues.  
 
 
 
 
* [[calcitonin]]
 
* [[calcitonin]]
 
+
A peptide hormone that lowers calcium concentration in the blood. In humans, it is released by thyroid cells and acts to decrease the formation and absorptive activity of osteoclasts. Its role in regulating plasma calcium is much greater in children and in certain diseases than in normal adults.  
A peptide hormone that lowers calcium concentration in the blood. In humans, it is released by thyroid cells and acts to decrease the formation and absorptive activity of osteoclasts. Its role in regulating plasma calcium is much greater in children and in certain diseases than in normal adults.  
 
 
 
 
* [[calcitonin gene-related peptide]]
 
* [[calcitonin gene-related peptide]]
 
+
A 37-amino acid peptide derived from the calcitonin gene. It occurs as a result of alternative processing of mRNA from the calcitonin gene. The neuropeptide is widely distributed in neural tissue of the brain, gut, perivascular nerves, and other tissue. The peptide produces multiple biological effects and has both circulatory and neurotransmitter modes of action. In particular, it is a potent endogenous vasodilator.  
A 37-amino acid peptide derived from the calcitonin gene. It occurs as a result of alternative processing of mRNA from the calcitonin gene. The neuropeptide is widely distributed in neural tissue of the brain, gut, perivascular nerves, and other tissue. The peptide produces multiple biological effects and has both circulatory and neurotransmitter modes of action. In particular, it is a potent endogenous vasodilator.  
 
 
 
 
* [[calcitriol receptors]]
 
* [[calcitriol receptors]]
 
+
Proteins, usually found in the cytoplasm, that specifically bind calcitriol, migrate to the nucleus, and regulate transcription of specific segments of DNA with the participation of D receptor interacting proteins (called DRIP). Vitamin D is converted in the liver and kidney to calcitriol and ultimately acts through these receptors.  
Proteins, usually found in the cytoplasm, that specifically bind calcitriol, migrate to the nucleus, and regulate transcription of specific segments of DNA with the participation of D receptor interacting proteins (called DRIP). Vitamin D is converted in the liver and kidney to calcitriol and ultimately acts through these receptors.  
 
 
 
 
* [[calcium-binding proteins]]
 
* [[calcium-binding proteins]]
 
+
Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF hand motifs.  
Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF hand motifs.  
 
 
 
 
* [[calcium channel blockers]]
 
* [[calcium channel blockers]]
 
+
A class of drugs that act by selective inhibition of calcium influx through cell membranes or on the release and binding of calcium in intracellular pools. Since they are inducers of vascular and other smooth muscle relaxation, they are used in the drug therapy of hypertension and cerebrovascular spasms, as myocardial protective agents, and in the relaxation of uterine spasms.  
A class of drugs that act by selective inhibition of calcium influx through cell membranes or on the release and binding of calcium in intracellular pools. Since they are inducers of vascular and other smooth muscle relaxation, they are used in the drug therapy of hypertension and cerebrovascular spasms, as myocardial protective agents, and in the relaxation of uterine spasms.  
 
 
 
 
* [[calcium citrate]]
 
* [[calcium citrate]]
 
+
A colorless crystalline or white powdery organic, tricarboxylic acid occurring in plants, especially citrus fruits, and used as a flavoring agent, as an antioxidant in foods, and as a sequestrating agent.  
A colorless crystalline or white powdery organic, tricarboxylic acid occurring in plants, especially citrus fruits, and used as a flavoring agent, as an antioxidant in foods, and as a sequestrating agent.  
 
 
 
 
* [[calcium compounds]]
 
* [[calcium compounds]]
 
+
Inorganic compounds that contain calcium as an integral part of the molecule.  
Inorganic compounds that contain calcium as an integral part of the molecule.  
 
 
 
 
* [[calcium gluconate]]
 
* [[calcium gluconate]]
 
+
The calcium salt of gluconic acid. The compound has a variety of uses, including its use as a calcium replenisher in hypocalcemic states.  
The calcium salt of gluconic acid. The compound has a variety of uses, including its use as a calcium replenisher in hypocalcemic states.  
 
 
 
 
* [[calcium ionophores]]
 
* [[calcium ionophores]]
 
+
Chemicals that increase the cell membranes permeability to calcium ions.  
Chemicals that increase the cell membranes permeability to calcium ions.  
 
 
 
 
* [[calcium receptors]]
 
* [[calcium receptors]]
 
+
A class of G-protein-coupled receptors that react to varying extracellular calcium levels. Calcium-sensing receptors in the parathyroid glands play an important role in the maintenance of calcium homeostasis by regulating the release of parathyroid hormone. They differ from intracellular calcium-sensing proteins which sense intracellular calcium levels.  
A class of G-protein-coupled receptors that react to varying extracellular calcium levels. Calcium-sensing receptors in the parathyroid glands play an important role in the maintenance of calcium homeostasis by regulating the release of parathyroid hormone. They differ from intracellular calcium-sensing proteins which sense intracellular calcium levels.  
 
 
 
 
* [[calcium signaling]]
 
* [[calcium signaling]]
 
+
Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.  
Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.  
 
 
 
 
* [[calculi]]
 
* [[calculi]]
 
+
An abnormal concretion occurring mostly in the urinary and biliary tracts, usually composed of mineral salts. Also called stones.  
An abnormal concretion occurring mostly in the urinary and biliary tracts, usually composed of mineral salts. Also called stones.  
 
 
 
 
* [[California mastitis test]]
 
* [[California mastitis test]]
 
+
It is a simple test to diagnose mastitis in lactating animals on the basis of somatic cell count in the milk.  
It is a simple test to diagnose mastitis in lactating animals on the basis of somatic cell count in the milk.  
 
 
 
 
* [[calorie balance]]
 
* [[calorie balance]]
 
+
The balance between calories consumed through eating and drinking and calories expended through physical activity and metabolic processes.  
The balance between calories consumed through eating and drinking and calories expended through physical activity and metabolic processes.  
 
 
 
 
* [[calorimetry]]
 
* [[calorimetry]]
 
+
The measurement of the quantity of heat involved in various processes, such as chemical reactions, changes of state, and formations of solutions, or in the determination of the heat capacities of substances. The fundamental unit of measurement is the joule or the calorie.  
The measurement of the quantity of heat involved in various processes, such as chemical reactions, changes of state, and formations of solutions, or in the determination of the heat capacities of substances. The fundamental unit of measurement is the joule or the calorie.  
 
 
 
 
* [[calves]]
 
* [[calves]]
 
+
Young mammals that have not reached sexual maturity, usually referring to domestic cattle, buffalos and other bovines, but also to elephants, camels, moose, giraffes, whales, seals and other species.  
Young mammals that have not reached sexual maturity, usually referring to domestic cattle, buffalos and other bovines, but also to elephants, camels, moose, giraffes, whales, seals and other species.  
 
 
 
 
* [[Calvin cycle]]
 
* [[Calvin cycle]]
 
+
A light-independent, biochemical reaction that uses ATP and NADPH to fix the carbon in six CO2 molecules to form one glucose molecule.  
A light-independent, biochemical reaction that uses ATP and NADPH to fix the carbon in six CO2 molecules to form one glucose molecule.  
 
 
 
 
* [[calving rate]]
 
* [[calving rate]]
 
+
The number of cows that calve divided by the number of cows mated, usually pertaining to the herd and not the number of matings for an individual.  
The number of cows that calve divided by the number of cows mated, usually pertaining to the herd and not the number of matings for an individual.  
 
 
 
 
* [[cambium]]
 
* [[cambium]]
 
+
A thin layer of tissue between the bark and wood that repeatedly subdivides to form new wood and bark cells.  
A thin layer of tissue between the bark and wood that repeatedly subdivides to form new wood and bark cells.  
 
 
 
 
* [[Campsis tagliabuana]]
 
* [[Campsis tagliabuana]]
 
+
Interspecific hybrid between Campsis grandiflora x Campsis radicans.  
Interspecific hybrid between Campsis grandiflora x Campsis radicans.  
 
 
 
 
* [[campylobacteriosis]]
 
* [[campylobacteriosis]]
 
+
A bacterial infection with organisms of the genus Campylobacter.  
A bacterial infection with organisms of the genus Campylobacter.  
 
 
 
 
* [[Canadian Shield]]
 
* [[Canadian Shield]]
 
+
The Precambrian nuclear mass centered in Hudson Bay around which, and to some extent upon which, the younger sedimentary rocks have been deposited.  
The Precambrian nuclear mass centered in Hudson Bay around which, and to some extent upon which, the younger sedimentary rocks have been deposited.  
 
 
 
 
* [[cancer vaccines]]
 
* [[cancer vaccines]]
 
+
Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent or treat cancer. Vaccines are produced using the patient's own whole tumor cells as the source of antigens, or using tumor-specific antigens, often recombinantly produced.  
Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent or treat cancer. Vaccines are produced using the patient's own whole tumor cells as the source of antigens, or using tumor-specific antigens, often recombinantly produced.  
 
 
 
 
* [[candicidin]]
 
* [[candicidin]]
 
+
Mixture of antifungal heptaene macrolides from Streptomyces griseus or Actinomyces levoris used topically in candidiasis. The antibiotic complex is composed of candicidins A, B, C, and D, of which D is the major component.  
Mixture of antifungal heptaene macrolides from Streptomyces griseus or Actinomyces levoris used topically in candidiasis. The antibiotic complex is composed of candicidins A, B, C, and D, of which D is the major component.  
 
 
 
 
* [[candidiasis]]
 
* [[candidiasis]]
 
+
Infection of humans or animals with a fungus of the genus Candida.  
Infection of humans or animals with a fungus of the genus Candida.  
 
 
 
 
* [[canes]]
 
* [[canes]]
 
+
Any hollow or pithy woody stems that are strong but flexible, such as bamboos, reeds, rattans, sugar cane, or raspberries.  
Any hollow or pithy woody stems that are strong but flexible, such as bamboos, reeds, rattans, sugar cane, or raspberries.  
 
 
 
 
* [[canine hip dysplasia]]
 
* [[canine hip dysplasia]]
 
+
A hereditary disease of the hip joints in dogs. Signs of the disease may be evident any time after 4 weeks of age.  
A hereditary disease of the hip joints in dogs. Signs of the disease may be evident any time after 4 weeks of age.  
 
 
 
 
* [[Canna generalis]]
 
* [[Canna generalis]]
 
+
A complex hybrid involving Canna indica and others.  
A complex hybrid involving Canna indica and others.  
 
 
 
 
* [[cannabinoid receptors]]
 
* [[cannabinoid receptors]]
 
+
A class of G-protein-coupled receptors that are specific for cannabinoids such as those derived from cannabis. They also bind a structurally distinct class of endogenous factors referred to as endocannabinoids. The receptor class may play a role in modulating the release of signaling molecules such as neurotransmitters and cytokines.  
A class of G-protein-coupled receptors that are specific for cannabinoids such as those derived from cannabis. They also bind a structurally distinct class of endogenous factors referred to as endocannabinoids. The receptor class may play a role in modulating the release of signaling molecules such as neurotransmitters and cytokines.  
 
 
 
 
* [[cannibalism]]
 
* [[cannibalism]]
 
+
Eating other individuals of one's own species.  
Eating other individuals of one's own species.  
 
 
 
 
* [[canola]]
 
* [[canola]]
 
+
A variety of rape which seed contains low levels of erucic acid and is high in monounsaturated fatty acids. Low levels of erucic acid make it safe for human consumption.  
A variety of rape which seed contains low levels of erucic acid and is high in monounsaturated fatty acids. Low levels of erucic acid make it safe for human consumption.  
 
 
 
 
* [[canopy]]
 
* [[canopy]]
 
+
The more or less continuous layer of vegetation formed by the foliage and branches of plants.  
The more or less continuous layer of vegetation formed by the foliage and branches of plants.  
 
 
 
 
* [[capacitance]]
 
* [[capacitance]]
 
+
The ability of a substrate to retain an electrical charge.  
The ability of a substrate to retain an electrical charge.  
 
 
 
 
* [[capacitors]]
 
* [[capacitors]]
 
+
Device for accumulating and holding a charge of electricity and consisting of conducting surfaces separated by a dielectric.  
Device for accumulating and holding a charge of electricity and consisting of conducting surfaces separated by a dielectric.  
 
 
 
 
* [[capillariasis]]
 
* [[capillariasis]]
 
+
A parasitic disease caused by infection with species of Capillaria  
A parasitic disease caused by infection with species of Capillaria  
 
 
 
 
* [[capillarity]]
 
* [[capillarity]]
 
+
A property of the surface of a liquid in contact with that of a solid, where the liquid's surface is raised or depressed due to the attraction of the molecules of the liquid for each other and for those of the solid. The combined forces of adhesion and cohesion are at play.  
A property of the surface of a liquid in contact with that of a solid, where the liquid's surface is raised or depressed due to the attraction of the molecules of the liquid for each other and for those of the solid. The combined forces of adhesion and cohesion are at play.  
 
 
 
 
* [[capillary fringe]]
 
* [[capillary fringe]]
 
+
The area of the saturated zone just above the water table in which water is held in the soil by surface tension and capillarity. The extent of saturation depends upon the pore size distribution of the soil.  
The area of the saturated zone just above the water table in which water is held in the soil by surface tension and capillarity. The extent of saturation depends upon the pore size distribution of the soil.  
 
 
 
 
* [[capital allocation]]
 
* [[capital allocation]]
 
+
The division of financial and other forms of capital resources to different processes, people and projects in an enterprise to optimize financial gain.  
The division of financial and other forms of capital resources to different processes, people and projects in an enterprise to optimize financial gain.  
 
 
 
 
* [[capital leases]]
 
* [[capital leases]]
 
+
A type of leasing contract in which the renter has temporary use of an asset and is considered as the owner of the asset.  
A type of leasing contract in which the renter has temporary use of an asset and is considered as the owner of the asset.  
 
 
 
 
* [[capons]]
 
* [[capons]]
 
+
Neutered male chickens.  
Neutered male chickens.  
 
 
 
 
* [[caprolactam]]
 
* [[caprolactam]]
 
+
Cyclic amide of caproic acid used in manufacture of synthetic fibers of the polyamide type. Can cause local irritation.  
Cyclic amide of caproic acid used in manufacture of synthetic fibers of the polyamide type. Can cause local irritation.  
 
 
 
 
* [[capsid]]
 
* [[capsid]]
 
+
The outer shell of a virus particle that encloses the viral genome.  
The outer shell of a virus particle that encloses the viral genome.  
 
 
 
 
* [[capsule endoscopy]]
 
* [[capsule endoscopy]]
 
+
Non-invasive, endoscopic imaging by use of video capsule endoscope to perform examination of the gastrointestinal tract, especially the small bowel.  
Non-invasive, endoscopic imaging by use of video capsule endoscope to perform examination of the gastrointestinal tract, especially the small bowel.  
 
 
 
 
* [[carbasugars]]
 
* [[carbasugars]]
 
+
Sugar analogs in which the ring oxygen is replaced by a methylene (CH2) carbon.  
Sugar analogs in which the ring oxygen is replaced by a methylene (CH2) carbon.  
 
 
 
 
* [[carbenicillin]]
 
* [[carbenicillin]]
 
+
Broad-spectrum semisynthetic penicillin derivative used parenterally. It is susceptible to gastric juice and penicillinase and may damage platelet function.  
Broad-spectrum semisynthetic penicillin derivative used parenterally. It is susceptible to gastric juice and penicillinase and may damage platelet function.  
 
 
 
 
* [[carbohydrate loading]]
 
* [[carbohydrate loading]]
 
+
Strategies used to maximize glycogen storage in muscle tissues by athletes to improve performance. It is also a strategy used in preoperative nutritional management to improve patient recovery.  
Strategies used to maximize glycogen storage in muscle tissues by athletes to improve performance. It is also a strategy used in preoperative nutritional management to improve patient recovery.  
 
 
 
 
* [[carbon cycle]]
 
* [[carbon cycle]]
 
+
The sequence of transformation undergone by carbon utilized by organisms wherein it is used by one organism, later liberated upon the death and decomposition of the organism, and returned to its original state to be reused by another organism.  
The sequence of transformation undergone by carbon utilized by organisms wherein it is used by one organism, later liberated upon the death and decomposition of the organism, and returned to its original state to be reused by another organism.  
 
 
 
 
* [[carbon dioxide enrichment]]
 
* [[carbon dioxide enrichment]]
 
+
Increasing the concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) to several times the normal atmospheric level.  
Increasing the concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) to several times the normal atmospheric level.  
 
 
 
 
* [[carbon farming]]
 
* [[carbon farming]]
 
+
A farming practice that sequester carbon.  
A farming practice that sequester carbon.  
 
 
 
 
* [[carbon footprint]]
 
* [[carbon footprint]]
 
+
A measure of the total set of greenhouse gas emissions, usually expressed in terms of the amount of carbon dioxide emissions (CO2 equivalent), that is directly and indirectly produced by the activities of individuals, households, populations, governments, businesses, organizations or service sectors, or accumulated over a product life cycle.  
A measure of the total set of greenhouse gas emissions, usually expressed in terms of the amount of carbon dioxide emissions (CO2 equivalent), that is directly and indirectly produced by the activities of individuals, households, populations, governments, businesses, organizations or service sectors, or accumulated over a product life cycle.  
 
 
 
 
* [[carbon markets]]
 
* [[carbon markets]]
 
+
An arena for carbon dioxide emissions trading, i.e. the buying and selling of emission allowances (credits or shares) and emission reductions for metric tons of carbon dioxide, or its equivalent in other greenhouse gases emitted into the atmosphere.  
An arena for carbon dioxide emissions trading, i.e. the buying and selling of emission allowances (credits or shares) and emission reductions for metric tons of carbon dioxide, or its equivalent in other greenhouse gases emitted into the atmosphere.  
 
 
 
 
* [[carbon monoxide poisoning]]
 
* [[carbon monoxide poisoning]]
 
+
Toxic asphyxiation due to the displacement of oxygen from oxyhemoglobin by carbon monoxide.  
Toxic asphyxiation due to the displacement of oxygen from oxyhemoglobin by carbon monoxide.  
 
 
 
 
* [[carbon nanotubes]]
 
* [[carbon nanotubes]]
 
+
Single- or multilayer nanotubes composed of cylindrical graphene sheets of bonded carbon atoms, and closed at either end with caps containing pentagonal rings. These nanotubes are single molecules typically measuring a few nanometers in diameter and several microns in length.  
Single- or multilayer nanotubes composed of cylindrical graphene sheets of bonded carbon atoms, and closed at either end with caps containing pentagonal rings. These nanotubes are single molecules typically measuring a few nanometers in diameter and several microns in length.  
 
 
 
 
* [[carbon radioisotopes]]
 
* [[carbon radioisotopes]]
 
+
Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.  
Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.  
 
 
 
 
* [[carbon sequestration]]
 
* [[carbon sequestration]]
 
+
The uptake and storage of carbon in a carbon sink, such as the oceans, or a terrestrial sink such as forests or soils, in order to keep the carbon out of the atmosphere.  
The uptake and storage of carbon in a carbon sink, such as the oceans, or a terrestrial sink such as forests or soils, in order to keep the carbon out of the atmosphere.  
 
 
 
 
* [[carbonated beverages]]
 
* [[carbonated beverages]]
 
+
Beverages, including water infused with gases, such as carbon dioxide.  
Beverages, including water infused with gases, such as carbon dioxide.  
 
 
 
 
* [[carbonization]]
 
* [[carbonization]]
 
+
The conversion of organic matter into carbon or carbonized materials in limited supply of air, by heating, burning, chemical treatment, or during fossilization.  
The conversion of organic matter into carbon or carbonized materials in limited supply of air, by heating, burning, chemical treatment, or during fossilization.  
 
 
 
 
* [[carboxymethylcellulose]]
 
* [[carboxymethylcellulose]]
 
+
A cellulose derivative which is a beta-(1,4)-D-glucopyranose polymer. It is used as a bulk laxative and as an emulsifier and thickener in cosmetics and pharmaceuticals and as a stabilizer for reagents.  
A cellulose derivative which is a beta-(1,4)-D-glucopyranose polymer. It is used as a bulk laxative and as an emulsifier and thickener in cosmetics and pharmaceuticals and as a stabilizer for reagents.  
 
 
 
 
* [[carcass weight]]
 
* [[carcass weight]]
 
+
The weight of an animal after slaughter and removal of most internal organs, head and skin.  
The weight of an animal after slaughter and removal of most internal organs, head and skin.  
 
 
 
 
* [[carcinogenesis]]
 
* [[carcinogenesis]]
 
+
The process by which normal cells are transformed into cancer cells.  
The process by which normal cells are transformed into cancer cells.  
 
 
 
 
* [[carcinogens]]
 
* [[carcinogens]]
 
+
Any agent that is capable of causing cancer in living tissue.  
Any agent that is capable of causing cancer in living tissue.  
 
 
 
 
* [[carcinosarcoma]]
 
* [[carcinosarcoma]]
 
+
A malignant neoplasm that contains elements of carcinoma and sarcoma so extensively intermixed as to indicate neoplasia of epithelial and mesenchymal tissue.  
A malignant neoplasm that contains elements of carcinoma and sarcoma so extensively intermixed as to indicate neoplasia of epithelial and mesenchymal tissue.  
 
 
 
 
* [[cardiac arrest]]
 
* [[cardiac arrest]]
 
+
Cessation of heart beat or myocardial contraction.  
Cessation of heart beat or myocardial contraction.  
 
 
 
 
* [[cardiac glycosides]]
 
* [[cardiac glycosides]]
 
+
Any of several glycosides obtained chiefly from plant sources such as the foxglove, used medicinally to increase the force of contraction of heart muscle and to regulate heartbeats.  
Any of several glycosides obtained chiefly from plant sources such as the foxglove, used medicinally to increase the force of contraction of heart muscle and to regulate heartbeats.  
 
 
 
 
* [[cardiac output]]
 
* [[cardiac output]]
 
+
The volume of blood passing through the heart per unit of time. It is usually expressed as liters (volume) per minute so as not to be confused with stroke volume (volume per beat).  
The volume of blood passing through the heart per unit of time. It is usually expressed as liters (volume) per minute so as not to be confused with stroke volume (volume per beat).  
 
 
 
 
* [[cardiolipins]]
 
* [[cardiolipins]]
 
+
Acidic phospholipids composed of two molecules of phosphatidic acid covalently linked to a molecule of glycerol. They occur primarily in mitochondrial inner membranes and in bacterial plasma membranes.  
Acidic phospholipids composed of two molecules of phosphatidic acid covalently linked to a molecule of glycerol. They occur primarily in mitochondrial inner membranes and in bacterial plasma membranes.  
 
 
 
 
* [[cardiomyopathy]]
 
* [[cardiomyopathy]]
 
+
A group of diseases in which the dominant feature is the involvement of the cardiac muscle itself.  
A group of diseases in which the dominant feature is the involvement of the cardiac muscle itself.  
 
 
 
 
* [[cardiorespiratory fitness]]
 
* [[cardiorespiratory fitness]]
 
+
A measure of the functional capabilities of the heart, lungs and muscles, relative to the demands of specific exercise routines such as running or cycling.  
A measure of the functional capabilities of the heart, lungs and muscles, relative to the demands of specific exercise routines such as running or cycling.  
 
 
 
 
* [[cardiotoxicity]]
 
* [[cardiotoxicity]]
 
+
Damage to the heart or its function secondary to exposure to toxic substances such as drugs used in chemotherapy; immunotherapy; or radiation.  
Damage to the heart or its function secondary to exposure to toxic substances such as drugs used in chemotherapy; immunotherapy; or radiation.  
 
 
 
 
* [[cardoons]]
 
* [[cardoons]]
 
+
A pale green vegetable that resembles celery and artichoke in flavor.  
A pale green vegetable that resembles celery and artichoke in flavor.  
 
 
 
 
* [[Caribbean]]
 
* [[Caribbean]]
 
+
The region including the Caribbean Sea, its islands, and the countries on its Central and/or South American coasts.  
The region including the Caribbean Sea, its islands, and the countries on its Central and/or South American coasts.  
 
 
 
 
* [[Caribbean Sea]]
 
* [[Caribbean Sea]]
 
+
The Caribbean Sea is located at 9 to 22ºN and 89 to 60ºW. The countries found to the south of the Caribbean Sea are Venezuela, Colombia, and Panama. The countries found to the west are Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Honduras, Guatemala, Belize, and the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico. The countries found to the north are the Greater Antilles Islands of Cuba, Hispaniola, Jamaica, and Puerto Rico. The Lesser Antilles Islands are found to the east.  
The Caribbean Sea is located at 9 to 22ºN and 89 to 60ºW. The countries found to the south of the Caribbean Sea are Venezuela, Colombia, and Panama. The countries found to the west are Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Honduras, Guatemala, Belize, and the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico. The countries found to the north are the Greater Antilles Islands of Cuba, Hispaniola, Jamaica, and Puerto Rico. The Lesser Antilles Islands are found to the east.  
 
 
 
 
* [[carnivores]]
 
* [[carnivores]]
 
+
An organism (plant or animal) that feeds on animal substances.  
An organism (plant or animal) that feeds on animal substances.  
 
 
 
 
* [[carpospores]]
 
* [[carpospores]]
 
+
Non-motile, diploid spores produced from the fertilized carpogonium in red algae (Rhodophyta).  
Non-motile, diploid spores produced from the fertilized carpogonium in red algae (Rhodophyta).  
 
 
 
 
* [[carposporogenesis]]
 
* [[carposporogenesis]]
 
+
The process of the production of diploid carpospores from carposporophyte.  
The process of the production of diploid carpospores from carposporophyte.  
 
 
 
 
* [[carrier state]]
 
* [[carrier state]]
 
+
The condition of harboring an infective organism without manifesting symptoms of infection. The organism must be readily transmissible to another susceptible host.  
The condition of harboring an infective organism without manifesting symptoms of infection. The organism must be readily transmissible to another susceptible host.  
 
 
 
 
* [[carrying capacity]]
 
* [[carrying capacity]]
 
+
The maximum population that may be sustained in an ecosystem or management unit without adverse effects to the environment.  
The maximum population that may be sustained in an ecosystem or management unit without adverse effects to the environment.  
 
 
 
 
* [[cartography]]
 
* [[cartography]]
 
+
The art, science and technology of mapmaking.  
The art, science and technology of mapmaking.  
 
 
 
 
* [[caryopsis]]
 
* [[caryopsis]]
 
+
The fruit of a grass; a grain. The seed and fruit are united, the seed adhering to the thin pericarp, or outer covering of the fruit, throughout.  
The fruit of a grass; a grain. The seed and fruit are united, the seed adhering to the thin pericarp, or outer covering of the fruit, throughout.  
 
 
 
 
* [[Cascade Mountain region]]
 
* [[Cascade Mountain region]]
 
+
Region in North America, extending from northeast California (north continuation of the Sierra Nevada Mountains) across Oregon and Washington. Its continuation into Canada is known as the Coast Mountains. Mount Rainier is the highest peak in the region.  
Region in North America, extending from northeast California (north continuation of the Sierra Nevada Mountains) across Oregon and Washington. Its continuation into Canada is known as the Coast Mountains. Mount Rainier is the highest peak in the region.  
 
 
 
 
* [[case-control studies]]
 
* [[case-control studies]]
 
+
An epidemiologic study contrasting those with the disease of interest (cases) to those without the disease (controls). The groups are then compared with respect to exposure history.  
An epidemiologic study contrasting those with the disease of interest (cases) to those without the disease (controls). The groups are then compared with respect to exposure history.  
 
 
 
 
* [[case studies]]
 
* [[case studies]]
 
+
An in-depth examination of a single instance or event.  
An in-depth examination of a single instance or event.  
 
 
 
 
* [[cash crops]]
 
* [[cash crops]]
 
+
An agricultural crop grown to provide revenue from an off-farm source.  
An agricultural crop grown to provide revenue from an off-farm source.  
 
 
 
 
* [[cash grain farms]]
 
* [[cash grain farms]]
 
+
A farm where corn, grain sorghum, small grains, soybeans, or field peas and beans account for at least 50% of the value of farm products sold.  
A farm where corn, grain sorghum, small grains, soybeans, or field peas and beans account for at least 50% of the value of farm products sold.  
 
 
 
 
* [[cash rents]]
 
* [[cash rents]]
 
+
Land or farm rents paid as a fixed amount of money, in contrast to renting for a share of the crop.  
Land or farm rents paid as a fixed amount of money, in contrast to renting for a share of the crop.  
 
 
 
 
* [[castration]]
 
* [[castration]]
 
+
The surgical removal or other physical destruction of the testes of a male animal, e.g. using elastrator bands on male lambs or piglets.  
The surgical removal or other physical destruction of the testes of a male animal, e.g. using elastrator bands on male lambs or piglets.  
 
 
 
 
* [[casts (medical)]]
 
* [[casts (medical)]]
 
+
Dressings made of fiberglass, plastic, or bandage impregnated with plaster of paris used for immobilization of various parts of the body in cases of fractures, dislocations, and infected wounds.  
Dressings made of fiberglass, plastic, or bandage impregnated with plaster of paris used for immobilization of various parts of the body in cases of fractures, dislocations, and infected wounds.  
 
 
 
 
* [[cat scratch disease]]
 
* [[cat scratch disease]]
 
+
A self-limiting bacterial infection of the regional lymph nodes caused by Afipia felis and Bartonella henselae. It usually arises one or more weeks following a feline scratch, with raised inflammatory nodules at the site of the scratch being the primary symptom.  
A self-limiting bacterial infection of the regional lymph nodes caused by Afipia felis and Bartonella henselae. It usually arises one or more weeks following a feline scratch, with raised inflammatory nodules at the site of the scratch being the primary symptom.  
 
 
 
 
* [[catabolite repression]]
 
* [[catabolite repression]]
 
+
Process by which micro-organisms adapt quickly to a preferred rapidly-metabolizable intermediate through the inhibition or repression of genes related to catabolism of less preferred source(s).  
Process by which micro-organisms adapt quickly to a preferred rapidly-metabolizable intermediate through the inhibition or repression of genes related to catabolism of less preferred source(s).  
 
 
 
 
* [[catadromous fish]]
 
* [[catadromous fish]]
 
+
Fish that migrate from freshwater to saltwater for reproduction.  
Fish that migrate from freshwater to saltwater for reproduction.  
 
 
 
 
* [[cataloging]]
 
* [[cataloging]]
 
+
Activities performed in the preparation of bibliographic records for catalog. It is carried out according to a set of rules and contains information enabling the user to know what is available and where items can be found.  
Activities performed in the preparation of bibliographic records for catalog. It is carried out according to a set of rules and contains information enabling the user to know what is available and where items can be found.  
 
 
 
 
* [[catalysts]]
 
* [[catalysts]]
 
+
A substance that initiates or changes the rate of chemical reaction but is not consumed or changed by the reaction.  
A substance that initiates or changes the rate of chemical reaction but is not consumed or changed by the reaction.  
 
 
 
 
* [[catalytic activity]]
 
* [[catalytic activity]]
 
+
An increase in the rate of a chemical reaction produced by the presence of a substance that is not consumed in the net chemical reaction.  
An increase in the rate of a chemical reaction produced by the presence of a substance that is not consumed in the net chemical reaction.  
 
 
 
 
* [[catalytic cracking]]
 
* [[catalytic cracking]]
 
+
The refining process of breaking down the larger, heavier, and more complex hydrocarbon molecules into simpler and lighter molecules. Catalytic cracking is accomplished by the use of a catalytic agent and is an effective process for increasing the yield of gasoline from crude oil.  
The refining process of breaking down the larger, heavier, and more complex hydrocarbon molecules into simpler and lighter molecules. Catalytic cracking is accomplished by the use of a catalytic agent and is an effective process for increasing the yield of gasoline from crude oil.  
 
 
 
 
* [[cataract]]
 
* [[cataract]]
 
+
Partial or complete opacity on or in the lens or capsule of one or both eyes, impairing vision or causing blindness.  
Partial or complete opacity on or in the lens or capsule of one or both eyes, impairing vision or causing blindness.  
 
 
 
 
* [[catch crops]]
 
* [[catch crops]]
 
+
A quick growing crop, planted and harvested between two regular crops.  
A quick growing crop, planted and harvested between two regular crops.  
 
 
 
 
* [[catenas]]
 
* [[catenas]]
 
+
A sequence of different soils, generally derived from similar parent soil material, each of which owes its character to its peculiar physiographic position.  
A sequence of different soils, generally derived from similar parent soil material, each of which owes its character to its peculiar physiographic position.  
 
 
 
 
* [[catenated DNA]]
 
* [[catenated DNA]]
 
+
Circular DNA that is interlaced together as links in a chain. It is used as an assay for the activity of DNA topoisomerases. Catenated DNA is attached loop to loop in contrast to concatenated DNA which is attached end to end.  
Circular DNA that is interlaced together as links in a chain. It is used as an assay for the activity of DNA topoisomerases. Catenated DNA is attached loop to loop in contrast to concatenated DNA which is attached end to end.  
 
 
 
 
* [[catenins]]
 
* [[catenins]]
 
+
A family of cytoskeletal proteins that play essential roles in cell adhesion at adherens junctions by linking cadherins to the actin filaments of the cytoskeleton.  
A family of cytoskeletal proteins that play essential roles in cell adhesion at adherens junctions by linking cadherins to the actin filaments of the cytoskeleton.  
 
 
 
 
* [[cathelicidins]]
 
* [[cathelicidins]]
 
+
Antimicrobial cationic peptides with a highly conserved amino terminal cathelin-like domain and a more variable carboxy terminal domain. They are initially synthesized as preproproteins and then cleaved. They are expressed in many tissues of humans and localized to epithelial cells. They kill nonviral pathogens by forming pores in membranes.  
Antimicrobial cationic peptides with a highly conserved amino terminal cathelin-like domain and a more variable carboxy terminal domain. They are initially synthesized as preproproteins and then cleaved. They are expressed in many tissues of humans and localized to epithelial cells. They kill nonviral pathogens by forming pores in membranes.  
 
 
 
 
* [[catheters]]
 
* [[catheters]]
 
+
A flexible, tubular device that is used to carry fluids into or from a blood vessel, hollow organ, or body cavity.  
A flexible, tubular device that is used to carry fluids into or from a blood vessel, hollow organ, or body cavity.  
 
 
 
 
* [[cathodes]]
 
* [[cathodes]]
 
+
The negative pole or electrode of an electrolytic cell or system. The cathode attracts positively charged particles or ions (cations).  
The negative pole or electrode of an electrolytic cell or system. The cathode attracts positively charged particles or ions (cations).  
 
 
 
 
* [[cation exchange]]
 
* [[cation exchange]]
 
+
Reversible chemical reaction between a solid, often one of the cation exchange resins, and a fluid whereby cations may be exchanged from one substance to another.  
Reversible chemical reaction between a solid, often one of the cation exchange resins, and a fluid whereby cations may be exchanged from one substance to another.  
 
 
 
 
* [[cation exchange capacity]]
 
* [[cation exchange capacity]]
 
+
The sum total of exchangeable cations that a soil can adsorb. Expressed in centimoles per kilogram of soil (or of other adsorbing material such as clay).  
The sum total of exchangeable cations that a soil can adsorb. Expressed in centimoles per kilogram of soil (or of other adsorbing material such as clay).  
 
 
 
 
* [[cation pumps]]
 
* [[cation pumps]]
 
+
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of positively charged molecules (cations) across a biological membrane.  
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of positively charged molecules (cations) across a biological membrane.  
 
 
 
 
* [[catkins]]
 
* [[catkins]]
 
+
A drooping elongated cluster of bracted unisexual flowers found only in woody plants.  
A drooping elongated cluster of bracted unisexual flowers found only in woody plants.  
 
 
 
 
* [[cattle cycle]]
 
* [[cattle cycle]]
 
+
The cattle cycle refers to a cyclical process where the size of cattle herd increases and decreases over time due to the biological constraints that delay cow-calf producers from responding to perceived changes in the profitability of cattle production. Thus, the total number of beef cattle in the United States is highly dependent on the stage in that cycle. In general, the cattle cycle is determined by the combined effects of cattle prices; the gestation period (the longest of all meat animals); the time needed for raising calves to market weight; and climatic conditions. If prices are expected to be high, producers slowly build up their herd sizes; if prices are expected to be low, producers reduce their herds by culling older cows and keeping fewer heifers to replace older cows or add to their herd. The cattle cycle averages 8-12 years in duration, but persistent dry conditions on pastures and harvested forage supplies can shorten or extend cycles.  
The cattle cycle refers to a cyclical process where the size of cattle herd increases and decreases over time due to the biological constraints that delay cow-calf producers from responding to perceived changes in the profitability of cattle production. Thus, the total number of beef cattle in the United States is highly dependent on the stage in that cycle. In general, the cattle cycle is determined by the combined effects of cattle prices; the gestation period (the longest of all meat animals); the time needed for raising calves to market weight; and climatic conditions. If prices are expected to be high, producers slowly build up their herd sizes; if prices are expected to be low, producers reduce their herds by culling older cows and keeping fewer heifers to replace older cows or add to their herd. The cattle cycle averages 8-12 years in duration, but persistent dry conditions on pastures and harvested forage supplies can shorten or extend cycles.  
 
 
 
 
* [[cattle diseases]]
 
* [[cattle diseases]]
 
+
Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos, including diseases of cows, yaks and zebus.  
Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos, including diseases of cows, yaks and zebus.  
 
 
 
 
* [[caudal cruciate ligament]]
 
* [[caudal cruciate ligament]]
 
+
A ligament which, along with the cranial cruciate ligament, provides stability to the stifle joint.  
A ligament which, along with the cranial cruciate ligament, provides stability to the stifle joint.  
 
 
 
 
* [[CCR1 receptor]]
 
* [[CCR1 receptor]]
 
+
Chemokine (C-C Motif) Receptor 1, encoded by the CCR1 gene, is a member of the beta chemokine receptor family and a seven transmembrane protein similar to G protein-coupled receptors. The ligands of this receptor include macrophage inflammatory protein 1 alpha (MIP-1 alpha), regulated on activation normal T expressed and secreted protein (RANTES), monocyte chemoattractant protein 3 (MCP-3), and myeloid progenitor inhibitory factor-1 (MPIF-1). Chemokines and their receptors mediated signal transduction are critical for the recruitment of effector immune cells (monocytes, macrophages, neutrophils and eosinophils) to the site of inflammation. This gene may have roles in host protection from inflammatory response, and susceptibility to virus and parasite.  
Chemokine (C-C Motif) Receptor 1, encoded by the CCR1 gene, is a member of the beta chemokine receptor family and a seven transmembrane protein similar to G protein-coupled receptors. The ligands of this receptor include macrophage inflammatory protein 1 alpha (MIP-1 alpha), regulated on activation normal T expressed and secreted protein (RANTES), monocyte chemoattractant protein 3 (MCP-3), and myeloid progenitor inhibitory factor-1 (MPIF-1). Chemokines and their receptors mediated signal transduction are critical for the recruitment of effector immune cells (monocytes, macrophages, neutrophils and eosinophils) to the site of inflammation. This gene may have roles in host protection from inflammatory response, and susceptibility to virus and parasite.  
 
 
 
 
* [[CCR10 receptor]]
 
* [[CCR10 receptor]]
 
+
CCR receptors with specificity for chemokine CCL27. They may play a specialized role in the cutaneous homing of lymphocytes.  
CCR receptors with specificity for chemokine CCL27. They may play a specialized role in the cutaneous homing of lymphocytes.  
 
 
 
 
* [[CCR2 receptor]]
 
* [[CCR2 receptor]]
 
+
C-C chemokine receptor type 2 is encoded by the human CCR2 gene. This protein plays a role in both cytokine binding and receptor signaling.  
C-C chemokine receptor type 2 is encoded by the human CCR2 gene. This protein plays a role in both cytokine binding and receptor signaling.  
 
 
 
 
* [[CCR3 receptor]]
 
* [[CCR3 receptor]]
 
+
CCR receptors with specificity for chemokine CCL11 and a variety of other CC chemokines. They are expressed at high levels in T-lymphocytes; eosinophils; basophils; and mast cells.  
CCR receptors with specificity for chemokine CCL11 and a variety of other CC chemokines. They are expressed at high levels in T-lymphocytes; eosinophils; basophils; and mast cells.  
 
 
 
 
* [[CCR4 receptor]]
 
* [[CCR4 receptor]]
 
+
CCR receptors with specificity for chemokine CCL17 and chemokine CCL22. They are expressed at high levels in T-lymphocytes; mast cells; dendritic cells; and NK cells.  
CCR receptors with specificity for chemokine CCL17 and chemokine CCL22. They are expressed at high levels in T-lymphocytes; mast cells; dendritic cells; and NK cells.  
 
 
 
 
* [[CCR5 receptor]]
 
* [[CCR5 receptor]]
 
+
CCR receptors with specificity for chemokine CCL3; chemokine CCL4; and chemokine CCL5. They are expressed at high levels in T-lymphocytes; B-lymphocytes; macrophages; mast cells; and NK cells. The CCR5 receptor is used by the Human immunodeficiency virus to infect cells.  
CCR receptors with specificity for chemokine CCL3; chemokine CCL4; and chemokine CCL5. They are expressed at high levels in T-lymphocytes; B-lymphocytes; macrophages; mast cells; and NK cells. The CCR5 receptor is used by the Human immunodeficiency virus to infect cells.  
 
 
 
 
* [[CCR6 receptor]]
 
* [[CCR6 receptor]]
 
+
CCR6 receptor is expressed by immature dendritic cells and memory T cells. The ligand of this receptor is macrophage inflammatory protein 3 alpha (MIP-3 alpha). This receptor has been shown to be important for B-lineage maturation and antigen-driven B-cell differentiation, and it may regulate the migration and recruitment of dentritic and T cells during inflammatory and immunological responses.  
CCR6 receptor is expressed by immature dendritic cells and memory T cells. The ligand of this receptor is macrophage inflammatory protein 3 alpha (MIP-3 alpha). This receptor has been shown to be important for B-lineage maturation and antigen-driven B-cell differentiation, and it may regulate the migration and recruitment of dentritic and T cells during inflammatory and immunological responses.  
 
 
 
 
* [[CCR7 receptor]]
 
* [[CCR7 receptor]]
 
+
This receptor is expressed in various lymphoid tissues and activates B and T lymphocytes. It has been shown to control the migration of memory T cells to inflamed tissues, as well as stimulate dendritic cell maturation. Signals mediated by this receptor regulate T cell homeostasis in lymph nodes, and may also function in the activation and polarization of T cells, and in chronic inflammation pathogenesis.  
This receptor is expressed in various lymphoid tissues and activates B and T lymphocytes. It has been shown to control the migration of memory T cells to inflamed tissues, as well as stimulate dendritic cell maturation. Signals mediated by this receptor regulate T cell homeostasis in lymph nodes, and may also function in the activation and polarization of T cells, and in chronic inflammation pathogenesis.  
 
 
 
 
* [[CCR8 receptor]]
 
* [[CCR8 receptor]]
 
+
This receptor protein preferentially expresses in the thymus. I-309, thymus activation-regulated cytokine (TARC) and macrophage inflammatory protein-1 beta (MIP-1 beta) have been identified as ligands of this receptor. Studies of this receptor and its ligands suggested its role in regulation of monocyte chemotaxis and thymic cell apoptosis. More specifically, this receptor may contribute to the proper positioning of activated T cells within the antigenic challenge sites and specialized areas of lymphoid tissues.  
This receptor protein preferentially expresses in the thymus. I-309, thymus activation-regulated cytokine (TARC) and macrophage inflammatory protein-1 beta (MIP-1 beta) have been identified as ligands of this receptor. Studies of this receptor and its ligands suggested its role in regulation of monocyte chemotaxis and thymic cell apoptosis. More specifically, this receptor may contribute to the proper positioning of activated T cells within the antigenic challenge sites and specialized areas of lymphoid tissues.  
 
 
 
 
* [[CCR9 receptor]]
 
* [[CCR9 receptor]]
 
+
CCR9 receptor is a member of the beta chemokine receptor family. It has been found that this gene is differentially expressed by T lymphocytes of small intestine and colon, suggested a role in the thymocytes recruitment and development that may permit functional specialization of immune responses in different segment of the gastrointestinal tract. The specific ligand of this receptor is CCL25.  
CCR9 receptor is a member of the beta chemokine receptor family. It has been found that this gene is differentially expressed by T lymphocytes of small intestine and colon, suggested a role in the thymocytes recruitment and development that may permit functional specialization of immune responses in different segment of the gastrointestinal tract. The specific ligand of this receptor is CCL25.  
 
 
 
 
* [[CD antigens]]
 
* [[CD antigens]]
 
+
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.  
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.  
 
 
 
 
* [[CD146 antigen]]
 
* [[CD146 antigen]]
 
+
A cell adhesion molecule of the immunoglobulin superfamily that is expressed in endothelial cells and is involved in intercellular junctions.  
A cell adhesion molecule of the immunoglobulin superfamily that is expressed in endothelial cells and is involved in intercellular junctions.  
 
 
 
 
* [[CD18 antigen]]
 
* [[CD18 antigen]]
 
+
Cell-surface glycoprotein beta-chains that are non-covalently linked to specific alpha-chains of the CD11 family of leukocyte-adhesion molecules (receptors, leukocyte-adhesion). A defect in the gene encoding CD18 causes leukocyte-adhesion deficiency syndrome.  
Cell-surface glycoprotein beta-chains that are non-covalently linked to specific alpha-chains of the CD11 family of leukocyte-adhesion molecules (receptors, leukocyte-adhesion). A defect in the gene encoding CD18 causes leukocyte-adhesion deficiency syndrome.  
 
 
 
 
* [[CD29 antigen]]
 
* [[CD29 antigen]]
 
+
Integrin beta-1 chains which are expressed as heterodimers that are noncovalently associated with specific alpha-chains of the CD49 family (CD49a-f). CD29 is expressed on resting and activated leukocytes and is a marker for all of the very late activation antigens on cells.  
Integrin beta-1 chains which are expressed as heterodimers that are noncovalently associated with specific alpha-chains of the CD49 family (CD49a-f). CD29 is expressed on resting and activated leukocytes and is a marker for all of the very late activation antigens on cells.  
 
 
 
 
* [[cDNA libraries]]
 
* [[cDNA libraries]]
 
+
Collections of cloned complementary DNA sequences synthesized from mRNA present in a cell or organism.  
Collections of cloned complementary DNA sequences synthesized from mRNA present in a cell or organism.  
 
 
 
 
* [[cecropins]]
 
* [[cecropins]]
 
+
Antimicrobial peptides that form channels in membranes that are more permeable to anions than cations. They resemble magainins, with their N-terminal region forming a positively charged amphipathic alpha helix, but containing an additional C-terminal segment.  
Antimicrobial peptides that form channels in membranes that are more permeable to anions than cations. They resemble magainins, with their N-terminal region forming a positively charged amphipathic alpha helix, but containing an additional C-terminal segment.  
 
 
 
 
* [[cefadroxil]]
 
* [[cefadroxil]]
 
+
Long-acting, broad-spectrum, water-soluble, cephalexin derivative.  
Long-acting, broad-spectrum, water-soluble, cephalexin derivative.  
 
 
 
 
* [[cefazolin]]
 
* [[cefazolin]]
 
+
A semisynthetic cephalosporin analog with broad-spectrum antibiotic action due to inhibition of bacterial cell wall synthesis. It attains high serum levels and is excreted quickly via the urine.  
A semisynthetic cephalosporin analog with broad-spectrum antibiotic action due to inhibition of bacterial cell wall synthesis. It attains high serum levels and is excreted quickly via the urine.  
 
 
 
 
* [[cefixime]]
 
* [[cefixime]]
 
+
A third-generation cephalosporin antibiotic that is stable to hydrolysis by beta-lactamases.  
A third-generation cephalosporin antibiotic that is stable to hydrolysis by beta-lactamases.  
 
 
 
 
* [[cefmetazole]]
 
* [[cefmetazole]]
 
+
A semisynthetic cephamycin antibiotic with a broad spectrum of activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms. It has a high rate of efficacy in many types of infection and to date no severe side effects have been noted.  
A semisynthetic cephamycin antibiotic with a broad spectrum of activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms. It has a high rate of efficacy in many types of infection and to date no severe side effects have been noted.  
 
 
 
 
* [[cefoperazone]]
 
* [[cefoperazone]]
 
+
Semisynthetic broad-spectrum cephalosporin with a tetrazolyl moiety that is resistant to beta-lactamase. It has been proposed especially against Pseudomonas infections.  
Semisynthetic broad-spectrum cephalosporin with a tetrazolyl moiety that is resistant to beta-lactamase. It has been proposed especially against Pseudomonas infections.  
 
 
 
 
* [[cefotetan]]
 
* [[cefotetan]]
 
+
A semisynthetic cephamycin antibiotic that is administered intravenously or intramuscularly. The drug is highly resistant to a broad spectrum of beta-lactamases and is active against a wide range of both aerobic and anaerobic gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms.  
A semisynthetic cephamycin antibiotic that is administered intravenously or intramuscularly. The drug is highly resistant to a broad spectrum of beta-lactamases and is active against a wide range of both aerobic and anaerobic gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms.  
 
 
 
 
* [[cefoxitin]]
 
* [[cefoxitin]]
 
+
A semisynthetic cephamycin antibiotic resistant to beta-lactamase.  
A semisynthetic cephamycin antibiotic resistant to beta-lactamase.  
 
 
 
 
* [[cefsulodin]]
 
* [[cefsulodin]]
 
+
A pyridinium-substituted semisynthetic, broad-spectrum antibacterial used especially for Pseudomonas infections in debilitated patients.  
A pyridinium-substituted semisynthetic, broad-spectrum antibacterial used especially for Pseudomonas infections in debilitated patients.  
 
 
 
 
* [[ceftazidime]]
 
* [[ceftazidime]]
 
+
Semisynthetic, broad-spectrum antibacterial derived from cephaloridine and used especially for Pseudomonas and other gram-negative infections in debilitated patients.  
Semisynthetic, broad-spectrum antibacterial derived from cephaloridine and used especially for Pseudomonas and other gram-negative infections in debilitated patients.  
 
 
 
 
* [[ceftriaxone]]
 
* [[ceftriaxone]]
 
+
A broad-spectrum cephalosporin antibiotic with a very long half-life and high penetrability to meninges, eyes and inner ears.  
A broad-spectrum cephalosporin antibiotic with a very long half-life and high penetrability to meninges, eyes and inner ears.  
 
 
 
 
* [[cefuroxime]]
 
* [[cefuroxime]]
 
+
Broad-spectrum cephalosporin antibiotic resistant to beta-lactamase. It has been proposed for infections with gram-negative and gram-positive organisms, Gonorrhea, and Haemophilus.  
Broad-spectrum cephalosporin antibiotic resistant to beta-lactamase. It has been proposed for infections with gram-negative and gram-positive organisms, Gonorrhea, and Haemophilus.  
 
 
 
 
* [[celiac disease]]
 
* [[celiac disease]]
 
+
A malabsorption syndrome that is precipitated by the ingestion of foods containing gluten, such as wheat, rye, and barley. It is characterized by inflammation of the small intestine, loss of microvilli structure, failed intestinal absorption, and malnutrition.  
A malabsorption syndrome that is precipitated by the ingestion of foods containing gluten, such as wheat, rye, and barley. It is characterized by inflammation of the small intestine, loss of microvilli structure, failed intestinal absorption, and malnutrition.  
 
 
 
 
* [[cell-matrix junctions]]
 
* [[cell-matrix junctions]]
 
+
Specialized areas at the cell membranes where a cell attaches to the extracellular matrix or other substratum.  
Specialized areas at the cell membranes where a cell attaches to the extracellular matrix or other substratum.  
 
 
 
 
* [[cell-mediated immunity]]
 
* [[cell-mediated immunity]]
 
+
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.  
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.  
 
 
 
 
* [[cell adhesion]]
 
* [[cell adhesion]]
 
+
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.  
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.  
 
 
 
 
* [[cell adhesion molecules]]
 
* [[cell adhesion molecules]]
 
+
Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.  
Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.  
 
 
 
 
* [[cell cleavage]]
 
* [[cell cleavage]]
 
+
the series of mitotic divisions of a single-celled zygote during the first stages of embryogenesis.  
the series of mitotic divisions of a single-celled zygote during the first stages of embryogenesis.  
 
 
 
 
* [[cell culture]]
 
* [[cell culture]]
 
+
A technique for maintaining and/or growing dispersed cells from original tissues, primary culture, cell lines or cell strains.  
A technique for maintaining and/or growing dispersed cells from original tissues, primary culture, cell lines or cell strains.  
 
 
 
 
* [[cell cycle checkpoints]]
 
* [[cell cycle checkpoints]]
 
+
Regulatory signaling systems that control the progression through the cell cycle. They ensure that the cell has completed, in the correct order and without mistakes, all the processes required to replicate the genome and cytoplasm, and divide them equally between two daughter cells. If cells sense they have not completed these processes or that the environment does not have the nutrients and growth hormones in place to proceed, then the cells are restrained (or "arrested") until the processes are completed and growth conditions are suitable.  
Regulatory signaling systems that control the progression through the cell cycle. They ensure that the cell has completed, in the correct order and without mistakes, all the processes required to replicate the genome and cytoplasm, and divide them equally between two daughter cells. If cells sense they have not completed these processes or that the environment does not have the nutrients and growth hormones in place to proceed, then the cells are restrained (or "arrested") until the processes are completed and growth conditions are suitable.  
 
 
 
 
* [[cell engineering]]
 
* [[cell engineering]]
 
+
Methods and techniques used to modify or select cells and develop conditions for growing cells for biosynthetic production of molecules (metabolic engineering), for generation of tissue structures and organs in vitro (tissue engineering), or for other bioengineering research objectives.  
Methods and techniques used to modify or select cells and develop conditions for growing cells for biosynthetic production of molecules (metabolic engineering), for generation of tissue structures and organs in vitro (tissue engineering), or for other bioengineering research objectives.  
 
 
 
 
* [[cell free system]]
 
* [[cell free system]]
 
+
A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology.  
A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology.  
 
 
 
 
* [[cell fusion]]
 
* [[cell fusion]]
 
+
Fusion of somatic cells in vitro or in vivo, which results in somatic cell hybridization.  
Fusion of somatic cells in vitro or in vivo, which results in somatic cell hybridization.  
 
 
 
 
* [[cell growth]]
 
* [[cell growth]]
 
+
Increase in cell size.  
Increase in cell size.  
 
 
 
 
* [[cell membrane structures]]
 
* [[cell membrane structures]]
 
+
Structures which are part of the cell membrane or have cell membrane as a major part of their structure.  
Structures which are part of the cell membrane or have cell membrane as a major part of their structure.  
 
 
 
 
* [[cell movement]]
 
* [[cell movement]]
 
+
The movement of cells from one location to another.  
The movement of cells from one location to another.  
 
 
 
 
* [[cell polarity]]
 
* [[cell polarity]]
 
+
Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.  
Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.  
 
 
 
 
* [[cell proliferation]]
 
* [[cell proliferation]]
 
+
Increase in cell number.  
Increase in cell number.  
 
 
 
 
* [[cell senescence]]
 
* [[cell senescence]]
 
+
The decrease in the cell's ability to proliferate with the passing of time. Each cell is programmed for a certain number of cell divisions and at the end of that time proliferation halts. The cell enters a quiescent state after which it experiences cell death via the process of apoptosis.  
The decrease in the cell's ability to proliferate with the passing of time. Each cell is programmed for a certain number of cell divisions and at the end of that time proliferation halts. The cell enters a quiescent state after which it experiences cell death via the process of apoptosis.  
 
 
 
 
* [[cell transplantation]]
 
* [[cell transplantation]]
 
+
Transference of cells within an individual, between individuals of the same species, or between individuals of different species.  
Transference of cells within an individual, between individuals of the same species, or between individuals of different species.  
 
 
 
 
* [[cell viability]]
 
* [[cell viability]]
 
+
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.  
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.  
 
 
 
 
* [[cell wall components]]
 
* [[cell wall components]]
 
+
The chemical composition and constituents of cell walls.  
The chemical composition and constituents of cell walls.  
 
 
 
 
* [[cellobiose]]
 
* [[cellobiose]]
 
+
A disaccharide consisting of two glucose units in beta (1-4) glycosidic linkage. Obtained from the partial hydrolysis of cellulose.  
A disaccharide consisting of two glucose units in beta (1-4) glycosidic linkage. Obtained from the partial hydrolysis of cellulose.  
 
 
 
 
* [[cellular agriculture]]
 
* [[cellular agriculture]]
 
+
The production of agricultural products (meat, milk, leather, eggs, gelatin, etc.) from cell cultures.  
The production of agricultural products (meat, milk, leather, eggs, gelatin, etc.) from cell cultures.  
 
 
 
 
* [[cellular microenvironment]]
 
* [[cellular microenvironment]]
 
+
Local surroundings with which cells interact by processing various chemical and physical signals, and by contributing their own effects to this environment.  
Local surroundings with which cells interact by processing various chemical and physical signals, and by contributing their own effects to this environment.  
 
 
 
 
* [[cellulose]]
 
* [[cellulose]]
 
+
The carbohydrate that is the principal constituent of wood and forms the framework of the wood cells.  
The carbohydrate that is the principal constituent of wood and forms the framework of the wood cells.  
 
 
 
 
* [[Census of Agriculture]]
 
* [[Census of Agriculture]]
 
+
A count taken every 5 years of the number of farms, land in farms, crop acreage and production, livestock numbers and production, farm expenses, farm facilities and equipment, farm tenure, value of farm products sold, farm size, type of farm, farm operator characteristics (age, race, sex), etc. Data are obtained for States and counties. USDA now administers the Census of Agriculture, which was previously done by the U.S. Bureau of the Census.  
A count taken every 5 years of the number of farms, land in farms, crop acreage and production, livestock numbers and production, farm expenses, farm facilities and equipment, farm tenure, value of farm products sold, farm size, type of farm, farm operator characteristics (age, race, sex), etc. Data are obtained for States and counties. USDA now administers the Census of Agriculture, which was previously done by the U.S. Bureau of the Census.  
 
 
 
 
* [[Centaurea stoebe subsp. micranthos]]
 
* [[Centaurea stoebe subsp. micranthos]]
 
+
A perennial weed which is polycarpic and tetraploid (2n=36) and is spread throughout North America and Europe. Contrast Centaurea stoebe subsp. stoebe.  
A perennial weed which is polycarpic and tetraploid (2n=36) and is spread throughout North America and Europe. Contrast Centaurea stoebe subsp. stoebe.  
 
 
 
 
* [[Centaurea stoebe subsp. stoebe]]
 
* [[Centaurea stoebe subsp. stoebe]]
 
+
A biennial weed which is monocarpic and diploid (2n=18) and which is native to Europe. Contrast Centaurea stoebe subsp. micranthos.  
A biennial weed which is monocarpic and diploid (2n=18) and which is native to Europe. Contrast Centaurea stoebe subsp. micranthos.  
 
 
 
 
* [[Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing]]
 
* [[Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing]]
 
+
CAAT promote humane science by supporting the creation, development, validation, and use of alternatives to animals in research, product safety testing, and education.  
CAAT promote humane science by supporting the creation, development, validation, and use of alternatives to animals in research, product safety testing, and education.  
 
 
 
 
* [[center of gravity]]
 
* [[center of gravity]]
 
+
The point at which the total weight of a body or system can be considered to be concentrated. At center of gravity, the weight of the body or system is evenly balanced.  
The point at which the total weight of a body or system can be considered to be concentrated. At center of gravity, the weight of the body or system is evenly balanced.  
 
 
 
 
* [[center pivot irrigation]]
 
* [[center pivot irrigation]]
 
+
A self-propelled irrigation system in which a single pipeline supported on towers rotates around a central point. These systems are typically about onequarter mile long and serve 128 to 132 acre circular fields.  
A self-propelled irrigation system in which a single pipeline supported on towers rotates around a central point. These systems are typically about onequarter mile long and serve 128 to 132 acre circular fields.  
 
 
 
 
* [[Central Valley of California]]
 
* [[Central Valley of California]]
 
+
The large fertile region in the interior of California that lies between the coastal mountains and the Sierra Nevada moutain range.  
The large fertile region in the interior of California that lies between the coastal mountains and the Sierra Nevada moutain range.  
 
 
 
 
* [[central venous catheters]]
 
* [[central venous catheters]]
 
+
Catheters that are inserted into a large central vein such as a subclavian vein or femoral vein.  
Catheters that are inserted into a large central vein such as a subclavian vein or femoral vein.  
 
 
 
 
* [[centrally planned economy]]
 
* [[centrally planned economy]]
 
+
An economic system in which the economy is directed and administered by its government.  
An economic system in which the economy is directed and administered by its government.  
 
 
 
 
* [[cephacetrile]]
 
* [[cephacetrile]]
 
+
A derivative of 7-aminocephalosporanic acid.  
A derivative of 7-aminocephalosporanic acid.  
 
 
 
 
* [[cephalexin]]
 
* [[cephalexin]]
 
+
A semisynthetic cephalosporin antibiotic with antimicrobial activity similar to that of cephaloridine or cephalothin, but somewhat less potent. It is effective against both gram-positive and gram-negative organisms.  
A semisynthetic cephalosporin antibiotic with antimicrobial activity similar to that of cephaloridine or cephalothin, but somewhat less potent. It is effective against both gram-positive and gram-negative organisms.  
 
 
 
 
* [[cephalometry]]
 
* [[cephalometry]]
 
+
The measurement of the dimensions of the head.  
The measurement of the dimensions of the head.  
 
 
 
 
* [[cephaloridine]]
 
* [[cephaloridine]]
 
+
A cephalosporin antibiotic.  
A cephalosporin antibiotic.  
 
 
 
 
* [[cephamycins]]
 
* [[cephamycins]]
 
+
Naturally occurring family of beta-lactam cephalosporin-type antibiotics having a 7-methoxy group and possessing marked resistance to the action of beta-lactamases from gram-positive and gram-negative organisms.  
Naturally occurring family of beta-lactam cephalosporin-type antibiotics having a 7-methoxy group and possessing marked resistance to the action of beta-lactamases from gram-positive and gram-negative organisms.  
 
 
 
 
* [[cephapirin]]
 
* [[cephapirin]]
 
+
Cephalosporin antibiotic, partly plasma-bound, that is effective against gram-negative and gram-positive organisms.  
Cephalosporin antibiotic, partly plasma-bound, that is effective against gram-negative and gram-positive organisms.  
 
 
 
 
* [[ceralure]]
 
* [[ceralure]]
 
+
A synthetic attractant for Mediterranean fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata.  
A synthetic attractant for Mediterranean fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata.  
 
 
 
 
* [[cerebrovascular disorders]]
 
* [[cerebrovascular disorders]]
 
+
A spectrum of pathological conditions of impaired blood flow in the brain. They can involve vessels (arteries; or veins) in the cerebrum, the cerebellum, and the brain stem.  
A spectrum of pathological conditions of impaired blood flow in the brain. They can involve vessels (arteries; or veins) in the cerebrum, the cerebellum, and the brain stem.  
 
 
 
 
* [[cerrado]]
 
* [[cerrado]]
 
+
A type of plains community characterized by a mosaic of vegetation ranging from tropical broadleaf woodlands to scrublands to savannas, with a pronounced dry season. The second largest of Brazil's major biomes (after Amazonia), it spreads across the central plateau and comprises 21% of Brazil's land area.  
A type of plains community characterized by a mosaic of vegetation ranging from tropical broadleaf woodlands to scrublands to savannas, with a pronounced dry season. The second largest of Brazil's major biomes (after Amazonia), it spreads across the central plateau and comprises 21% of Brazil's land area.  
 
 
 
 
* [[certification]]
 
* [[certification]]
 
+
Documentation from an authoritative body that confirms that a product, process, service, person or organization has characteristics that meet a certain standard or requirement.  
Documentation from an authoritative body that confirms that a product, process, service, person or organization has characteristics that meet a certain standard or requirement.  
 
 
 
 
* [[certification (education)]]
 
* [[certification (education)]]
 
+
Receipt of documentation of the completion of a course of study which does not lead to a diploma.  
Receipt of documentation of the completion of a course of study which does not lead to a diploma.  
 
 
 
 
* [[cerulenin]]
 
* [[cerulenin]]
 
+
An epoxydodecadienamide isolated from several species, including Acremonium, Acrocylindrum, and Helicoceras. It inhibits the biosynthesis of several lipids by interfering with enzyme function.  
An epoxydodecadienamide isolated from several species, including Acremonium, Acrocylindrum, and Helicoceras. It inhibits the biosynthesis of several lipids by interfering with enzyme function.  
 
 
 
 
* [[cervical ripening]]
 
* [[cervical ripening]]
 
+
A change in the cervix uteri with respect to its readiness to relax. The cervix normally becomes softer, more flexible, more distensible, and shorter in the final weeks of pregnancy. These cervical changes can also be chemically induced (labor, induced).  
A change in the cervix uteri with respect to its readiness to relax. The cervix normally becomes softer, more flexible, more distensible, and shorter in the final weeks of pregnancy. These cervical changes can also be chemically induced (labor, induced).  
 
 
 
 
* [[cervical spine]]
 
* [[cervical spine]]
 
+
The neck region of the spinal column, consisting of seven cervical vertebrae.  
The neck region of the spinal column, consisting of seven cervical vertebrae.  
 
 
 
 
* [[chaff]]
 
* [[chaff]]
 
+
Seed coverings separated from cereal grains after threshing, together with other stem or leaf debris from the process.  
Seed coverings separated from cereal grains after threshing, together with other stem or leaf debris from the process.  
 
 
 
 
* [[chamaephytes]]
 
* [[chamaephytes]]
 
+
One of Raunkiaer's life-form categories, woody plants whose perennating buds are borne close to the ground, no more than 25 cm above the soil level.  
One of Raunkiaer's life-form categories, woody plants whose perennating buds are borne close to the ground, no more than 25 cm above the soil level.  
 
 
 
 
* [[champagne]]
 
* [[champagne]]
 
+
A type of sparkling wine which derives its effervescence solely from the secondary fermentation of the wine within glass containers of not greater than one gallon capacity, and which possesses the taste, aroma, and other characteristics attributed to champagne as made in the champagne district of France.  
A type of sparkling wine which derives its effervescence solely from the secondary fermentation of the wine within glass containers of not greater than one gallon capacity, and which possesses the taste, aroma, and other characteristics attributed to champagne as made in the champagne district of France.  
 
 
 
 
* [[chaparral]]
 
* [[chaparral]]
 
+
Low, dense growth of shrubby vegetation or stunted and dwarf trees in arid and semi-arid regions of the southwestern U.S. The coast range foothills of California are characterized by Atriplex canescens (four-wing saltbush), Ceanothus spp., and Arctostaphylos spp. (manzanita). In other places, dense thickets of Prosopis spp. (mesquite) and thickets of oaks may be called chaparral.  
Low, dense growth of shrubby vegetation or stunted and dwarf trees in arid and semi-arid regions of the southwestern U.S. The coast range foothills of California are characterized by Atriplex canescens (four-wing saltbush), Ceanothus spp., and Arctostaphylos spp. (manzanita). In other places, dense thickets of Prosopis spp. (mesquite) and thickets of oaks may be called chaparral.  
 
 
 
 
* [[chard]]
 
* [[chard]]
 
+
A green, leafy vegetable used for salads from the beet, Beta vulgaris subsp. vulgaris.  
A green, leafy vegetable used for salads from the beet, Beta vulgaris subsp. vulgaris.  
 
 
 
 
* [[chasmophytes]]
 
* [[chasmophytes]]
 
+
Plants rooted in clefts or crevices of rocks, that are filled with soil or organic matter.  
Plants rooted in clefts or crevices of rocks, that are filled with soil or organic matter.  
 
 
 
 
* [[check-off programs]]
 
* [[check-off programs]]
 
+
Generic research and commodity promotion programs for farm products that are financed by assessments applied to sales of those products by producers, importers or others in the industry.  
Generic research and commodity promotion programs for farm products that are financed by assessments applied to sales of those products by producers, importers or others in the industry.  
 
 
 
 
* [[cheese milk]]
 
* [[cheese milk]]
 
+
Milk that is suitable for cheesemaking.  
Milk that is suitable for cheesemaking.  
 
 
 
 
* [[chemical bonding]]
 
* [[chemical bonding]]
 
+
A chemical bond is formed by sharing or exchanging of electrons by two or more atomic nuclei.  
A chemical bond is formed by sharing or exchanging of electrons by two or more atomic nuclei.  
 
 
 
 
* [[chemical concentration]]
 
* [[chemical concentration]]
 
+
A measure of the amount of substance present in a unit amount of mixture or solution. The amounts can be expressed as moles, grams, or volumes.  
A measure of the amount of substance present in a unit amount of mixture or solution. The amounts can be expressed as moles, grams, or volumes.  
 
 
 
 
* [[chemical degradation]]
 
* [[chemical degradation]]
 
+
The degradation of a substance by a chemical agent or energy source such as light, heat, or electricity.  
The degradation of a substance by a chemical agent or energy source such as light, heat, or electricity.  
 
 
 
 
* [[chemical derivatives]]
 
* [[chemical derivatives]]
 
+
Compounds derived from a parent compound by a chemical reaction, and having similar chemical structure.  
Compounds derived from a parent compound by a chemical reaction, and having similar chemical structure.  
 
 
 
 
* [[chemical etching]]
 
* [[chemical etching]]
 
+
Any step in the chemical milling or etching processes in which metal is chemically or electrochemically removed from the work piece and which is followed by a rinse; this includes related metal cleaning operations which preceded chemical milling or etching, when each operation is followed by a rinse.  
Any step in the chemical milling or etching processes in which metal is chemically or electrochemically removed from the work piece and which is followed by a rinse; this includes related metal cleaning operations which preceded chemical milling or etching, when each operation is followed by a rinse.  
 
 
 
 
* [[chemical hazards]]
 
* [[chemical hazards]]
 
+
Any chemical manufactured, used, transported, or stored which can cause death or other harm through toxic properties of those materials.  
Any chemical manufactured, used, transported, or stored which can cause death or other harm through toxic properties of those materials.  
 
 
 
 
* [[chemical oxygen demand]]
 
* [[chemical oxygen demand]]
 
+
A measure of the amount of a water body's dissolved oxygen supply that would be used up in completely oxidizing added inorganic oxidizable compounds-such as in the oxidation of ammonia to nitrate. Biological oxygen demand (BOD) tests can only measure the biodegradable fraction of the total potential dissolved oxygen consumption by added wastes; however, COD tests may be used to measure the oxygen demand created by toxic organic or inorganic compounds as well as by biodegradable substances. A standard COD test, therefore, can be used to evaluate many industrial type wastes not readily analyzed for water quality factors by the sewage-oriented BOD test.  
A measure of the amount of a water body's dissolved oxygen supply that would be used up in completely oxidizing added inorganic oxidizable compounds-such as in the oxidation of ammonia to nitrate. Biological oxygen demand (BOD) tests can only measure the biodegradable fraction of the total potential dissolved oxygen consumption by added wastes; however, COD tests may be used to measure the oxygen demand created by toxic organic or inorganic compounds as well as by biodegradable substances. A standard COD test, therefore, can be used to evaluate many industrial type wastes not readily analyzed for water quality factors by the sewage-oriented BOD test.  
 
 
 
 
* [[chemical precipitation]]
 
* [[chemical precipitation]]
 
+
The process of producing a separable solid phase wi