Glossary of Microbiology

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sequencing technique in which fragmented DNA has

pharyngitis; comorbidities include arthritis and

enzyme’s allosteric site, increasing the affinity of the

DNA adapters attached, is amplified by PCR, is


enzyme’s active site for the substrate(s)

attached to a bead, and then placed into a well with

sequencing reagents, and the flash of light produced

produced by liver cells in response to pathogen-

the active site, to which molecules can bind,

by the release of pyrophosphate on addition of a

induced stimulation events

regulating enzyme activity

nucleotide is monitored

  • acyclovir antiviral guanosine analog; inhibits DNA
  • 5’ cap methylguanosine nucleotide added to 5’ end


ergosterol biosynthesis at an early point in the

of a eukaryotic primary transcript


by specificity and memory


are all oligotrophs

adrenal gland function

  • alveoli cul-de-sacs or small air pockets within the

composed of 60S and 40S subunits

lung that facilitate gas exchange

  • adenine purine nitrogenous base found in


  • amantadine antiviral drug that targets the influenza

virus by preventing viral escape from endosomes

upon host cell uptake, thus preventing viral RNA

and relative of ATP containing only one high-energy

release and subsequent viral replication

phosphate bond

  • α-helix secondary structure consisting of a helix

stabilized by hydrogen bonds between nearby amino

population harms the other but remains unaffected

acid residues in a polypeptide

molecule bonded to a ribose molecule and to a single


phosphate group, having no high-energy phosphate


  • Ames test method that uses auxotrophic bacteria to

ribosome that binds incoming charged aminoacyl

detect mutations resulting from exposure to


potentially mutagenic chemical compounds

the cell; a nucleotide derivative that safely stores

chemical energy in its two high-energy phosphate

subunits, which enter the cell and disrupt cellular


atom, a carboxyl group, and an amine group bonded

activities, and B subunits, which bind to host cell

to the same carbon. The group bonded to the carbon


  • adhesins molecules on the surface of pathogens that

varies and is represented by an R in the structural

promote colonization of host tissue


antigens found on the surface of red blood cells; the

  • adhesion the capability of microbes to attach to host

presence or absence of specific carbohydrates


tRNA molecule and catalyzes the addition of the

determining blood type

correct amino acid to the tRNA

the final electron acceptor of the electron transport

a photon and vibrates or stretches, using the energy


bind to the 30S subunit and interfere with the

ribosome’s proofreading ability, leading to the

by damage to the cornea and possible blindness

oxygen but tolerates its presence

generation of faulty proteins that insert into and

caused by parasitic infection of the protozoan

disrupt the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane


by which B cells, upon re-exposure to antigen, are

selected to produce higher affinity antibodies

Entamoeba histolytica

  • affinity measure of how tightly an antibody-binding

site binds to its epitope

infection caused by Entamoeba histolytica,

have waxy mycolic acids in their gram-positive cell

characterized by severe diarrhea with blood and



Aspergillus flavus; both a toxin and the most potent

known natural carcinogen

that attaches to positively charged structures

nonpolar parts


near 3.0

multiple flagella, with one flagellum or tuft located

  • acne a skin disease in which hair follicles or pores

populations of DNA molecules of varying sizes by

at each end of the bacterial cell

become clogged, leading to the formation of

differential migration rates caused by a voltage

comedones and infected lesions

gradient through a horizontal gel matrix

that is used to treat several systemic fungal


disease caused by HIV, characterized by

Fab regions of the same antibody to aggregate and

opportunistic infections and rare cancers

enhance elimination from body

  • actin a protein that polymerizes to form
  • anabolism chemical reactions that convert simpler



molecules into more complex ones

  • alarmone small intracellular derivative of a

chemical bonds and convert a reactant or reactants to

handle and grow obligate anaerobic cultures

nucleotide that signals a global bacterial response

a product or products

(i.e., activating a regulon of operons) to an

  • activator protein that increases the transcription of a

environmental stress

grow obligate anaerobes

gene in response to an external stimulus

benzimidazole class that binds to helminthic β-

inorganic molecule, like CO2, nitrate, nitrite,

transmit the pathogen to others regardless of whether

tubulin, preventing microtubule formation

oxidized iron, or sulfate, as the final electron

symptoms are currently present

  • algae (singular: alga) any of various unicellular and

acceptor at the end of the electron transport system

multicellular photosynthetic eukaryotic organisms;

immune responses

distinguished from plants by their lack of vascular

to establish associations between an agent and a

tissues and organs

disease state through observational studies

comparing groups of individuals

substrate(s) bind

above 9.0

that develops and progresses in a predictable pattern

chemical that acts by replacing a hydrogen atom

threatening type I hypersensitivity reaction

within a molecule with an alkyl group, thereby

glomeruli of the kidney, probably resulting from

inactivating enzymes and nucleic acids

  • anergy peripheral tolerance mechanism that

deposition of immune complexes and an

prevents self-reactive T cells from being activated by

autoimmune response caused by self-antigen

  • allergen antigen capable of inducing type I

self-antigens through lack of co-stimulation

mimicry by a pathogen

hypersensitivity reaction

  • annealing formation of hydrogen bonds between the
  • allergy hypersensitivity response to an allergen

nucleotide base pairs of two single-stranded

form of gingivitis, also called trench mouth

complementary nucleic acid sequences

  • allograft transplanted tissue from an individual of

the same species that is genetically different from the

middle ear resulting from a microbial infection



Appendix E

  • arbovirus any of a variety of viruses that are
  • avidity strength of the sum of the interactions

found in many photosynthetic bacteria, including the

transmitted by arthropod vectors

between an antibody and antigen

purple and green bacteria, where an electron donor

  • archaea any of various unicellular prokaryotic
  • axon long projection of a neuron along which an

other than H2O is used to replace an electron lost by

microorganisms, typically having cell walls

electrochemical signal is transmitted

a reaction center pigment, resulting no oxygen

containing pseudopeptidoglycan


  • Archaea domain of life separate from the domains

increased spectrum of activity, decreased toxicity,

  • anthrax a disease caused by Bacillus anthracis; the

Bacteria and Eukarya

and increased half-life compared with erythromycin

cutaneous form causes a skin lesion to develop;

gastrointestinal and inhalation anthrax have high

mortality rates

effective against malaria that is thought to increase

intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species in

target microbes

susceptibilities recorded for local bacterial strains,

which is useful for monitoring local trends in

  • artery large, thick-walled vessel that carries blood

antimicrobial resistance and aiding the prescription

from the heart to the body tissues

cleave the β-lactam ring of susceptible β-lactam

of appropriate empiric antibacterial therapy

antimicrobials, rendering them inactive and

conferring resistance

develops after antibiotic treatment as a result of

  • β-lactams group of antimicrobials that inhibit cell

disruption to the normal microbiota; C. difficile is a

through exposure to pathogens and pathogen

wall synthesis; includes the penicillins,

particularly serious example

antigens through a method other than natural

cephalosporins, carbapenems, and monobactams;


inhibits the transpeptidase cross-linking activity of

blood recipient has not produced antibodies to

penicillin-binding proteins

antigens other than the ABO and Rh antigens

produced by a donor to another individual for the

purpose of preventing or treating disease

sequentially removes two-carbon acetyl groups,

  • antibody Y-shaped glycoprotein molecule produced

by B cells that binds to specific epitopes on an

  • ascariasis soil-transmitted intestinal infection caused

producing NADH and FADH2, on entry into the


by the large nematode roundworm Ascaris

Krebs cycle


  • (ADCC) mechanism by which large pathogens are

pleats formed by hydrogen bonds between localized

marked for destruction by specific antibodies and

ascomycete fungus

segments of amino acid residues on the backbone of

then killed by secretion of cytotoxins by natural

the polypeptide chain

  • ascospore asexual spore produced by ascomycete

killer cells, macrophages, or eosinophils


  • anticodon three-nucleotide sequence of a mature

IgM antibody that bind specific antigen epitopes

  • ascus structure of ascomycete fungi containing

with Fab antigen-binding region

tRNA that interacts with an mRNA codon through


complementary base pairing

  • asepsis sterile state resulting from proper use of

immunity; B cell

microbial control protocols

stimulates an adaptive immune response

  • babesiosis tickborne protozoan infection caused by
  • antigenic able to stimulate an adaptive immune

Babesia spp. and characterized by malaise, fatigue,

prevent microbial contamination of sterile objects,

fever, headache, myalgia, and joint pain


locations, or tissues

by Shigella bacteria, also called shigellosis

occurs because of point mutations in the genes that

Aspergillus; immunocompromised patients are

encode surface proteins

primarily at risk

  • bacillus (bacilli) rod-shaped prokaryotic cell
  • bacitracin group of structurally similar peptides that

that occurs because of gene reassortment

exhibits no signs or symptoms of disease yet is

block the movement of peptidoglycan precursors

capable of transmitting the pathogen to others

across the cell membrane, inhibiting peptidoglycan

(carbohydrates or proteins) such that they are no


longer recognized by the host’s immune system


bacteria in the blood

dendritic cells, and B cells that process and present

microscope that uses a thin probe that is passed just

  • bacteria (singular: bacterium) any of various

foreign pathogen antigens for the purpose of

above the specimen to measure forces between the

unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms typically

activating T cells and adaptive immune defenses

atoms and the probe

(but not always) having cell wells that contain


inhibitors for bacterial metabolic enzymes

harnesses the energy of the proton motive force by

allowing hydrogen ions to diffuse down their

on an agar plate

including naturally produced drugs, semisynthetic

electrochemical gradient, causing components of this

derivatives, and synthetic compounds, that target

protein to spin, making ATP from ADP and Pi

specific microbial structures and enzymes, killing

in an inflammation of the meninges

  • attachment binding of phage or virus to host cell

specific microbes or inhibiting their growth


overgrowth of bacteria in the vagina that may or may

not cause symptoms

nonspecific, cell-derived chemical mediators with

whereby secondary stem-loop structures formed

broad-spectrum antimicrobial properties

within the 5’ end of an mRNA being transcribed

determine both if transcription to complete the

ability to divide

opposite directions; one strand is oriented in the 5’ to

synthesis of this mRNA will occur and if this mRNA

3’ direction, while the other is oriented in the 3’ to 5’

will be used for translation



  • autoclave specialized device for the moist-heat

sterilization of materials through the application of

pigments of bacteria; they are similar to chlorophyll

that inhibit gene expression by binding to mRNA

pressure to steam, allowing the steam to reach

of plants

transcripts via complementary base pairing

temperatures above the boiling point of water

DNA; the strand that is transcribed for gene

released from a cell to a receptor on its own surface


  • autograft tissue transplanted from a location on an
  • antisepsis protocol that removes potential pathogens

individual to a different location on the same

from living tissue


growth, generally by means of chemical or physical

treatment; reversible inhibition of a microbe’s ability

  • antiseptic antimicrobial chemical that can be used

to divide

safely on living tissue

resulting in immune-mediated destruction of self

cells and tissues

atmospheric pressure

containing antibodies against a particular antigen

that was artificially introduced to the animal

bacterial cell that can modify the activity of

surrounding cells; associated with quorum sensing

cilium composed of nine microtubule triplets and

attaches the flagellum or cilium to the cell


photographic image from radioactive decay; in

  • apoptosis programmed and organized cell death

present in a nucleic acid strand and their order within

molecular genetics the method allows the

without lysis of the cell

visualization of radioactively-labeled DNA probes

the strand

that have hybridized to a nucleic acid sample

  • basic dye a chromophore with a positive charge that

brain that produces cerebrospinal fluid

  • autotroph organism that converts inorganic carbon

attaches to negatively charged structures

dioxide into organic carbon

borne virus that results in an inflammation of the

structures of basidiomycete fungi where

  • auxotroph nutritional mutant with a loss-of-function


basidiospores are produced

mutation in a gene encoding the biosynthesis of a

specific nutrient such as an amino acid

This OpenStax book is available for free at

Appendix E


microscope with two lenses; it produces a dark

which a group of affected individuals are compared,

image on a bright background

usually retrospectively, to a similar group of

in basidiomycete fungi

unaffected individuals

  • basophils leukocytes with granules containing

many different types of microbes

histamine and other chemicals that facilitate allergic

  • bronchi major air passages leading to the lungs after

responses and inflammation when released

the presence of low levels of glucose, binds to the

bifurcating at the windpipe

promoters of operons that control the processing of

alternative sugars

bind to helminthic β-tubulin, preventing microtubule

are formed as the bronchi become further subdivided


complex molecules into simpler ones

all eutrophs

of operons encoding enzymes for the use of

the genus Brucella that results in undulant fever

substrates other than glucose when glucose levels are

reproduction in which one cell divides into two

  • bubo swollen, inflamed lymph node that forms as a


daughter cells of equal size, which separate, each

result of a microbial infection

offspring receiving a complete copy of the parental

  • catalase enzyme that breaks down hydrogen


peroxide to water and oxygen

humans, marked by the presence of swollen lymph

  • catalyst molecule that increases the rate of a

nodes (buboes)

chemical reaction but is not used or changed during

  • budding unequal reproductive division in which a

the chemical reaction and, thus, is reusable

the scientific naming of organisms using Latinized

smaller cell detaches from the parent cell

names for genus and species

by inflammation of the mucous membranes

  • biofilm complex ecosystem of bacteria embedded in

daughter cells

combined with excessive secretions

a matrix

growing solid tumor; caused by Epstein-Barr virus

nodes caused by Bartonella henselae; frequently

between living organisms and their nonliving


transmitted via a cat scratch


  • burst release of new virions by a lysed host cell

infected by a virus

responsible for causing a particular disease; etiologic

information required for interpretation of these data


  • burst size the number of virions released from a host

cell when it is lysed because of a viral infection

between hosts facilitated by a biological vector in

tRNA that binds to an amino acid

which the pathogen grows and reproduces

caused by an immune response to gluten that results

that is infected with a pathogen and is capable of

in the production of autoantibodies and an

transmitting the pathogen from one host to another

inflammatory response

  • biomarker a protein expressed by a cell or tissue

pathway in most photoautotrophs; involves light-

that is indicative of disease

independent reactions of photosynthesis that occur in

structures (e.g., plasma membrane, cell wall, outer

the cytoplasm of photosynthetic bacteria and in the

membrane, glycocalyces) that collectively contain

stroma of eukaryotic chloroplasts

the cytoplasm and internal structures of a cell

xenobiotics or environmental pollutants from a

caused by C. jejuni; generally mild but sometimes

and carbohydrates that defines the boundary of the

contaminated site

with serious complications

cell (also called the cytoplasmic membrane or

plasma membrane)

protein components

spp., especially C. albicans; can affect various

regions of the body, e.g., skin (cutaneous

arrangement, as viewed microscopically

benefit humankind

candidiasis), oral cavity (oral thrush), or vagina

(yeast infection)

composed of cells and that the cell is the

  • candle jar container with a tight-fitting lid in which

fundamental unit of life

antiseptic properties; disrupts cell membranes at low

concentrations and causes congealing of intracellular

a burning candle consumes oxygen and releases

  • cell wall a structure in the cell envelope of some

contents at high concentrations

carbon dioxide, thereby creating an environment

cells that helps the cell maintain its shape and

suitable for capnophiles

withstand changes in osmotic pressure

infections by Blastomyces dermatitidis; can cause

  • capillary small blood vessel found in the interstitial

disfiguring scarring of the hands and other

space of tissue; delivers nutrients and oxygen, and

cells and the destruction of pathogens and infected


removes waste products


  • cellulitis a subcutaneous skin infection that develops

levels higher than atmospheric concentration

in the dermis or hypodermis, resulting in a red,

  • capsid protein coat surrounding the genome of the

painful inflammation

(usually of the IgG type) produced via


  • cellulose a structural polysaccharide composed of

desensitization therapy

  • capsomere individual protein subunits that make up

glucose monomers linked together in a linear chain

the capsid

by glycosidic bonds

endothelia lining the blood vessels that serve the

central nervous system, preventing passage of

stains around a bacterial capsule while leaving the

  • (CDC) the national public health agency in the

microbes from the bloodstream into the brain and

capsule clear

United States

cerebrospinal fluid

  • capsule type of glycocalyx with organized layers of

for identifying transformed bacterial cells containing

polysaccharides that aid in bacterial adherence to

flow of genetic information from DNA to RNA to

recombinant plasmids using lacZ-encoding plasmid

surfaces and in evading destruction by immune cells



group of bacteria that have developed resistance to

nervous system made up of the brain and spinal cord

stranded complementary overhangs that are

all β-lactams, including carbapenems, and many

produced when some restriction enzymes cut DNA

other drug classes

T cells in thymus

  • botulism form of flaccid paraylsis caused by the
  • centriole a component of a centrosome with the

ingestion of a neurotoxin produced by Clostridium

biomolecule, consisting of carbon, hydrogen, and

structural array of nine parallel microtubules



arranged in triplets; involved in eukaryotic cell


molecule induced in the presence of invader

or more functional groups are bound

  • centrosome a microtubule-organizing center for the

microbes; opens gaps between cells in blood vessels,

mitotic spindle found in animal cells; it separates

allowing fluid and cells to leak into surrounding

shell of thousands of protein subunits. Its interior is

chromosomes during cell division and is composed


filled with ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/

of a pair of centrioles positioned at right angles to

oxygenase (RuBisCO) and carbonic anhydrase,

each other

Krebs cycle during which each pyruvate is

which are both used for carbon metabolism

decarboxylated and oxidized (forming NADH), and

  • carbuncle abscess containing a large, deep, purulent

inhibitors within the class of β-lactams

the resulting two-carbon acetyl group is attached to a

skin lesion

large carrier called coenzyme A, resulting in the

caused by a reaction to cercaria of Schistosoma spp.,

formation of acetyl-CoA and CO; also called the

which can penetrate the skin and blood vessels; also

transition reaction

called swimmer’s itch or clam digger’s itch


Appendix E

  • cisternae the sacs of the endoplasmic reticulum

the brain that fills the subarachnoid space of the

a specific pathogen using complement-mediated

brain and spinal column


  • cervix the part of the uterus that connects to the


become activated in the presence of invading

region gene segments in plasma cells to switch

microbes, resulting in opsonization, inflammation,

  • CFB group phylum consisting of the gram-negative,

antibody production from IgM to IgG, IgA, or IgE

and lysis of pathogens

rod-shaped nonproteobacteria genera Cytophaga,

Fusobacterium, and Bacteroides

inhibitor of the lincosamide class that binds to the

hydrogen bonding that occurs between a specific

50S subunit, inhibiting peptide bond formation

purine and a specific pyrimidine; A bonds with T (in

caused by Trypanosoma cruzi and endemic to

DNA), and C bonds with G

Central and South America; transmitted by the

  • clone a genetically identical cell or individual

triatomine bug (kissing bug)

complementary to mRNA that is made through the

  • chancroid an STI caused by Haemophilus ducreyi

mild gastrointestinal illness caused by C. perfringens

activity of reverse transcriptase

that produces soft chancres on genitals

glycoproteins that serve to identify and distinguish

animals and plants that are not chemically defined

its cognate amino acid

white blood cells

  • coagulase enzyme that causes the activation of

intricate characteristics not seen in the other

produced by a variety of cells; provide nonspecific

fibrinogen to form fibrin, promoting clotting of the

categories of capsid

antimicrobial defense mechanisms


multiple lenses to focus light from the specimen

components are chemically defined

produces relatively large movements to adjust focus

light from the light source onto the specimen

membrane through ATP synthase

infectious fungal pathogen Coccidioides immitis and

related species

mutant phenotype is expressed only under certain

specific subsets of leukocytes to infections, damaged

  • codon three-nucleotide sequence within mRNA that

environmental conditions

tissue, and sites of inflammation

specifies a particular amino acid to be incorporated

into the polypeptide being synthesized

that uses fluorescent dyes and excitation lasers to

response to a chemical attractant

  • coenocyte multinucleated eukaryotic cell that forms

create three-dimensional images

as a result of multiple rounds of nuclear division

  • chemotroph organism that gets its energy from the

without the accompanying division of the plasma

  • conidia asexual fungal spores not enclosed in a sac;

transfer of electrons originating from chemical


produced in a chain at the end of specialized hyphae


called conidiophores

multinucleate and lack cell walls or membranes

the varicella-zoster virus and marked by the

between cells; characteristic of some fungi

polysaccharide antigen conjugated to a protein to

formation of pustular lesions on the trunk

enhance immune response to the polysaccharide;

  • coenzyme organic molecule required for proper

conjugate vaccines are important for young children

enzyme function that is not consumed and is

caused by the chikungunya virus and characterized

who do not respond well to polysaccharide antigens


by high fever, joint pain, rash, and blisters

  • cofactor inorganic ion that helps stabilize enzyme
  • chirality property of stereoisomer molecules by

nonpolypeptidic portion

conformation and function

which their structures are nonsuperimposable mirror-


in bacteria in which DNA is directly transferred from

tRNA molecule that correctly corresponds to the

  • chitin polysaccharide that is an important

one bacterial cell to another by a conjugation pilus

tRNA’s anticodon and, hence, the mRNA’s codon,

component of fungal cell walls

reflecting the genetic code

of protein encoded by the conjugation plasmid that


brings two bacterial cells into contact with each

studies in which a group of individuals is followed

other for the process of conjugation

over time and factors potentially important in the

broad-spectrum activity that binds to the 50S

development of disease are evaluated

subunit, inhibiting peptide bond formation

eyeball and inner eyelid

  • colistin membrane-active polymyxin that was

historically used for bowel decontamination but now

in some prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells

used for systemic infections with drug-resistant

mucous membrane covering the eye and inside of the



in which photosynthesis occurs

  • colitis inflammation of the large intestine

transcribed and translated continuously to provide

  • cholera gastrointestinal illness caused by Vibrio

the cell with constant intermediate levels of the

cholera characterized by severe diarrhea

dominant protein in connective tissue

protein products

  • chromatin combination of DNA with DNA binding


represented by a colony formed on solid medium

resulting from a type IV hypersensitivity to an

from a single cell or a few cells

allergen or irritant

(chromogen) that is converted into a colored end

product by the enzyme

population benefits and the other is not affected

particular wavelengths of light (giving them a color)

between hosts due to contact between the two; may

protocol used in food production; uses conditions

be direct or indirect

that are less harsh (lower temperatures) to preserve

that controls cellular activities

food quality but still effectively destroy vegetative

cells and endospores of common foodborne

pathogens such as Clostridium botulinum

persists over a long time

or tumors, these cells are often able to be subcultured

many times, or, in the case of immortal cell lines,

humans; associated with a variety of adenoviruses,

immunodeficiency caused by an impaired ability of

grown indefinitely

coronaviruses, and rhinoviruses

phagocytic cells to kill ingested bacteria in the


disease transmission in which every infection

transmission in which every infection originates

originates from the same source and that source

from the same source

elk in the United States and Canada

produces infections for longer than one incubation


indirectly from one person to another

found on some eukaryotic cells; each is composed of

microtubules in a 9+2 array, and may be used for

  • community group of interacting populations of

especially in some protists, that take up water and

locomotion, feeding, and/or movement of


then move the water out of the cell for

extracellular particles that come in contact with the

osmoregulatory purposes (i.e., to maintain an


appropriate salt and water balance)

enzyme’s active site, preventing substrate binding

  • contrast visible differences between parts of a

respiratory tract that beat, pushing mucus secretions

microscopic specimen

populations in which one of them competes with

and trapped debris away from the sensitive tissues of

another for resources

the lungs

cough infection, marked by a chronic cough

  • ciliates protists with cilia (Ciliophora), including

complement proteins in the blood, resulting in

Paramecium and Stentor, classified within the

opsonization, inflammation, and lysis of pathogens

immunoglobulins used to facilitate hemagglutination


by cross-linking the human antibodies attached to

red blood cells

This OpenStax book is available for free at

Appendix E


populations in which both benefit

herpesvirus 5 infection that is typically

nucleic acid composed of deoxyribonucleotides that

asymptomatic but can become serious in

serves as the genetic material of the cell

  • cortex tightly packed layer of fungal filaments at the

immunocompromised patients, transplant recipients,

outer surface of a lichen; foliose lichens have a

and developing fetuses

second cortex layer beneath the medulla

deoxyribose as the pentose sugar component

viral infection

color to cells from which the primary stain has been

Microsporum, Epidermophyton, or Trichophyton,

washed out by a decolorizing agent

  • cytoplasm the gel-like material composed of water

which feed on keratin (a protein found in skin, hair,

and dissolved or suspended chemicals contained

and nails) and can cause cutaneous infections

within the plasma membrane of a cell

  • dermis the second layer of human skin, found

between the epidermis and the hypodermis

spongiform encephalopathy found in humans;

typically a fatal disease

  • cytoproct a protozoan cell structure that is

disease outbreak using case histories, contact

specialized for excretion

interviews, medical information, and other sources

a peak before the hypothalamus resets back to

  • cytosine pyrimidine nitrogenous base found in

of information

normal body temperature


production of antigen-specific IgG molecules,

will be used inside the body, often penetrating sterile

eukaryotic cell that provides shape and structural

effectively outcompeting IgE molecules on the

tissues or the bloodstream

support for cells; aids movement of materials

surface of sensitized mast cells for antigen

throughout the cell

blood cells are checked for agglutination using

  • cytostome a protozoan cell structure that is

the removal of water from cells through drying or

recipient serum; in the minor cross-match, donor

specialized for phagocytosis (i.e., to take in food)


serum is checked for agglutinizing antibodies against

recipient red blood cells

that target and eliminate cells infected with


intracellular pathogens through induction of

cells process antigens for MHC I presentation to


through capillary walls to reach infected tissue; also

CD8 T cells through phagocytosis of the pathogen

called extravasation

(which would normally lead to MHC II presentation)

  • diaphragm a component of a microscope; typically

consists of a disk under the stage with holes of

mechanism confers resistance to multiple

various sizes; can be adjusted to allow more or less

antimicrobial drugs

light from the light source to reach the specimen

in which measurements are made on cases, both

microscope that uses polarized light to increase

affected and unaffected, at one point in time and the

often associated with a plugged nasolacrimal duct


measurements analyzed to uncover associations with

the disease state

bacterial cell membrane

make it possible to distinguish bacterial colonies

the substrate, giving them a crusty appearance

based on metabolic activities of the organisms

that produces a bright image on a dark background;

typically a modified brightfield microscope

to differentiate between structures or organisms

encapsulated yeast Cryptococcus neoformans

commonly found in bird droppings

curve at which the number of dying cells exceeds the

spreading) that occurs when a light wave interacts

number of new cells formed

with an opening or barrier

Cryptosporidium parvum or C. hominis

of time it takes for a specific protocol to produce a



one order of magnitude decrease in the number of

organisms; that is, death of 90% of the population

a yeast or a mold, depending on environmental

solution that supports growth


usually from some parts of the specimen

  • dioecious refers to sexually reproducing organisms

the surface of the skin, hair, or nails

in which individuals have either male or female

lowest branches of the phylogenetic tree of life

reproductive organs (not both)

bacteria that produce large amounts of gaseous

  • diphtheria serious infection of the larynx, caused by


parasite, in which the parasite reaches maturity and

the toxigenic bacterium Corynebacterium

may reproduce sexually


molecule made through the action of adenylyl

  • degeneracy redundancy in the genetic code because

cyclase from ATP when glucose levels are low, with

a given amino acid is encoded by more than one

  • diploid having two copies of each chromosome

the ability to bind to a catabolite activator protein to

nucleotide triplet codon

allow it to bind to regulatory regions and activate the

  • degerming protocol that significantly reduces

detect the agglutination of bacteria by the action of

transcription of operons encoding enzymes for

microbial numbers by using mild chemicals (e.g.,

antibodies in patient serum

metabolism of alternative substrates

soap) and gentle scrubbing of a small area of skin or

tissue to avoid the transmission of pathogenic

name for a direct Coombs’ test

photosynthetic organisms when the cell’s need for


ATP outweighs that for NADPH, thus bypassing

NADPH production

pathogen between hosts by physical contact or

granules in response to the cross-linking of IgE

transfer in droplets at a distance less than one meter

molecules on the cell surface with allergen

Cyclospora cayetanensis


in vivo against red blood cells caused by various

types of infections, drug reactions, and autoimmune

caused by the tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus

monomer molecules bind end to end in a process that


that can cause cyst formation

results in the formation of water molecules as a


assay in which the antigens are immobilized in the

  • deletion type of mutation involving the removal of

well of a microtiter plate; only a single antibody is

one or more bases from a DNA sequence

used in the test

  • cysts microbial cells surrounded by a protective

outer covering; some microbial cysts are formed to

includes sulfate-reducing bacteria

technique in which the labeled antibody binds to the

help the microbe survive harsh conditions, whereas

target antigen

others are a normal part of the life cycle

and tertiary structures (and quaternary structure, if

applicable) without the loss of its primary structure

the titer of certain bacteria and viruses that causes

aerobic respiration that transfers energy-depleted

  • dendrites branched extensions of the soma of a

clumping of red blood cells

electrons to oxygen to form H2O

neuron that interact with other cells

using a calibrated slide under a light microscope

typically triggered by a superantigen, that results in

disease; also known as breakbone fever

unregulated activation of T cells

light-dependent mechanism for repairing pyrimidine

  • cytokines protein molecules that act as a chemical

called tartar

dimers involving the enzyme photolyase

signals; produced by cells in response to a

stimulation event

of tooth decay caused by microbial activity

together by a glycosidic bond


Appendix E

  • disease any condition in which the normal structure
  • ectoplasm outer, more gelatinous layer of cytoplasm

or function of the body is damaged or impaired

under a protist cell membrane

and chloroplasts arose as a result of prokaryotic cells

establishing a symbiotic relationship within a

  • edema swelling due to accumulation of fluid and

eukaryotic host

fomite during disinfection that may be toxic to

protein in tissue as a result of increased permeability


of capillary walls during an inflammatory response;

  • endothelia layer of epithelial cells lining blood

chronic edema can also result from blockage of

vessels, lymphatics, the blood-brain barrier, and

lymphatic vessels, as in the case of elephantiasis

some other tissues

pathogens from a fomite

  • endotoxin lipid A component of lipopolysaccharides

that are involved in the immediate immune response,

in the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria

the effectiveness of one or more antimicrobial agents

primarily to defend the body against pathogens

against a known bacterium; involves measuring the

zone(s) of inhibition around the chemical agent(s) in

essential nutrients to support growth

a culture of the bacterium

energy electrons from reduced molecules like foods

and later serves as an electron donor in subsequent

conditions that favor the expansion of an organism

redox reactions

frequencies due to different degrees of refraction

present in low numbers

  • enteric bacteria of the family Enterobacteriaceae,

short-wavelength electron beams rather than light to

atoms of two sulfhydryl side chains

which live in the human intestinal tract

increase magnification and resolution

  • enteritis inflammation of the lining of the intestine

topoisomerase that relaxes the supercoiled

membrane-associated protein complexes and

chromosome to make DNA more accessible for the

associated mobile accessory electron carriers

initiation of replication

pinworm Enterobius vermicularis

important in the generation of the proton motive

  • DNA ligase enzyme that catalyzes the formation of a

force required for ATP production by chemiosmosis;

covalent phosphodiester linkage between the 3’-OH

the last component involved in the cellular

that cause severe gastrointestinal illness with

end of one DNA fragment and the 5’ phosphate end

respiration of glucose

potential serious complications such as hemolytic

of another DNA fragment

uremic syndrome

which cells are exposed to a short electric pulse,

DNA binding proteins perform various levels of

inducing them to take up DNA molecules from their

cause relatively mild gastrointestinal illness

DNA wrapping and attachment to scaffolding


proteins to allow the DNA to fit inside a cell

that cause serious gastrointestinal illness

inactive, endospore-like form of intracellular

nucleotides to the free 3’-OH group of a growing

bacteria that spreads infection outside of cells

cause a relatively mild illness commonly called

DNA chain that are complementary to the template

traveler’s diarrhea


replication during which DNA polymerase adds

nucleotides, complementary to the parental strand, to

fragments of known sequence that bind to specific

the 3’ end of a growing DNA strand

target sequences within a sample due to

glycolytic pathway used by some bacteria

complementarity between the target DNA sequence

during which RNA polymerase extends the RNA

and the primer; commonly used in PCR but may be

molecule by adding RNA nucleotides,

used in other hybridization techniques

packed capsid surrounded by a lipid layer

complementary to the template DNA strand

  • DNA probe a single-stranded DNA fragment that is
  • enzyme catalyst for biochemical reactions inside

complementary to part of the gene (DNA or RNA)


which amino acids are added one by one to the C-

of interest

terminus of the growing polypeptide

  • DNAse pathogen-produced nuclease that degrades

an enzyme is coupled to an antibody; addition of a

extracellular DNA

chromogenic substrate for the antibody allows

of glycolysis found in animals and the most common

quantification or identification of the antigen bound

  • dosage amount of medication given during a certain

in microbes

by the antibody

time interval

the human population or has increased in prevalence

specialized form of EIA in which either the primary

over the previous 20 years

antibody or the antigen is first attached to a solid

surface such as the well of a microtiter plate

double; also referred to as generation time

each other and nonsuperimposable

histamine and major basic protein; facilitate allergic

a pathogen transferred in sneezed or coughed

responses and protection against parasitic protozoa

droplets of mucus that land on the new host within a

and helminths

radius of one meter

expected incidence in a given period within a given

grow in the presence of an antimicrobial drug

(often at low levels) in a population


direct application of high heat

energy beyond activation energy to occur

infection caused by Rickettsia prowazekii and

transmitted by body lice

surrounds the brain

especially the heart valves

  • dynein motor proteins that interact with

infectious diseases occur in a population and how

microtubules in eukaryotic flagella and cilia

released from a cell and carried by the bloodstream

they are transmitted and maintained in nature

to a distant recipient cell

  • dysentery intestinal inflammation that causes

diarrhea with blood and mucus

membrane invagination and vacuole/vesicle

  • epididymis coiled tube that collects sperm from the
  • dysuria urination accompanied by burning,


testes and passes it on to the vas deferens

discomfort, or pain

(endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatuses,

by a bacterial infection

lysosomes, and transport vesicles) arranged as

membranous tubules, sacs, and disks that synthesize

DNA or associated histones to influence

many cell components


  • endoplasm inner, more fluid layer of cytoplasm

releases dissociated uncharged tRNAs so that they

under a protist cell membrane (inside of the

  • epiglottis flap of cartilage that covers the larynx

can be recharged with free amino acids

during swallowing; diverts food to the esophagus


and prevents it from entering the respiratory tract

African trypanosomiasis caused by Trypanosoma

system that is an interconnected array of tubules and

brucei rhodesiense

flattened sacs with a single lipid bilayer that may be

either rough or smooth; important in synthesizing

  • epiphyte a plant that grows on another plant

mosquito-borne viral infection of the brain that is

proteins and lipids

  • epitope smaller exposed region on an antigen that is

found primarily on the Atlantic and Gulf coast states

  • endospore a cellular structure formed by some

recognized by B-cell and T-cell receptors and

of the United States

bacteria in response to adverse conditions; preserves


DNA of the cell in a dormant state until conditions

hemorrhagic fever found primarily in western Africa

are favorable again

are microaerophilic

and transmitted through contact with body fluids

that uses two stains to make bacterial endospores

antibody-antigen ratio produces the greatest amount

which the infective virus is not detected, either

appear distinct from the rest of the cell

of precipitin in a precipitin reaction

intracellularly or extracellularly, and biosynthesis is


This OpenStax book is available for free at

Appendix E


  • flagella long, rigid, spiral structures used by

Streptococcus pyogenes, that presents as a red, large,

proteoglycans and fibrous proteins secreted by some

prokaryotic cells for motility in aqueous

intensely inflamed patch of skin involving the

eukaryotic cells that lack cell walls; helps

environments; composed of a filament made of

dermis, usually with clear borders, typically on the

multicellular structures withstand physical stresses

flagellin, a hook, and motor (basal body) that are

legs or face

and coordinates signaling from the external surface

attached to the cell envelope

of the cell to the interior of the cell

inflammation in the subcutaneous fat cells of the

mordant to coat the flagella with stain until they are

hypodermis resulting in red nodules

gel secreted by bacteria in a biofilm containing

thick enough to be seen

polysaccharides, proteins, nucleic acids, and some

  • erythema redness at the site of inflammation,


usually due to dilation of blood vessels in the area to

whip-like, filamentous external structure found on

help bring in white blood cells

some eukaryotic cells; composed of microtubules in

DNA distinct from the chromosomes that are also

a 9+2 arrangement; used for locomotion

part of the cell’s genome

oxidized/reduced forms of an electron carrier in cells

strains of Streptococcus pyogenes; activity of the

through capillary walls to reach infected tissue; also

  • flocculant visible aggregation that forms between a

toxin can produce the characteristic rash of scarlet

called diapedesis

substance in suspension (e.g., lipid in water) and


antibodies against the substance

macrolide class that is often used as an alternative to

fluorescence intensity; specific subsets of cells are


usually labeled in some way prior to the analysis

  • eschar a localized mass of dead skin tissue
  • F-]] (recipient) cell]] E. coli cell lacking the F plasmid

and thus incapable of forming a conjugation pilus

that is administered orally or intravenously for the

  • Etest simple, rapid method for determining MIC,

but capable of receiving the F plasmid during

treatment of several types of systemic yeast

involving commercially available plastic strips that



contain a gradient of an antimicrobial and are placed

on an agar plate inoculated with a bacterial lawn

DNA transfer between cells; conjugation pilus of E.

membrane components to move fluidly within the


plane of the membrane, as well as the mosaic-like

responsible for causing a particular disease;

composition of the components

causative agent

coli containing genes encoding the ability to

  • flukes any of the parasitic nonsegmented flatworms
  • etiology the science of the causes of disease

conjugate, including genes encoding the formation

(trematodes) that have an oral sucker and sometimes

of the conjugation pilus

a second ventral sucker; they attach to the inner

  • Eukarya the domain of life that includes all

unicellular and multicellular organisms with cells

walls of intestines, lungs, large blood vessels, or the

from the chromosome; carries with it some

liver in human hosts

that contain membrane-bound nuclei and organelles

chromosomal DNA adjacent to the integration site

  • eukaryote an organism made up of one or more
  • F+]] (donor) cell]] E. coli cell containing the F plasmid,

natural fluorochromes or fluorescent stains to

cells that contain a membrane-bound nucleus and

capable of forming a conjugation pilus

increase contrast


includes an antigen-binding site

technique for using a flow cytometer to physically

complex nuclear membrane that contains multiple,

separate cells into two populations based on

rod-shaped chromosomes

fluorescence intensity

the presence of oxygen but can proliferate in its

nasopharynx and the middle ear that allows pressure


assays that use a fluorescently labeled antibody to

to equalize across the tympanic membrane

bind to and so make an antigen easy to visualize

  • eutrophs microorganisms that require a copious

infection or condition (e.g., presence of antigen,

antibody, or nucleic acid) when the infection or

amount of organic nutrients; also called copiotrophs

condition is actually present

which the substrate is a fluorogen that becomes

fluorescent following reaction with the enzyme

or condition (e.g., presence of antigen, antibody, or

  • fluorescent the ability of certain materials to absorb

require energy beyond activation energy to proceed;

nucleic acid) when the infection or condition is

energy and then immediately release that energy in

actually absent

the form of light

releases energy when the reaction occurs

  • exocytosis the release of the contents of transport

growth requirements

and then emit light)

vesicles to the cell’s exterior by fusion of the

transport vesicle’s membrane with the plasma

  • fluorogen nonfluorescent molecule that becomes


hydrocarbons terminated with a carboxylic acid

fluorescent on enzyme or laser activation

functional group

ability of microorganisms to invade host cells

by light

  • exon protein-coding sequence of a eukaryotic gene

in which the microbe’s fatty acids are extracted,

that is transcribed into RNA and spliced together to

converted to volatile methyl esters, and analyzed by

that inhibit the activity of DNA gyrase, preventing

code for a polypeptide

gas chromatography, yielding chromatograms that

DNA replication

may be compared to reference data for identification


primers in DNA introduced by primase

causes infection in one location that then spreads to a

  • Fc region region on the trunk of an antibody

secondary location

  • exotoxin biologically active product that causes

molecule involved in complement activation and

adverse changes in the host cells


point when the object is at a definite distance from

the lens (this is also the distance to the focal point)

and clinical studies to directly study disease in a

metabolic pathway whereby the product of a


metabolic pathway noncompetitively binds to an

enzyme early on in the pathway, temporarily

when light entering the lens is parallel (i.e., the

preventing the synthesis of the product

object is an infinite distance from the lens)

involves manipulation of the study subjects by the

researcher through application of specific treatments

hypothesized to affect the outcome while

as a final electron acceptor to regenerate NAD+ from

appear to resemble leaves

maintaining rigorously controlled conditions

NADH such that glycolysis can continue

  • exposure contact between potential pathogen and
  • fever system-wide sign of inflammation that raises

inflammation of hair follicles, typically producing an

host; also called contamination or contact

the body temperature and stimulates the immune

itchy red rash


  • fomite inanimate item that may harbor microbes and

lactamases carried by some gram-negative bacteria

aid in disease transmission

that provide resistance to all penicillins,

commonly affecting children, marked by a

cephalosporins, monobactams, and β-lactamase-

distinctive “slapped-cheek” rash and caused by

through contaminated food

inhibitor combinations, but not carbapenems

parvovirus B19

  • fimbriae filamentous appendages found by the

the parent filament in actinomycetes and

hundreds on some bacterial cells; they aid adherence


that are resistant to rifampin and isoniazid, and also

to host cells

are resistant to any fluoroquinolone and at least one

of three other drugs (amikacin, kanamycin, or

an insertion or a deletion in a number of nucleotides


produces relatively small movements to adjust focus

that, if not a multiple of three, changes every amino

  • fixation the process by which cells are killed and

acid after the mutation

attached to a slide

cytoplasm; synthesizes water-soluble proteins


Appendix E

  • frequency the rate of vibration for a light wave or
  • giardiasis intestinal infection caused by Giardia

other electromagnetic wave


concentrations of salt in the environment to grow

  • gingivitis inflammation of the gums that can cause

with a rounded appearance


high salt concentration but does not require it

  • glial cell assists in the organization of neurons,

occur within a molecule, conferring specific

provides a scaffold for some aspects of neuron

peripheral nervous tissues caused by the acid-fast

chemical properties

function, and aids in recovery from neural injury

bacterium, Mycobacterium leprae; also known as


  • fungi (singular: fungus) any of various unicellular or

multicellular eukaryotic organisms, typically having

involving the glomeruli of the nephrons

cell walls made out of chitin and lacking

infection by a hantavirus following inhalation of

photosynthetic pigments, vascular tissues, and

aerosols from the urine or feces of infected rodents

kidney that filters blood to form urine


  • glycocalyx cell envelope structure (either capsules or
  • haploid having one copy of each chromosome
  • fungicide chemical or physical treatment that kills

slime layer) outside the cell wall in some bacteria;


  • hapten a molecule that is too small to be antigenic

allows bacteria to adhere to surfaces, aids in biofilm

alone but becomes antigenic when conjugated to a

formation, and provides protection from predation

larger protein molecule

growth, generally by means of chemical or physical

  • glycogen highly branched storage polysaccharide in


animal cells and bacteria

develops at the site of infection in primary syphilis

  • furuncle a small, purulent skin lesion; sometimes

called a boil

carbohydrate moiety

an autoimmune disease affecting thyroid function

  • glycolysis first step in the breakdown of glucose, the

of HIV receptors to the coreceptors required for

most common example of which is the Embden-

virus entry into the cell, specifically, chemokine

acquired in a hospital or other health-care facility

Meyerhoff-Parnas pathway, producing two

receptor type 5

unrelated to the reason for which the patient was

pyruvates, two NADH molecules, and two (net

initially admitted; nosocomial infection

yield) ATP per starting glucose molecule

antibody molecules (two per antibody monomer),

wall synthesis by binding to peptidoglycan subunits

composed of variable and constant region segments

and blocking their insertion into the cell wall

backbone, as well as blocking transpeptidation

is very diverse and includes a number of human



  • helicase enzyme that unwinds DNA by breaking the

hydrogen bonds between the nitrogenous base pairs,

using ATP

tissues caused by the gram-positive anaerobe

of two sugar molecules

Clostridium perfringens and other Clostridium spp.

  • helminth a multicellular parasitic worm
  • gastritis inflammation of the lining of the stomach

system that is composed of a series of flattened

membranous disks, called dictyosomes, each having

orchestrator of the cellular and humoral defenses of

a single lipid bilayer, that are stacked together;

adaptive immunity and the cellular defenses of

stomach and intestine

important in the processing of lipids and proteins

innate immunity

information contained in DNA through the processes

system caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae

cells that can be caused by some viruses, bacteria,

of transcription and translation

and certain diseases in which antibodies are

  • gene gun an apparatus that shoots gold or tungsten

produced that bind to self-red blood cells

transplantation reaction in which a transplanted

particles coated with recombinant DNA molecules at

immune system (e.g., a bone marrow transplant)

high speeds into plant protoplasts

contains APCs and T cells that are activated and

differentiation of blood cells from pluripotent

attack the recipient’s tissue

hematopoietic stem cells

which researchers prevent the expression of a

  • hematuria condition in which there is blood in the

particular gene by using small interfering RNAs

technique that distinguishes bacteria based upon


(siRNAs) or microRNAs (miRNAs) to interfere with

their cell wall structure


  • hemolysin class of exotoxin that targets and lyses

red blood cells, as well as other cells

blood that are characterized by numerous granules in

result from genetic mutations; involves the

the cytoplasm; granulocytes include neutrophils,

introduction of nonmutated, functional genes into the

eosinophils, and basophils

hypersensitivity reaction that occurs when maternal

genome of the patient, often by way of a viral vector

anti-Rh antibodies cross the placenta and target fetal

  • granuloma walled-off area of chronically inflamed

Rh+ red blood cells for lysis

tissue containing microbial pathogens, macrophages,

of bacterial chromosome DNA by the phage

and cellular materials unable to be eliminated

resulting after an incompatible blood transfusion;

caused by type II hypersensitivity reaction and

serious brain infection of immunocompromised

destruction of red blood cells

  • genes segments of DNA molecules that code for

individuals caused by Acanthamoeba or Balamuthia

proteins or stable RNA molecules


hemorrhagic fever caused by hantavirus infection

  • granzymes proteases released from a natural killer

nucleotide codons and the translated amino acids

cell that enter the cytoplasm of a target cell, inducing

with an effective pore size that captures bacterial


cells, endospores, and viruses as air passes through,

organism’s genetics to achieve desirable traits

removing them from the air

autoimmune disease affecting thyroid function


bacteria but use substrates other than sulfides for

develop in the external genitalia or anus as a result of


brought about when few individuals in a population

human papillomavirus infection

are susceptible to an infectious agent

bacteria that use sulfide for oxidation and produce

  • genome entire genetic content of a cell

large amounts of green bacteriochlorophyll

simplex virus

genome maintained as cloned fragments in the

in a culture over time

herpesvirus most commonly associated with genital

genomes of strains of a host organism


  • guanine purine nitrogenous base found in
  • genomics the study and comparison of entire


genomes, including the complete set of genes, their

mouth and gums often caused by the HSV-1 virus

nucleotide sequence and organization, and their

interactions within a species and with other species

often triggered by bacterial and viral infections,

characterized by the destruction of myelin sheaths

mixture of lactic acid, ethanol and/or acetic acid, and

  • genotype full collection of genes that a cell contains

around neurons, resulting in flaccid paralysis

CO2 as fermentation products; the microbes that do

within its genome

this use pentose phosphate pathway glycolysis,

  • gummas granulomatous lesions that develop in

which is why they generate multiple fermentation

tertiary syphilis

diseases are the result of microbial infection


the vegetative state

compounds as its carbon source

Mycobacterium tuberculosis; forms in the lungs of

phosphate pathway

patients with tuberculosis

which hair grows

This OpenStax book is available for free at

Appendix E


  • Hfr cell E. coli cell in which an F plasmid has

integrated into the host cell’s chromosome

solute concentration outside a cell exceeds that

inside the cell, causing water molecules to move out

of the cell, resulting in crenation (shriveling) or

pathogen cells or viruses that have been killed or

have more than 50% guanine and cytosine


inactivated through treatment with heat, radiation, or

nucleotides in their DNA


  • hyphae tubular, filamentous structures that makes up

most fungi

  • incidence the number of individuals with new

negatively charged phosphate groups that holds a lot

infections of a particular disease in a given period of

of potential energy


consisting primarily of fibrous and adipose

  • histamine proinflammatory molecule released by

connective tissue

basophils and mast cells in response to stimulation

conjunctiva in newborns caused by Chlamydia

by other cytokines and chemical mediators

trachomatis transmitted during childbirth

solute concentration inside a cell exceeds that

  • histones DNA-binding proteins found in eukaryotes

outside the cell, causing water molecules to move

  • inclusions prokaryotic cell cytoplasmic structures

and archaea that aid in orderly packaging of

into the cell, possibly leading to swelling and

for storing specific nutrients and other resources

chromosomal DNA

possibly lysis

needed by cells

dimorphic fungus Histoplasma capsulatum

during which the pathogen begins multiplying in the

host and signs and symptoms are not observable


  • holozoic refers to protozoans that consume food

to detect the agglutination of small latex beads;

particles through phagoctytosis

during a medical procedure

beads may be coated with antigen when looking for

the presence of specific antibodies, or with antibody

when looking for the presence of antigen

lactic acid as a fermentation product; the microbes

with 12 vertices

that do this use Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas glycolysis

  • IgA antibody dimer primarily found in breast milk,

Coombs’ test

mucus, saliva, and tears

infection caused by the nematodes Necator

americanus and Ancylostoma doudenale

  • IgD membrane-body antibody monomer functioning

infectious agent between hosts through contact with

as receptor on the surface of B cells

a fomite

pathogen from one host to another (excluding

  • IgE antibody monomer involved in defense against

mother to embryo, fetus, or infant) in a population

parasites and allergic reactions

prior to blood transfusions, that looks for antibodies

through physical contact or through droplet

  • IgG antibody monomer most abundant in serum;

against red blood cell antigens (other than the A and


able to cross placenta; most versatile class of

B antigens) that are unbound in a patient’s serum

antibody in terms of function

material from one organism to another organism

  • IgM antibody that is a monomer when functioning

pathogen is first attached to the wells of a microtiter

within the same generation

as a receptor on surface of B cells but a pentamer

plate; the antigen then captures antibodies from

when secreted in response to specific pathogens; first

patient serum to determine whether the patient

  • host range the types of host cells that a particular

antibody to respond during primary and secondary

currently has or previosly had the disease

virus is able to infect


  • HTST high-temperature short-time pasteurization is

antigen-specific antibodies wherein the antigen

a method of pasteurization commonly used for milk

captures the antibody, which is subsequently

in which the milk is exposed to a temperature of 72

detected using a labeled anti-immunoglobulin mAb

°C for 15 seconds

distance of the object to the lens; the point at which

an image is in focus (the image point is often called

caused by Trypanosoma brucei and spread by the

the focus)

  • inducer small molecule that either activates or

bite of the tsetse fly

  • imidazoles class of antifungal drugs that inhibit

represses transcription

ergosterol biosynthesis

tickborne disease caused by the obligate intracellular

containing genes encoding enzymes in a degradative

pathogen Anaplasma phagocytophilum

antibodies; large enough to settle out of fluid

pathway, whose expression is induced by the


substrate to be degraded when the substrate is

responsible for acquired immune deficiency

available for the cell to use, but that is otherwise

syndrome (AIDS) in humans

repressed in the absence of the substrate

fluids are pulled through test strips by capillary

action and antigen captured by mobile antibody-

sexually transmitted viruses that may be associated

colored bead conjugates; a second, fixed antibody

bacterial genome

with genital warts or with cervical cancer

localizes the colored bead, allowing visualization

microorganism within a host

antibodies with mouse variable regions and human

which cells are fixed and holes dissolved in the

constant regions

membrane to allow passage of labeled antibodies to

of joint tissues in response to a microbial infection

bind specific intracellular targets

antibodies produced by B cells

protein electrophoresis (PAGE) of serum, in which

degrades hyaluronic acid between adjacent cells in

antisera against specific serum proteins are added to

infection caused by Epstein-Barr virus (HHV-4) or

connective tissue

troughs cut parallel to the electrophoresis track,

cytomegalovirus (HHV-5); transmitted by direct

causing the formation of precipitin arcs

contact with body fluids such as saliva

single-stranded DNA molecules

antigen can be concentrated by passing fluids

characterized by erythema, edema, heat, pain, and

  • hybridoma clones of cell produced by fusing a

through porous membranes, and target molecules are

altered function, typically at the site of injury or

normal B cell with a myeloma cell that is capable of

captured as they pass

infection but sometimes becoming systemic.

producing monoclonal antibodies indefinitely

  • influenza highly contagious and acute viral disease

fluorescence microscope and antibody-specific

of the respiratory tract caused by the influenza virus

caused by the tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus

fluorochromes to determine the presence of specific

pathogens in a specimen

ribosome assembly during initiation

molecule or portion of a molecule capable of strong

attraction to water molecules

during which various proteins bind to the origin of

molecule or portion of a molecule not capable of

which labeled antibodies are bound to specific cells

replication to begin the replication process

strong attraction to water molecules

in a tissue section

during which RNA polymerase binds to a promoter

and transcription begins

hypersensitivities in the lungs that are caused by

environmental or occupational exposure to allergens

such as mold and dust

to particular cells in a tissue (immunohistochemistry)

which an initiation complex composed of the small

or specific targets within a cell

ribosomal subunit, the mRNA template, initiation


factors, GTP, and a special initiator tRNA forms, and

response against an antigen

  • impetigo a skin infection that may result in vesicles,

the large ribosomal subunit then binds to the

blisters, or bullae especially around the mouth,

initiation complex

optimum growth temperature close to the

commonly caused by Staphylococcus aureus, S.

  • inoculum small number of cells added to medium to

temperature of boiling water

pyogenes, or a combination of both S. aureus and S.

start a culture


  • ) single phosphate group in
  • in vitro outside the organism in a test tube or


artificial environment


Appendix E

  • insertion type of mutation involving the addition of
  • leukocidin class of exotoxin that targets and lyses

one or more bases into a DNA sequence


activity of the HIV integrase responsible for

the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) and endemic to

including granulocytes, lymphocytes, and monocytes

recombination of a DNA copy of the viral genome


into the host cell chromosome

  • jaundice yellowish color of the skin and mucous

produced by leukocytes and other tissue cells;

membranes caused by excessive bilirubin caused by

promote inflammation and allergic responses

stacked nitrogenous bases of the DNA double helix,

a failure of the liver to effectively process the

breakdown of hemoglobin

  • lichen symbiotic association of a fungus with an

potentially resulting in a frameshift mutation

algae or cyanobacterium

  • ligation repair of the sugar-phosphate backbone of

interaction with another wave

the DNA, making the DNA molecule continuous

been infected with a virus; stimulate antiviral

an antibody molecule (two per antibody monomer),

responses in nearby cells as well as the cells

  • keratin a fibrous protein found in hair, nails, and

composed of variable and constant region segments

secreting the interferons


from sunlight is absorbed by pigment molecules in

system cells that help coordinate efforts against

photosynthetic membranes and converted into stored

invading pathogens

chemical energy in the forms of ATP and NADPH

cornea and the conjunctiva

cytoskeletal fibers that act as cables within the cell

  • kidney organ that filters the blood, producing urine

and associated pigments that each may absorb light

and anchor the nucleus, comprise the nuclear lamina,

energy to become excited, and transfer this energy

or contribute to the formation of desmosomes

from one pigment molecule to another until the

that does not use heat to infuse the primary stain,

energy is delivered to a reaction center pigment

carbolfuchsin, into acid-fast cells

through some stages of its life cycle before migrating

to the definitive host

chemical energy, in the form of ATP and NADPH

method for determining susceptibility and resistance

produced by the light-dependent reactions, is used to

of a bacterial pathogen to antibacterial drugs. The

disease transmission in which every infection

fix inorganic CO2 into organic sugar; usually

test involves drug-impregnated disks placed on an

originates from the same source and that source

referred to as the Calvin-Benson cycle

agar plate inoculated with a bacterial lawn.

produces infections for a period before stopping and

then starting again

inhibitor of the lincosamide class that binds to the

lining of the cheek of patients with measles

50S subunit, inhibiting peptide bond formation

carbon unit entering the cycle is further oxidized,

that are similar to macrolides

intestine, often caused by Fasciolopsis buski

producing three NADH, one FADH2, and one ATP

by substrate-level phosphorylation, releasing two

CO2 molecules and regenerating the molecule used

and the helper T cell with which it interacts

in the first step; also called the citric acid cycle or

recognize the same antigen

the tricarboxylic acid cycle

generation time under specific conditions for a

  • lipase extracellular enzyme that degrades

bacterial strain

  • kuru rare form of transmissible spongiform


encephalopathy endemic to Papua New Guinea

  • intron intervening sequence of a eukaryotic gene

that does not code for protein and whose

two layers of phospholipid molecules with the

corresponding RNA sequences are removed from the

nonpolar tails associating to form a hydrophobic

primary transcript during splicing

barrier between the polar heads; also called unit


generally to open the airway or to administer drugs

  • lipid macromolecule composed primarily of carbon

or oxygen

lacrimal sac

and hydrogen; source of nutrients for organisms, a

storage form for carbon and energy, a part of the

  • in-use test a technique for monitoring the correct use

structure of membranes, and may function as

of disinfectants in a clinical setting; involves placing

secretes tears

hormones, pharmaceuticals, fragrances, and

used, diluted disinfectant onto an agar plate to see if

microbial colonies will grow



  • invasion dissemination of a pathogen through local

tissues or throughout the body

attached sugars that are found as components of

the dacrocyst or tear sac

gram-negative outer membranes

  • iodophor compound in which iodine is complexed

to an organic molecule, increasing the stability and

efficacy of iodine as a disinfectant

production of antibodies

  • lag phase interval before exponential growth of a

ingestion of the microbe Listeria monocytogenes

that is able to penetrate surfaces and sterilize

microbial population during which cells adjust to a

materials by damaging microbial cell components

new environment

  • lithotroph chemotroph that uses inorganic chemicals

as its electron source; also known as chemoautotroph

and DNA

  • ischemia condition marked by the inadequate flow

by DNA polymerase

that has been attenuated to become less virulent in

of blood to the tissues

order to produce an active but subclinical infection

  • isograft tissue grafted from one monozygotic twin to


connects to the larynx

duct of the liver, including Fasciola hepatica and F.


against A or B red blood cell antigens

  • larynx region of the respiratory tract containing the

vocal cords; also referred to as the voice box

  • isomers molecules that have the same atomic

makeup but differ in the structural arrangement of

  • log phase interval of growth when cells divide

the atoms

nonreplicative state after the acute disease and can

exponentially; also known as the exponential growth

persist in this state for years, with the risk of


  • isoniazid antimetabolite that inhibits biosynthesis of

reactivation back into acute disease

mycolic acid; used for the treatment of

  • loiasis a disease caused by the parasitic Loa loa

mycobacterial infections

worm, which is transmitted by deerflies; adult


worms live in the subcutaneous tissue and cause

  • isoprenoid branched lipid derived from five-carbon

inflammation, swelling, and eye pain as they migrate

isoprene molecules

through the skin and the conjunctiva of the eye

concentrations inside and outside the cell are

the 5’ to 3’ direction by DNA polymerase

at one end of a bacterial cell

approximately equal, thereby creating no net

movement of water molecules across the cell


in older individuals; caused by the inhalation of

less than 50% of guanine and cytosine nucleotides in

Legionella pneumophila aerosolized in water

their DNA

class that binds to invertebrate glutamate-gated

  • lumen space inside the cisternae of the endoplasmic

chloride channels to block neuronal transmission in

Leishmania spp. and transmitted by sand flies

reticulum in eukaryotic cells


spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi

by Leptospira spp.; may spread to the liver, lungs,

brain, and other organs

This OpenStax book is available for free at

Appendix E


  • metabolism all of the chemical reactions inside of

throughout the body that contain areas called


germinal centers, which are rich in B and T

technique in which the sample (e.g., a microbe

lymphocytes; also contain macrophages and

colony) is mixed with a special matrix and irradiated

containing volutin, a polymerized inorganic

dendritic cells for antigen presentation

with a high-energy laser to generate characteristic

phosphate that appears red when stained with

gaseous ions that are subjected to mass spectral

methylene blue

analysis, yielding mass spectra that may be

compared to reference data for identification


from microbial communities, allowing researchers to

study genes from a collection of multiple species

Chlamydia trachomatis in tropical regions

produce a functional virus

collection of mRNA molecules produced from

microbial communities; involves studying gene

under a vacuum, of a material so that water is lost by

thymus after thymic selection but has not yet been

expression patterns from a collection of multiple

sublimation, thereby inhibiting microbial growth



  • lysis destruction of the host cell

organism can tolerate for growth


  • lysogen bacterium carrying the prophage

temperature at which a microorganism will divide or

  • (MRSA) pathogen resistant to all β-lactams through


of host characteristics or phenotypes due to the

acquisition of a new low-affinity penicillin-binding

presence of phage

protein, and often resistant to many other drug

highest concentration of oxygen at which an


organism will grow

the genome of the infecting phage is integrated into

the bacterial chromosome and replicated during

  • measles highly contagious respiratory disease

of the nitroimidazole class that is activated in

bacterial reproduction until it excises and enters a

caused by the measles virus (MeV); marked by an

anaerobic target cell and introduces DNA strand

lytic phase of the life cycle

intense macular rash and high fever; also known as

breakage, thus interfering with DNA replication in


target cells

  • lysogeny process of integrating the phage into the

host genome

benzimidazole class that binds to helminthic β-

surface of all nucleated cells and involved in the

  • lysosome an organelle of the endomembrane system

tubulin, preventing microtubule formation

presentation of normal “self” antigens and foreign

that contains digestive enzymes that break down

antigens from intracellular pathogens

engulfed material such as foodstuffs, infectious

particles, or damaged cellular components

between hosts by a mechanical vector

the surface of antigen-presenting cells and involved

  • lytic cycle infection process that leads to the lysis of

in the presentation of foreign antigens from

host cells

pathogen from one host to another or from a

pathogens ingested by phagocytosis

reservoir to a host without being infected by the

pathogen itself

  • micelle simple spherical arrangement of amphipathic

lipid molecules with nonpolar tails aggregated within

the interior and polar heads forming the outer surface

pathogen that will produce active infection in 50% of

test animals inoculated

  • M protein a streptococcal cell wall protein that

levels lower than atmospheric concentration

protects the bacteria from being phagocytized. It is

associated with virulence and stimulates a strong

pathogen that kills 50% of infected test animals

immune response

two samples of genomic DNA or cDNA; the DNA

  • medulla loosely packed layer of fungal filaments

or cDNA fragments are immobilized on a chip and

located underneath the cortex of a lichen

labeled with different fluorescent dyes, allowing for

containing a large, complex ring structure that binds

comparison of sequences or gene-expression patterns

to the 50S subunit, inhibiting peptide bond formation

formed from complement proteins C6 through C9

  • microbe generally, an organism that is too small to

that penetrates the membranes of a targeted cell,

be seen without a microscope; also known as a

individual units, monomers, that bind together like

causing cell lysis and death


building blocks

from liquid, typically heat-sensitive solutions, using

the progress of a particular microbial control

have two nuclei; polyploid with a reduced genome of

filters with an effective pore size of 0.2 µm or


metabolic genes and derived from the micronucleus

smaller, depending on need

microbial populations microbiology the study of

cells; account for approximately 99% of the cell’s

vacuum filtered aseptically through a membrane


dry weight

with a pore size small enough to trap

microorganisms, which are counted after growth on


microorganisms that are associated with a certain

bloodstream and differentiated into tissue-specific



ribosome attached to rough endoplasmic reticulum


encephalopathy primarily affecting cattle; can be

transmitted to humans by consumption of

membrane function by either forming pores or

contaminated cattle products

disrupting the phospholipid bilayer

cytoplasm of a eukaryotic cell using a glass


containing magnetic iron oxide or iron sulfide, which

that is programmed to respond to secondary

allows bacteria to align along a magnetic field by

exposures to a specific antigen

have two nuclei; diploid, somatic, and used for


sexual reproduction through conjugation

programmed to recognize and quickly mount a

cells using flagella in response to a magnetic field

secondary response to a specific pathogen upon re-

cells in lower amounts than macronutrients; also


called trace element

to produce an image that appears larger than the

  • memory the ability of the specific adaptive immune

actual specimen, expressed as a factor of the actual

system to quickly respond to pathogens to which it

small to be seen without a microscope; also known


has previously been exposed

as a microbe

  • meninges membranes that surround the brain

collection of genes that code for MHC glycoproteins

centrioles, and peroxisomes; some can be human

expressed on the surface of all nucleated cells


membranes that surround the brain

  • malaise a general feeling of being unwell


  • malaria potentially fatal, mosquito-borne protozoan

caused by Neisseria meningitidis that results in an

infection caused by several species of Plasmodium

inflammation of the meninges

dimers (α and β tubulin); the structural component of

and characterized by a relapsing fever, nausea,

the cytoskeleton, centrioles, flagella, and cilia

vomiting, and fatigue

involves both the brain and the membranes that

surround it

and spread of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from

function to basophils, but residing in tissues

  • MERS Middle East respiratory syndrome; first


described in Saudi Arabia in 2013; caused by a

zoonotic coronavirus that results in flu-like

antibacterial drug concentration that kills ≥99.9% of


a starting inoculum of bacteria

  • mesophile a microorganism that grows best at

moderate temperatures, typically between about 20

°C and 45 °C


Appendix E

  • mucus viscous secretion produced by cells and

concentration of an antibacterial drug that inhibits

glands in various mucous membranes throughout the

antibodies from mother to fetus (transplacentally) or

visible growth of a bacterial strain

body; helps trap and remove microbes and debris

infant (via breastmilk)

from the body

organism can tolerate for growth

as flesh-eating disease, that leads to rapid destruction

pathogens that carry one or more resistance

of tissue through the action of exotoxin A; it can be

mechanisms, making them resistant to multiple

caused by S. pyogenes or several other bacterial

at which a microorganism will divide or survive

antimicrobials; also called superbugs


lowest concentration of oxygen at which an

  • (MDR-TB) strains of M. tuberculosis that are

RNA strand that cannot be translated until it is

organism will grow

resistant to both rifampin and isoniazid, the drug

replicated into positive single-strand RNA by viral

combination typically prescribed for the treatment of

RNA-dependent RNA polymerase

different amino acid being incorporated into the


resulting polypeptide

structure of interest while not coloring the structure

sheaths and nerve cells in the central nervous system


mitochondrion enclosed by two membranes; the

  • mumps a viral illness that causes swelling of the

location of many metabolic enzymes as well as the

parotid glands; rare in the United States because of

mitochondrial DNA and 70S ribosomes

effective vaccination

generally caused by infection during birth

complex organelle that is the site of cellular

Rickettsia typhi and characterized by fever, rash, and

respiration in eukaryotic cells


streptococcus and occurring primarily in neonates

(less than 2 months old)

  • mutagen type of chemical agent or radiation that can

microbe at the cellular level

induce mutations

of the cut umbilical cord

  • mutant organism harboring a mutation that often

steam under pressure in an autoclave, allowing the

has a recognizable change in phenotype compared to

steam to reach temperatures higher than the boiling

the wild type

by the larvae of the pork tapeworm, Taenia solium

point of water

  • mutation heritable change in the DNA sequence of
  • mold a multicellular fungus, typically made up of

an organism


long filaments

  • neuron specialized cell found throughout the

populations benefit from, and depend on, each other

nervous system that transmits signals through the

DNA followed by attachment to another piece of

nervous system using electrochemical processes

DNA to produce a recombinant molecule, followed

by introduction of this recombinant molecule into an

the acetylcholine receptors in the neuromuscular

easily manipulated host to allow for the creation of

junction, resulting in weakened muscle contraction

by damage to peripheral nerves

multiple copies of a gene of interest


  • mycelium vegetative network of branched, tubular

of brain tissues by the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii;

in vitro that only bind to a single epitope


typically only affects immunocompromised patients

peptidoglycan in some gram-positive, acid-fast

synapse of neurons to stimulate or suppress the

  • monocytes large, agranular, mononuclear leukocytes

bacteria, chiefly mycobacteria

actions of other cells

found in the peripheral blood; responsible for

  • neutralism type of symbiosis that does not affect

phagocytosis of pathogens and damaged cells

either of the two populations

organisms in which individuals have both male and

pneumonia; a milder form of atypical pneumonia

or toxin, preventing attachment to target cells

female reproductive organs

caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae

  • monomer small organic molecule that binds with

neutral pH of 6.5-7.5

like molecules, forming a polymer or macromolecule

by fungi

  • mycotoxin biologically active product of pathogenic

found in large numbers in peripheral blood; able to

carbohydrate polymers; the simplest carbohydrate,

fungi that causes adverse changes in the host cells

leave the bloodstream to phagocytose pathogens in

called a simple sugar

infected tissues; also called polymorphonuclear

axon of some neurons and helps to promote signal

neutrophils (PMNs)

located on one end of the bacterial cell


techniques used for rapid DNA sequencing


oxidized/reduced forms of an electron carrier in cells

the trade/industry publication for epidemiologists,

reporting US public health data compiled by the


  • (NADP+]]/NADPH)]] oxidized/reduced forms of an

electron carrier in cells

expressed as a percentage of the population or

number per standard part of the population, such as


that incorporate inorganic nitrogen gas into organic


forms more easily used by other organisms

  • mordant a chemical added to a specimen that sets a

either DNA or RNA, surrounded by a capsid


within a nucleotide that is responsible for

functions by inhibiting the activity of DNA gyrase,

complementary base pairing between nucleic acid

blocking DNA replication


expressed as a percentage of the population or

only a specific subset of microbes

that, unlike genes, do not encode proteins

number per standard part of the population, such as


behind the nose

transmitted from one person to another

representing the viable bacterial population in a

glands to the nasal cavity

binds to allosteric sites, inducing a conformational

sample obtained after a series of dilutions and

change in the enzyme’s structure that prevents it

multiple tube inoculations

from functioning

  • mRNA short-lived type of RNA that serves as the

through this duct to the inner nose

intermediary between DNA and the synthesis of

but does not penetrate it; requires cleanliness but not

protein products

extending from the posterior nasal cavity; carries air

a high level of disinfection

inhaled through the nose

debris are propelled up and out of the respiratory

photosynthetic organisms when both ATP and

tract by the beating of respiratory cilia and the

folded fully functional proteins

NADPH are required by the cell

mechanical actions of coughing or swallowing

a result of natural infection with a pathogen

caused by an invasive infection of different fungi in

the order Mucorales, such as Rhizopus or Mucor

produced naturally by microorganisms in nature

infection of the urethra that is not caused by

Neisseria gonorrhoeae

and interspersed goblet cells that lines the inner

surfaces of the body, usually bathed in antimicrobial

recognize and destroy abnormal target cells by

secretions from the cells of the membrane

inducing apoptosis

This OpenStax book is available for free at

Appendix E


other than an infectious agent (e.g., genetics,

microscope designed to be used with immersion oil

electrons (often as part of H atoms) from donor

environment, nutritional deficiencies)

to improve resolution

molecules, leaving them oxidized

ultraviolet light, that can induce dimer formation

during lagging strand synthesis

ATP that uses the potential energy stored within an

between two adjacent pyrimidine bases, resulting in

electrochemical gradient to add Pi to ADP

DNA polymerase stalling and possible formation of

amino acids

a frameshift mutation

found in plants, algae, and cyanobacteria, and in

which H2O is used as the electron donor to replace

nutrient environments

codon encoding an amino acid (a sense codon) into a

an electron lost by a reaction center pigment,

stop codon (a nonsense codon)

resulting in oxygen as a byproduct

  • opacity the property of absorbing or blocking light
  • operator DNA sequence located between the

quantitative indirect diagnostic tests for syphilis

promoter region and the first coding gene to which a

repressor protein can bind

used to detect the amount of RNA made by gene

  • operon a group of genes with related functions often

expression within a tissue or organism sample; RNA

found clustered together within the prokaryotic

fragments within a sample are separated by agarose

ribosome that binds charged tRNAs carrying amino

chromosome and transcribed under the control of a

gel electrophoresis, immobilized on a membrane,

single promoter and operator repression sequence

acids that have formed peptide bonds with the

and then exposed to a specific DNA probe labeled

growing polypeptide chain but have not yet

with a radioactive or fluorescent molecular beacon to

dissociated from their corresponding tRNA

aid in detection

conjunctiva in newborns caused by Neisseria

gonorrhoeae transmitted during childbirth



results in uncontrolled muscular spasms and

opposed to regional

backward arching of the neck and spine

legally be reported to regional, state, and/or federal

public health agencies

  • papilloma growth on the skin associated with

cause disease in individuals with compromised host

infection by any of the human papilloma viruses


(HPV); commonly known as a wart

membrane) a structure defining the boundary of the

nucleus; composed of two distinct lipid bilayers that

  • opsonin any molecule that binds to and coats the

are contiguous with each other and with the

outside of a pathogen, identifying it for destruction

released from a cell to a receptor on a nearby cell

endoplasmic reticulum

by phagocytes (examples include antibodies and the

complement proteins C3b and C4b)

population benefits while harming the other

filaments (mainly lamins) found just inside the

parasitology the study of parasites

nuclear envelope; provides structural support to the

chemical substance (an opsonin) that allows


phagocytic cells to recognize, engulf, and destroy the

through skin or mucous membranes when these

pathogen more easily

barriers are breached

nucleotide monomers polymerized into strands

  • nucleoid concentrated area of DNA genome and

grows best

(whooping cough), characterized by severe and

associated proteins found in a prokaryotic cell that is

prolonged coughing spells

not surrounded by a membrane

which a microorganism’s growth rate is highest

a pathogen to another individual without becoming

assists in the organization and packaging of the

concentration of oxygen for a particular


chromosome in prokaryotic cells


  • nucleolus a dense region within the nucleus where

received from another individual or animal

ribosomal RNA biosynthesis occurs and

virus that results in cold sores, most commonly on

preribosomal complexes are made

and around the lips

that is applied to foods; kills pathogens and reduces

the number of spoilage-causing microbes while

maintaining food quality

similar to a normal nucleotide base that can be

incorporated into DNA instead of normal bases

during replication but that has different base pairing

  • orchitis inflammation of one or both of the testes
  • pathogen a disease-causing microorganism

rules than the normal base for which it was

substituted, inducing mutation

typically contains at least one carbon atom bound to

common molecular motifs found on pathogens

one or more hydrogen atoms

mechanism to repair pyrimidine dimers by cutting


the dimer-containing DNA strand on both sides of

molecules as its electron source; also known as

dimer, removing the intervening strand and replacing


the bases with the correct ones

the surface or in the interior of phagocytic cells that

bind to pathogen-associated molecular patterns

where replication begins


pentose sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous

  • pellicle structure that underlies the plasma


the pharynx

membrane in protists, providing additional support

  • nucleus a membrane-bound structure of eukaryotic
  • osmosis diffusion of water across a semipermeable

cells that houses the DNA genome


female reproductive organs that may spread from the

vagina to the cervix, uterus, fallopian tubes, and

gather light


water diffusing across a semipermeable membrane,

driven by differences in solute concentration across

the membrane

through injection, endocytosis, or membrane fusion

  • penicillin β-lactam antibacterial that was the first

cell wall synthesis inhibitor developed

most commonly caused by Pseudomonas

  • penis external genital organ in males through which

closest to the specimen, typically located at the ends

aeruginosa; often called swimmer’s ear

urine and semen are discharged

of turrets

  • otitis inflammation of the ear

degrade kDNA in target cells, as well as inhibit


protein synthesis

inside the middle ear with or without infection

presence of oxygen

glycolytic pathway that produces intermediates used

antisera are added to neighboring wells in an agar

for the biosynthesis of nucleotides and amino acids;

cannot synthesize its own ATP and, therefore, must

gel, allowing visualization of precipitin arcs

also called the phosphogluconate pathway or the

rely on a host cell for energy; behaves like a parasite

hexose monophosphate shunt

when inside a host cell, but is metabolically inactive

the peptidoglycan layer found in gram-negative cell

outside of a host cell


duodenum, often associated with Helicobacter pylori

involves measurement of study subjects on variables

inhibitors that interfere with formation of the

one amino acid and the amine group of another;

hypothesized to be associated with the outcome of

initiation complex for translation and prevent

formed with the loss of a water molecule

interest, but without any manipulation of the subjects

translocation of the growing protein from the

ribosomal A site to the P site

eye (also called an eyepiece)


Appendix E

N-acetylmuramic acid NAM and N-

evaluation of the effectiveness and safety of drugs on

or cytoplasmic membrane) lipid bilayer with

acetylglucosamine (NAG) subunits linked together

the basis of information from an individual’s

embedded proteins that defines the boundary of the

by peptide chains; a major constituent of bacterial

genomic sequence as well as examination of changes


cell walls

in gene expression in response to the drug

part of the 50S ribosomal subunit and catalyzes

  • plasmid small, circular, double-stranded DNA

formation of the peptide bond between the amino

  • pharynx region connecting the nose and mouth to

molecule that is typically independent from the

acid bound to a tRNA and the growing polypeptide

the larynx: the throat

bacterial chromosome


  • perforin compound released from a natural killer

uses an annular stop and annular plate to increase

away from the cell wall when a cell is exposed to a

cell that creates pores in the target cell through


hypertonic environment

which other toxins (particularly granzymes) can gain

  • platelets cell fragments in the peripheral blood that

access to the cytoplasm

chemical agent through comparison with that of

originate from megakaryocyte cells in the bone

phenol on Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella

marrow; also called thrombocytes

the heart

enterica serovar Typhi

  • phenolics class of chemical disinfectants and

during which the patient returns to normal function

antiseptics characterized by a phenol group that

  • pleconaril an antiviral drug targeting picornaviruses

denatures proteins and disrupts membranes

that prevents the uncoating of virus particles upon

their infection of host cells

which the number of pathogens present in the host

  • phenotype observable characteristics of a cell or

decreases, along with signs and symptoms of disease


which the number of pathogens present in the host is

phosphate group attached to the 5ʹ carbon of the

by Streptococcus pneumoniae that results in an

greatest and the signs and symptoms of disease are

sugar of one nucleotide bonds to the hydroxyl group

inflammation of the meninges

most severe

of the 3ʹ carbon of the sugar of the next nucleotide

infection in patients with AIDS; caused by P.

are inflamed and may erode



  • pneumonia pulmonary inflammation that causes the

severe than gingivitis, spreading deeper into the

lungs to fill with fluids


phosphate group

massive hemorrhages in the lungs and is

connects the CNS with organs, sensory organs, and

communicable through aerosols

muscles throughout the body

technique in which membrane phospholipids are

saponified to release the fatty acids of the

phospholipids, which can be subjected to FAME

substitution, that affects a single base pair

regulatory T cells inhibit self-reactive immune

analysis for identification purposes

responses in T cells that have already exited the


spread in which the transmission of a disease from

absorb energy and then release that energy as light

the source occurs for a brief period that is less than

after a delay

the pathogen’s incubation period

and the plasma membrane, primarily in gram-

negative bacteria

organisms convert solar energy into chemical energy

spores of parasitic Microsporidia fungi that pierces

that can then be used to build carbohydrates

host cell membranes

gastrointestinal tract that propel ingested material

through the stomach, intestines, and, eventually,

through the rectum and out of the body

a cell to absorb solar energy; each one appears the

of the enteric polio virus characterized by

color of light that it transmits or reflects

inflammation of the motor neurons of the brain stem

and spinal cord; can result in paralysis

entire surface of a bacterial cell

within a photosynthetic membrane, containing both a

  • peroxidase enzyme that catalyzes the detoxification

light-harvesting complex and a reaction center

nucleotides added to the 3’ end of a eukaryotic

of peroxides

primary mRNA transcript to stabilize it

  • phototaxis directional movement using flagella in

response to light

organelle (not part of the endomembrane system)

method for separating populations of proteins and

that produces hydrogen peroxide to break down

  • phototroph organism that gets its energy from light

DNA fragments during Sanger sequencing of

various types of molecules; also plays a role in lipid

varying sizes by differential migration rates caused


by a voltage gradient through a vertical gel matrix

bacteria that use sunlight as their primary source of

  • peroxygen type of strong oxidizing agent that causes


free radical formation in cells; can be used as a

commonly produced during prokaryotic transcription

disinfectant or antiseptic

  • phylogeny the evolutionary history of a group of

that carries information encoding multiple


  • persister dormant cell that survives in the death


phase and is resistant to most antibiotics

  • pertussis contagious illness caused by Bordetella

normal immune response, in which multiple clones

  • pia mater fragile and innermost membrane layer

pertussis that causes severe coughing fits followed

of B cells respond to many different epitopes on an

surrounding the brain

by a whooping sound during inhalation; commonly


known as whooping cough

  • pili long protein extensions on the surface of some
  • polyenes class of antifungal drugs that bind to

bacterial cells; specialized F or sex pilus aids in

ergosterol to form membrane pores, disrupting

DNA transfer between cells

the symptoms of whooping cough

fungal cell membrane integrity

  • petechiae small red or purple spots on the skin that

dissolved materials are endocytosed into smaller

result from blood leaking out of damaged vessels

shape with many facets


  • plague infectious epidemic disease caused by

that allows counting of bacteria in a specific volume

inclusion surrounded by a phospholipid monolayer

Yersinia pestis

under a microscope

embedded with protein

  • plankton microscopic organisms that float in the

water and are carried by currents; they may be

monitors and fights infections

short sequence containing multiple unique restriction

autotrophic (phytoplankton) or heterotrophic

enzyme recognition sites that are used for inserting

  • phagemid a plasmid capable of being replicated as a


foreign DNA into the plasmid after restriction

plasmid and also incorporated into a phage head

digestion of both the foreign DNA and the plasmid

  • planktonic free-floating or drifting in suspension
  • polymer macromolecule composed of individual

particles are engulfed by membrane invagination,

units, monomers, that bind together like building

after which the particles are enclosed in a pocket,

plants that are genetically engineered to express


which is pinched off from the membrane to form a

mouse or human antibodies


  • plaque clear area on bacterial lawn caused by viral

molecular technique that rapidly amplifies the

lysis of host cells

number of copies of specific DNA sequences to

that results when the phagosome is fused with the

make the amplified DNA available for other

lysosome, leading to the destruction of the pathogens

produces and secretes antibodies



  • plasma fluid portion of the blood that contains all

clotting factors


phagocytic cell that contains the phagocytosed

pathogen enclosed by part of the cell membrane

This OpenStax book is available for free at

Appendix E


  • polymyxins lipophilic polypeptide antibiotics that

target the lipopolysaccharide component of gram-

oxidize hydrogen sulfide into elemental sulfur and

negative bacteria and ultimately disrupt the integrity

sulfuric acid; their purple color is due to the

of their outer and inner membranes

not include a membrane-bound nucleus

pigments bacteriochlorophylls and carotenoids

  • purulent an infection that produces pus; suppurative

to 50 amino acids

complex nuclear membrane

  • pus accumulation of dead pathogens, neutrophils,

tissue fluid, and other bystander cells that may have

is not descended from a single common ancestor

transcription machinery binds to initiate transcription

been killed by phagocytes at the site of an infection

mRNA molecule that is being translated by multiple

disease from person to person, either indirectly or

ribosomes concurrently

directly, through a population of susceptible

  • pyocyanin blue pigments produced by some strains

individuals as one infected individual transmits the

of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

agent to others, who transmit it to others yet again

monosaccharides linked together by glycosidic

  • pyoderma any suppurative (pus-producing)

bonds; also called glycans

  • prophage phage genome that has incorporated into

infection of the skin

the host genome

  • pyoverdin a water-soluble, yellow-green or yellow-

through which pathogens can enter host tissue

brown pigment produced by some strains of

cases from the beginning of the study through time

Pseudomonas aeruginosa

to associate measured variables with outcomes

which pathogens can leave diseased individual

six-carbon ring; includes cytosine and thymine in

messenger RNA and can be directly translated inside


the host cell

  • protease enzyme involved in protein catabolism that

groups in solution


removes individual amino acids from the ends of

peptide chains

  • pyuria pus or white blood cells in the urine

plates with diluted bacterial samples for the purpose

of cell counting; cells are mixed with warm liquid

HIV therapy and hepatitis C therapy, that inhibits

agar before being poured into Petri dishes

viral-specific proteases, preventing viral maturation

calcium influx into tapeworms, leading to spasm and

a cell or tissue under a specific condition

  • Q fever highly infectious zoonotic disease caused by


Coxiella burnetii that farmers can contract from their

  • precipitin complex lattice of antibody and antigen

animals by inhalation

that becomes too large to stay in solution

  • quarantine the isolation of an individual for the

proteins of an organism

purpose of preventing the spread of disease

and antigen in a test tube form precipitin at the

interface of the two solutions

proteins in an organism; involves monitoring

cationic detergents, named for the characteristic

differences in gene expression patterns between cells

quaternary nitrogen atom that confers a positive

at the protein level

charge, that make up an important class of

individuals in a population ill with a specific disease

  • protists informal name for diverse group of

disinfectants and antiseptics

eukaryotic organisms, including unicellular, colonial,

acute and deadly parasitic infection of brain tissues

by the amoeba Naegleria fowleri

and multicellular types that lack specialized tissues

complexes formed by the combination of several

separate polypeptides or subunits

formed by the accumulation of hydrogen ions (also

  • quinolines class of antiprotozoan drugs long used

antibody that is attached to wells of a microtiter plate

known as protons) on one side of a membrane

for the treatment of malaria; interferes with heme

to capture antigen from a solution, or in an indirect

relative to the other protozoan (plural: protozoa) a


ELISA, the antigen-specific antibody present in a

unicellular eukaryotic organism, usually motile

patient’s serum

bacteria; enables a coordinated response from cells

animal or plant and cultured in vitro

generally those that are nonphotosynthetic,

when the population reaches a threshold density

unicellular, and motile protozoology the study of


results in impaired immune function

  • provirus animal virus genome that has integrated

into the host chromosome



proteins that make a bacterial cell resistant to one or

lymphatic tissue; comprises bone marrow and the

more antibiotics


fibrin, red blood cells, and bacteria that forms on

  • rabies contagious viral disease primarily transmitted

mucous membranes of the nasal cavity, tonsils,

by the bite of infected mammals that can cause acute

disease in the host regardless of the effectiveness of

pharynx, and larynx of individuals with diphtheria

encephalitis resulting in madness, aggressiveness,

the host’s immune system

coma, and death

large intestine with the formation of a

produced upon first exposure to a specific antigen

pseudomembrane; caused by C. difficile

which antigen added to a well in an antiserum-

impregnated gel diffuses, producing a precipitin ring

techniques, to the first dye added to the specimen

ameboid movement; these “false feet” form by gel-

whose diameter squared is directly proportional to

sol cycling of actin polymerization/depolymerization

antigen concentration

in a polypeptide chain protein]] macromolecule that

results when the number of amino acids linked

birds that causes a rare form of pneumonia

Bacillus moniliformis or Spirillum minor; can be

together becomes very large, or when multiple

transmitted by the bite of a rat or through contact

polypeptides are used as building subunits

with rat feces or urine

inflammatory reactions in and thickening of skin

synthesized by RNA polymerase in eukaryotes

containing a pigment molecule that can undergo

cold temperatures; most have an optimum growth

before undergoing the additional processing required

oxidation upon excitation by a light-harvesting

temperature of about 15 °C and can survive

to become a mature mRNA molecule

pigment, actually giving up an electron

temperatures below 0 °C; most cannot survive

  • primase RNA polymerase enzyme that synthesizes

temperatures above 20 °C

the RNA primer required to initiate DNA synthesis

Mycobacterium tuberculosis that forms later in life;

occurs when the bacteria escape from the Ghon

  • primer short complementary sequence of five to 10

cool temperatures, typically between about 4 °C and

complexes and establish focal infections at other

RNA nucleotides synthesized on the template strand

25 °C, with optimum growth at about 20 °C

sites in immunocompromised individuals

by primase that provides a free 3’-OH group to

which DNA polymerase can add DNA nucleotides

infection incurred by a woman during or after

ions and molecules derived from partial reduction of

  • prion acellular infectious particle consisting of just



proteins that can cause progressive diseases in

  • purines nitrogenous bases containing a double-ring

animals and humans

structure with a six-carbon ring fused to a five-

grouped into codons

carbon ring; includes adenine and guanine

during which the pathogen continues to multiply in

the host and nonspecific signs and symptoms

that are similar to purple sulfur bacteria except they

become observable

use hydrogen rather than hydrogen sulfide for


release outside the cell


Appendix E

variant of PCR involving the use of fluorescence to

live in the human body

the 3’-OH group of the growing mRNA molecule

allow for the monitoring of the increase in double-

that are complementary to the template strand,

  • resolution the ability to distinguish between two

stranded template during a PCR reaction as it occurs,

forming covalent phosphodiester bonds between the

points in an image

allowing for the quantitation of the original target

nucleotides in the RNA


bacterial enzyme that cuts DNA fragments at a

RNA sequences from eukaryotic primary transcripts

unique, often palindromic, recognition site; used in

endocytosis in which extracellular ligands are

and reconnecting those encoded by exons

genetic engineering for splicing DNA fragments

targeted to specific cells through their binding to

together into recombinant molecules

specific cell surface receptors


  • (RFLP) a genetic variant identified by differing

sequence recognized by a restriction enzyme that is

numbers or sizes of DNA fragments generated after

tickborne disease caused by Rickettsia rickettsii

typically four to six base pairs long and reads the

digestion of a DNA sample with a restriction

characterized by fever, body aches, and a rash

same in the 5ʹ to 3ʹ direction on one strand as it does

endonuclease; the variants are caused by the loss or

in the 5ʹ to 3ʹ direction on the complementary strand

  • rogue form misfolded form of the PrP protein that is

gain of restriction sites, or the insertion or deleting of

normally found in the cell membrane and has the

sequences between restriction sites.

tendency to aggregate in neurons, causing extensive

resulting from the cutting and insertion of DNA from

  • retort large industrial autoclave used for moist heat

cell death and brain damage

one organism into the DNA of another organism,

sterilization on a large scale

resulting in a new combination of genetic material

unidirectional DNA synthesis of a circular DNA

historical data with present cases


pharmaceuticals produced as a result of genetic


  • retrovirus positive ssRNA virus that produces and
  • roseola a rash-causing illness, most commonly

uses reverse transcriptase to make an ssDNA copy of

affecting children, associated with human

the retroviral genome that can then be made into

herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6)

which DNA from one organism is cut and new

dsDNA and integrate into the host cell chromosome

pieces of foreign DNA from a second organism are

to form a provirus within the host chromosome.

inserted, artificially creating new combinations of

endoplasmic reticulum containing bound 80S

genetic material within the organism

ribosomes for the synthesis of proteins destined for

that can make a copy of ssDNA from ssRNA

the plasma membrane

electrons and become reduced; electrons flow from

molecules with lower redox potentials to those with

drugs that involve nucleoside analog competitive

drug into the body

higher redox potentials

inhibition and non-nucleoside noncompetitive

  • rRNA type of stable RNA that is a major constituent

inhibition of the HIV reverse transcriptase

of ribosomes, ensuring proper alignment of the

a reduction reaction

mRNA and the ribosomes as well as catalyzing the

of PCR used to obtain DNA copies of a specific

formation of the peptide bonds between two aligned

mRNA molecule that begins with the conversion of

amino acids during protein synthesis

electrons to acceptor molecules, leaving them

mRNA molecules to cDNA by the enzyme reverse



  • rubella German measles, caused by the rubella virus

once under control or largely eradicated that has

to some viral infections that result in the swelling of

a prokaryotic cell propelled by counterclockwise

begun causing new outbreaks due to changes in

the liver and brain; aspirin use has also been linked

flagellar rotation

susceptible populations, the environment, or the

to this syndrome

pathogen itself

  • Rh factor red blood cell surface antigen that can
  • reflection when light bounces back from a surface

trigger type II hypersensitivity reactions

  • rheostat a dimmer switch that controls the intensity

when a light wave passes from one medium to

of the illuminator on a light microscope

  • σ factor subunit of bacterial RNA polymerase


conferring promoter specificity that can be

infection with Streptococcus pyogenes that can result

substituted with a different version in response to an

slowing of light waves by a particular medium

in damage to joints or the valves of the heart

environmental condition, allowing for a quick and

global change of the regulon transcribed

by self-antigens and serve to inhibit peripheral self-

in which immune complexes form and deposit in the

reacting T cells from causing damage and

joints and their linings, leading to inflammation and



Salmonella bacteria

  • rhinitis inflammation of the nasal cavity

responses recognize transplanted tissue as non-self,

mounting a response that destroys the tissue or leads

  • rhizines structures made of hyphae found on some

to the death of the individual

lichens; aid in attachment to a surface

antibody is first attached to the wells of a microtiter

plate, allowing it to capture antigen from an

by Borrelia recurrentis or B. hermsii and

composed of ribonucleotides; important in

unknown solution to be quantified

characterized by a recurrent fever

transcription and translation (protein synthesis)

from colonies growing on a complete medium are

as the pentose sugar component and a nitrogenous

technique in which dideoxy nucleotides, each

inoculated onto various types of minimal media


labeled with a molecular beacon, are used to

using a piece of sterile velvet, ensuring that the

  • ribosome a complex intracellular structure that

terminate chain elongation; the resulting

orientation of cells deposited on all plates is the

incrementally sized fragments are then separated by

synthesizes proteins

same so that growth (or absence thereof) can be

electrophoresis to determine the sequence of the

compared between plates

DNA molecule

within the 5’ end of some prokaryotic mRNA

molecules that may bind to a small intracellular

the DNA strands are separated for replication

molecule, influencing the completion of transcription

inanimate surfaces to levels deemed safe for public

and/or translation


during the process of replication as DNA unwinds

  • saprozoic refers to protozoans that ingest small,

and opens up to separate the DNA strands

soluble food molecules

first enzyme of the Calvin cycle responsible for

adding a CO2 molecule onto a five-carbon ribulose

  • SARS severe acute respiratory syndrome; caused by

bisphosphate (RuBP) molecule

a zoonotic coronavirus that results in flu-like


  • rifampin semisynthetic member of the rifamycin

characteristics, allowing for their expression to be

class that blocks bacterial RNA polymerase activity,

easily monitored

inhibiting transcription

containing only single bonds, which results in the

maximum number of hydrogen atoms per chain

containing genes encoding enzymes required for a

biosynthetic pathway and that is expressed when the

virus by preventing viral escape from endosomes

upon host cell uptake, preventing viral RNA release

electron microscope that bounces electrons off of the

product of the pathway continues to be required but

and subsequent viral replication

specimen, forming an image of the surface

is repressed when the product of the pathway

accumulates, removing the need for continued

  • ringworm a tinea (cutaneous mycosis of the skin),


typically characterized by a round, red, slightly

a probe that travels across the surface of a specimen

raised lesion that heals outward from the center,

at a constant distance while the current, which is

  • repressor protein that suppresses transcription of a

gene or operon in response to an external stimulus

giving it the appearance of a round worm

sensitive to the size of the gap, is measured

  • reservoir a living host or nonliving site in which a

antisense RNAs or small interfering RNAs (siRNAs)

uses a probe that is passed just above the specimen

pathogenic organism can survive or multiply

interfere with gene expression by binding to mRNA,

as a constant voltage bias creates the potential for an

preventing translation and protein synthesis

electric current between the probe and the specimen

This OpenStax book is available for free at

Appendix E


Streptococcus pyogenes, marked by a high fever and

the bacterial pathogen gains access to the

used to detect the presence of certain DNA

a disseminated scarlet rash


sequences within a given DNA sample; DNA

fragments within the sample are separated by

  • septum separating structure that forms during cell

agarose gel electrophoresis, immobilized on a

Schistosoma spp.; transmitted from a snail

division; also describes the separating wall between

membrane, and then exposed to a specific DNA

intermediate host to human swimmers or bathers in

cells in a filament

probe labeled with a radioactive or fluorescent


molecular beacon to aid in detection

  • schizogony asexual reproduction in protozoans that

consequence of a prior disease

is characterized by multiple cell divisions (one cell

of bacterial chromosomal DNA near the site of

dividing to form many smaller cells)

of culture samples from one tube to another to

integration by the phage

  • scolex the head region of a cestode (tapeworm),

perform a several-fold dilution of the original culture

which typically has suckers and/or hooks for

immune system to target specific pathogens or toxins

attachment to the host

antibody to a pathogen is detectible using an

  • spike viral glycoprotein embedded within the viral
  • scrapie form of transmissible spongiform


capsid or envelope used for attachment to host cells

encephalopathy that primarily affects sheep

  • serotype strain or variation of the same species of

bacteria; also called serovar

fastidious bacteria that includes the human

secretes sebum

  • serovar specific strain of bacteria identified by

pathogens that cause syphilis, Lyme disease, and

  • sebum lipid-rich substance secreted by the

agglutination using strain-specific antisera


sebaceous glands of the skin

  • serum fluid portion of the blood after clotting has
  • spleen abdominal organ consisting of secondary

occurred; generally lacks clotting factors

lymphoid tissue that filters blood and captures

attached for use in ELISA assays; in direct and

pathogens and antigens that pass into it; also

sandwich ELISAs, it is specific for the antigen being

contains specialized macrophages and dendritic cells


quantified, whereas in indirect ELISA, it is specific

that are crucial for antigen presentation

for the primary antibody

nuclear ribonucleoproteins that catalyzes the splicing

response due to infection, metabolic disturbance,

out of intron-encoded RNA sequences from the

  • (SCID) genetic disorder resulting in impaired

poor diet, stress, or other acquired factors

primary transcript during RNA maturation in

function of B cells and T cells


  • sex pilus specialized type of pilus that aids in DNA

after a primary infection as a result of the primary

transfer between some prokaryotic cells

disease compromising immune defenses or

that life can arise from nonliving matter

antibiotics, thus eliminating protective microbiota

  • sheath part of the tail on a bacteriophage that

contracts to introduce the viral DNA into the

mutagen that occurs through DNA replication errors


lymphatic tissue; comprises the spleen, lymph nodes,

Peyer’s patches, and mucosa associated lymphoid

  • shigellosis gastrointestinal illness caused by Shigella

low levels with no discernible pattern or trend,

tissue (MALT)

bacteria, also called bacillary dysentery

frequently with no geographic focus

  • shingles acute and painful rash that forms following
  • spores specialized cells that may be used for

produced in response to a specific antigen to which

the reactivation of a latent chickenpox infection

reproduction or may be specialized to withstand

the body has previously been exposed

  • shock extreme drop in blood pressure that, among

harsh conditions

other causes, can result from a strong immune

hydrogen bonds between the carbonyl and amine

response to the activity of toxins or response to

fungus Sporothrix schenkii, which causes skin

groups of a polypeptide chain; may be an α-helix or

bacterial products and can result in death

lesions and can potentially spread to the lymphatic

a β-pleated sheet, or both

system; also known as rose gardener’s disease or

bacterial and eukaryotic cells

rose thorn disease

molecules through the plasma membrane to be

  • side chain the variable functional group, R, attached

released (secreted) from the cell

to the α carbon of an amino acid

produces a dormant endospore

in which individuals produce normal levels of IgG

  • sign objective and measurable indication of a disease

inoculating plates with diluted bacterial samples for

and IgM, but are unable to produce secretory IgA

the purpose of cell counting; the liquid sample is

same amino acid being incorporated into the

pipetted onto solid medium and spread uniformly

encourage the growth of some bacteria while

resulting polypeptide

across the plate

inhibiting others

one lens to focus light from the specimen

infection of the brain that occurs primarily in the

antimicrobial drug indicating that it preferentially

central and southern United States

kills or inhibits the growth of the target microbe

single dye

  • stage the platform of a microscope on which slides

while causing minimal or no harm to the host

are placed

the single strands of DNA near each replication fork

  • staining the addition of stains or dyes to a

replication process whereby each of the two parental

to prevent the single-stranded DNA from rewinding

microscopic specimen for the purpose of enhancing

DNA strands acts as a template for new DNA to be

into a double helix


synthesized, producing hybrid old- and new-strand

daughter molecules

illness caused by toxins produced by Staphylococcus

  • S-layer cell envelope layer composed of protein


membranes or nonintact skin but does not penetrate

covering the cell walls of some bacteria and archaea;

tissues; requires a high level of disinfection

in some archaea, may function as the cell wall

that are cytotoxic to skin cells and white blood cells


  • starch energy-storage polysaccharide in plants;

layers of polysaccharides that aid bacterial adherence

composed of two types of glucose polymers:

to surfaces

amylose and amylopectin

derivative of a natural antibiotic

  • smear a thin layer of a specimen on a slide

which is typically the codon that initiates translation

for gene expression; it is complementary to the

antisense strand

endoplasmic reticulum that lacks ribosomes, is

involved in the biosynthesis of lipids and in

of cells formed by cell division is equal to the

  • sepsis systemic inflammatory response to an

carbohydrate metabolism, and serves as the site of

number of cells dying

infection that results in high fever and edema,

detoxification of toxic compounds within the cell

causing organ damage and possibly leading to shock

and death

arrangements of atoms

STI chancroid

  • sterilant strong chemical that effectively kills all

individual cells; characteristic of some fungi

microbes and viruses in or on an inanimate item

  • soma cell body of a neuron
  • sonication method of microbial control that involves

vegetative microbes, endospores, and viruses

application of ultrasound waves to form cavitation

within a solution, including inside cells, disrupting

blood pressure resulting from an inflammatory

cell components as a result

vegetative cells, endospores, and viruses from an

response against a systemic infection


  • septic the condition of being septicemic; having an
  • steroid lipid with complex, ringed structures found

infection in the blood

in cell membranes and hormones

  • sterol the most common type of steroid; contains an

multiplying in blood

OH group at one specific position on one of the

molecule’s carbon rings


Appendix E

  • symbiosis any interaction between different species

overhangs that may be produced when many

that are associated with each other within a

during which DNA replication is halted once the

restriction enzymes cut DNA


chromosome has been fully replicated

  • symptom subjective experience of disease felt by
  • stigma light-sensing eyespot found in Euglena

the patient

that occurs when RNA polymerase has reached

specific DNA sequences, leading to release of the

for which there is no tRNA with a complementary

  • synapse junction between a neuron and another cell

enzyme from the DNA template, freeing the RNA

anticodon; a signal within the mRNA for termination

transcript and, thus, halting transcription

  • syncytia multinucleated cells that form from the

of translation

fusion of normal cells during infections or other


during which a nonsense codon aligns with the A

that forms the uppermost layer of the epidermis

site, signaling release factors to release of the

polypeptide, leading to the dissociation of the small

characteristic of a particular disease

and large ribosomal subunits from the mRNA and

pharyngitis caused by Streptococcus pyogenes

from each other

  • syngamy process in which haploid gametes fuse

condition similar to staphylococcal toxic shock

structure of a polypeptide

syndrome but with greater likelihood of bacteremia,

from a chemical not found in nature

necrotizing fasciitis, and acute respiratory distress

  • syphilis an STI caused by the bacterium Treponema


find evidence of the targeted disease when the


pathogen is present

  • stroma a gel-like fluid that makes up much of a

chloroplast’s volume, and in which the thylakoids

that affect the organism as a whole, rather than a


not find evidence of the targeted disease when the

single organ

pathogen is absent

caused by the helminth Strongyloides stercoralis

  • testes (singular testis) pair of glands located in the

multiple locations or body systems

scrotum of males that produce sperm and


molecular structure showing how the atoms are

severe inflammatory response to the presence of


  • tetanus bacterial disease caused by exotoxin

microbes in the blood; can lead to sepsis

produced by Clostridium tetani that causes a rigid


numbers and types of atoms but with different

autoimmune disease producing inflammatory type

bonding sequences

III hypersensitivities as antibodies form immune

that bind to the 30S subunit, blocking the association

complexes with nuclear and cytoplasmic antigens

of tRNAs with the ribosome during translation

endocarditis in which damage to the valves of the

heart occurs over months as a result of blood clot

  • TH]]1 cells]] subtype of T cells that stimulate cytotoxic

throughout the body

formation and immune-response-induced fibrosis of

T cells, macrophages, neutrophils, and NK cells

the valves

  • TH]]17 cells]] subtype of T cell that are essential for

defense against specific pathogens and infections,

signs or symptoms

such as chronic mucocutaneous infections with C.


penetrates the epidermis and dermis to enter deeper

  • TH]]2 cells]] subtype of T cells that stimulate B cells


involved in the recognition of processed foreign

and direct their differentiation; also involved in

epitopes presented with MHC I or MHC II

directing antibody class switching

  • substrate chemical reactants of an enzymatic


  • thallus body of fleshy fungi (more generally, a body

orchestrator, bridging humoral, cellular, and innate

without a root, stem, or leaf) that commonly co-

immunity, and serves as the effector cells of cellular

occurs with HIV infection; the microbes move to the

ATP production in which a high-energy phosphate

immunity; T cell

lymphatic system in the groin

group is removed from an organic molecule and

added to an ADP molecule


warm temperatures, typically between about 50 °C

antigens as opposed to whole pathogens

  • tail fiber long protein component on the lower part

and 80 °C

of a phage used for specific attachment to bacterial


under a TEM

phosphate structure composing the framework of a

nucleic acid strand that results from phosphodiester

bond formation between nucleotides

bacteriophage sheath that, along with tail fibers, lead

aerotolerance of bacteria; it contains a low

to phage attachment to a bacterial cell

concentration of agar to allow motile bacteria to

  • tapeworms segmented, hermaphroditic, parasitic

move throughout the medium

related synthetic antimicrobial compounds that

function as antimetabolites, competitively inhibiting

flatworms (Platyhelminthes)

an enzyme in the bacterial folic acid synthesis

  • tartar calcified heavy plaque on teeth, also called

medium through which oxygen diffuses from the


dental calculus taxonomy the classification,

tube opening, producing a range of oxygen

description, identification, and naming of living

environments down the length of the tube

nonspecific immune response with excessive


production of cytokines (cytokine storm) causing

inflammation, high fever, shock, and, potentially,

capable of activating a B cell with the cooperation of


a helper T cell

membranous sacs found in the stroma of

chloroplasts; site of photosynthesis

  • TDP thermal death point is the lowest temperature at

DNA molecule, allowing the DNA to fit within a

which all microorganisms are killed in a 10-minute

small space


and positive selection of T cells in the thymus

  • TDT thermal death time is the length of time needed

or overwound to fit inside a cell

to kill all microorganisms in a sample at a given

adjacent thymine bases on exposure to ultraviolet



dioxide, brought to high pressures to reach a state

  • thymine pyrimidine nitrogenous base found only in

that has physical properties between those of liquids

linear chromosome and adds nucleotides to the 3’

DNA nucleotides

and gases, allowing it to effectively penetrate

end of one of the DNA strands, maintaining the

  • tincture solution of an antiseptic compound

surfaces and cells to form carbonic acid, which

telomere sequence, thus preventing loss of DNA

dissolved in alcohol

lowers the pH of cells considerably, leading to

from the end of the chromosome


  • telomere repetitive, noncoding sequence found at

can activate a B cell without cooperation from a

the end of a linear eukaryotic chromosome that

helper T cell

develop as a result of long-term, broad-spectrum

protects the genes near the end of the chromosome

antimicrobial use

from deletion as the DNA molecule is repeatedly

  • tinea any cutaneous fungal infection caused by


dermatophytes, such as tinea corporis, tinea capitis,

tinea cruris, and tinea pedis

breakdown of superoxide anions

viral genome into the host cell chromosome and

replicate with the host cell until new viruses are

known as ringworm of the scalp

produced; a phage that undergoes the lysogenic

degerming; lower the surface tension of water,


known as ringworm of the body

creating emulsions that mechanically carry away


of a fetus in utero

also known as jock itch

embedded in the dermis that secretes the watery

that is used topically for the treatment of

known as athlete’s foot

substance known as perspiration

dermatophytic skin infections

This OpenStax book is available for free at

Appendix E


only certain tissue types within a host

Krebs cycle, during which each pyruvate is

long-wavelength or infrared light to fluoresce

decarboxylated and oxidized (forming NADH), and

fluorochromes in the specimen

  • titer concentration obtained by titration; the

the resulting two-carbon acetyl group is attached to a

reciprocal of a measurement of biological activity

large carrier molecule called coenzyme A, resulting

determined by finding the dilution of an unknown

drum, this structure separates the outer and middle

in the formation of acetyl-CoA and CO; also called

(e.g., antigen-specific antibody in an antiserum) that


the bridge reaction

shows the defined end-point; always expressed as a

whole number

an autoimmune disease affecting insulin production

synthesis whereby a ribosome decodes an mRNA

by β cells of the pancreas

  • tolerance lack of an anti-self immune response

message into a polypeptide product

due to cross-linking of antigen-specific IgE on the

receptors (PRRs) that may be found on the external

degenerative disease caused by prions; leads to the

outside of mast cells, resulting in release of

surface of phagocytes or facing inward in interior

death of neurons in the brain

inflammatory mediators


electron microscope that uses an electron beam,

by IgG and IgM antibodies binding to antigens on

focused with magnets, that passes through a thin

cell surfaces


the structure of supercoiled chromosomes,

preventing overwinding of DNA during certain

induced by formation of immune complexes and

through a medium

cellular processes like DNA replication

their deposition in tissues and blood vessels


topological transitions of DNA, relaxing it from its

inflammatory reaction that takes longer to manifest

supercoiled state

than the first three hypersensitivity types, due to the

molecules between various components of the

need for activation of antigen-presenting cell and T-

endomembrane system

cell subsets

calculated by multiplying the magnification of the

ocular by the magnification of the objective lenses

known as a transposon independently excises from

with certain serotypes of Salmonella

  • toxemia presence of toxins in the blood

one location in a DNA molecule and integrates


the loss of blood pressure and blood clot formation

caused by a bacterial superantigen, toxic shock

DNA that can independently excise from one

syndrome toxin

location in a DNA molecule and integrate into the

DNA elsewhere

exposes milk to ultra-high temperatures (near 140

to cause damage to host cells

°C) for a few seconds, effectively sterilizing it so

Bartonella quintana and characterized by high fever,

that it can be sealed and stored for long periods

  • toxin poison produced by a pathogen

body aches, conjunctivitis, ocular pain, severe

without refrigeration

headaches, and severe bone pain

bacterial toxins

called acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis

infection caused by Toxoplasma spp. and transmitted

electron microscopy

through contact with cysts in cat feces; infections in

measure the amount of antibody directed against

pregnant women may cause birth defects or

antigens associated with Treponema pallidum

two layers of phospholipid molecules with the


nonpolar tails associating to form a hydrophobic

a glycerol molecule; also called a triglyceride

barrier between the polar heads; also called lipid

in lower amounts than macronutrients; also called


  • triazoles ergosterol biosynthesis inhibitors used to


treat several types of systemic yeast infections;

  • trachea also known as the windpipe, this is a

exhibit more selective toxicity than the imidazoles

chains containing one or more carbon-carbon double

stiffened tube of cartilage that runs from the larynx

and are associated with fewer side effects

bonds and subsequently fewer than the maximum

to the bronchi

number of hydrogen atoms per chain

  • uracil pyrimidine nitrogenous base found only in
  • trachoma a type of conjunctivitis, caused by

Chlamydia trachomatis, that is a major cause of

RNA nucleotides

preventable blindness

caused by the nematode Trichinella spiralis;

  • ureter duct that transports urine from the kidneys to

associated with cyst formation

the urinary bladder

DNA double helix during transcription

Trichomonas vaginalis

regulatory genes that function by influencing the

  • urethra duct through which urine passes from the

binding of RNA polymerase to the promoter and

whipworm Trichuris trichiura

urinary bladder to leave the body through the urinary

allowing its progression to transcribe structural



glycerol molecule; also called a triacylglycerol

the information encoded in DNA

that functions as an antimetabolite to an enzyme in

ready to be excreted

the bacterial folic acid synthesis pathway

mRNA molecules produced by cells; involves

  • tRNA small type of stable RNA that carries the

leaves the body

monitoring differences in gene expression patterns

correct amino acid to the site of protein synthesis in

between cells at the mRNA level

the ribosome and base pairs with the mRNA to allow

the amino acid it carries to be inserted in the

effectiveness of a chemical disinfectant on a surface;

in bacteria in which genes are transferred through

polypeptide chain being synthesized

involves dipping a surface in a culture of the targeted

viral infection

microorganism, disinfecting the surface, and then

transferring the surface to a fresh medium to see if

actively feeding and growing

bacteria will grow

circulating leukocytes exit the bloodstream via the

microvascular endothelium

  • uterus female reproductive organ in which a

fertilized egg implants and develops

molecules into eukaryotic hosts

infection marked by the presence of acid-fast

bacteria growing in nodules (especially in the lungs)

transfer in bacteria in which naked environmental

  • tularemia infection of the lymphatic system by

DNA is taken up by a bacterial cell

Francisella tularensis; also known as rabbit fever

pathogens or antigens to activate adaptive immunity

foreign DNA from a different species has been

of a bacterial cell, propelled by clockwise flagellar

and protect against infection



  • vagina female reproductive organ that extends from
  • tumor collection or aggregate of cells; can be benign

the vulva to the cervix

pathogenic, that are only temporarily found in the

(noncancerous) or malignant (cancerous)

human body

plasmid of the bacterium Agrobacterium tumefaciens

  • vaginosis an infection of the vagina caused by

that researchers use as a shuttle vector to introduce a

overgrowth of resident bacteria

desired DNA fragment into plant cells

  • turbidity cloudiness of a culture due to refraction of

glycopeptide class

light by cells and particles


Appendix E

  • (VISA) pathogen with intermediate vancomycin

humans by animals

resistance due to increased targets for and trapping

of vancomycin in the outer cell wall


  • Z-scheme electron flow seen in noncyclic

pathogens resistant to vancomycin through a target

wave and the next peak

photophosphorylation in plants, algae, and

modification of peptidoglycan subunit peptides that

cyanobacteria due to the use of both PSI and PSII

inhibit binding by vancomycin

which the kidney and liver become seriously

reproduction; they have hard walls formed from the


  • (VRSA) pathogen with resistance to vancomycin

fusion of reproductive cells from two individuals

that has arisen as a result of the horizontal gene

transfer of vancomycin resistance genes from VRE

African trypanosomiasis caused by Trypanosoma

brucei gambiense

healthy patient with infectious material from a

person infected with smallpox in order to promote

caused by the West Nile virus (WNV) that can result

immunity to the disease

in swelling of the brain and death in severe cases

system that conduct sperm from the testes and

of a certain protein within a given protein sample in

seminal fluid to the ejaculatory duct

which proteins within the sample are separated by

PAGE, immobilized on a membrane, and then

exposed first to an antibody that binds to the protein

(either arteries or veins)

of interest and then second to an antibody equipped

with a molecular beacon that will bind to the first

  • test test for syphilis that detects anti-treponemal


antibodies to the phospholipids produced due to the

tissue destruction by Treponema pallidum;

mosquito-borne viral infection of the brain that is

antibodies are detected through a flocculation

found primarily in the central and western United

reaction with cardiolipin extracted from beef heart



  • wet mount a slide preparation technique in which a
  • vector animal (typically an arthropod) that transmits

specimen is placed on the slide in a drop of liquid

a pathogen from one host to another host; DNA

molecules that carry DNA fragments from one

organism to another

hypersensitivity reaction, involving a raised, itchy

bump (wheal) and redness (flare), to injected


dividing, and does not contain an endospore

hosts via contaminated food, water, or air

  • wild type phenotype of an organism that is most
  • vein blood vessel that returns blood from the tissues

commonly observed in nature

to the heart for recirculation

at the back of the neck that is an early sign of

from mother to child during pregnancy, birth, or

African trypanosomiasis


changed, typically results in the incorporation of the

to offspring

same amino acid because of the degeneracy of the

genetic code

  • viable cell live cell; live cells are usually detected as

colony-forming units

public health organization within the United Nations;

monitors and communicates international public

microbial growth in a culture; the number of viable

health information and coordinates international

or live cells is usually expressed in CFU/mL

public health programs and emergency interventions

caused by a viral infection

phospholipid membranes of the cell that surrounds

the capsid

introduced to an environment in much higher

to quantify the amount of neutralizing antibody

concentrations than expected in nature

against a virus by showing a decrease in

  • xenograft transplanted tissue from a donor that is of

hemagglutination caused by a standardized amount

a different species than the recipient

of virus

resulting in an inability to produce antibodies

  • viremia presence of virus in blood

that are used to adjust the position of the specimen

  • viricide chemical or physical treatment that destroys

on the stage surface, generally to center it directly

or inactivates viruses

above the light

  • virion inert particle that is the reproductive form of a


  • viroid infectious plant pathogen composed of RNA
  • yeast any unicellular fungus

pathogenic; severity of disease signs and symptoms

typically caused by an overgrowth of resident

Candida spp.

its ability to cause infection and disease

borne viral disease caused by the yellow fever virus

leads to the death of the host cell; a phage that

undergoes the lytic cycle

  • virus an acellular microorganism, consisting of

proteins and genetic material (DNA or RNA), that

can replicate itself by infecting a host cell

  • virusoid small piece of RNA associated with larger

staining that uses heat to infuse the primary stain,

RNA of some infectious plant viruses

carbolfuchsin, into acid-fast cells

  • volutin inclusions of polymerized inorganic

phosphate; also called metachromatic granules

impregnated with an antimicrobial drug, indicating

growth inhibition due to the antimicrobial drug

  • vulva the female external genitalia


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