Difference between revisions of "Glossary of Microbiology"

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(Tag: 2017 source edit)
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==Glossary of terms [[Microbiology]]==
  
Glossary
+
* '''[[454 sequencing (pyrosequencing)]]''' a next generation
  
* '''[[454 sequencing (pyrosequencing)]]''' a next generation
+
* '''[[acute rheumatic fever]]''' sequela of streptococcal
  
* '''[[acute rheumatic fever]]''' sequela of streptococcal
+
* '''[[allosteric activator]]''' molecule that binds to an
  
* '''[[allosteric activator]]''' molecule that binds to an
+
sequencing technique in which fragmented DNA has
  
sequencing technique in which fragmented DNA has
+
pharyngitis; comorbidities include arthritis and
  
pharyngitis; comorbidities include arthritis and
+
enzyme’s allosteric site, increasing the affinity of the
  
enzyme’s allosteric site, increasing the affinity of the
+
DNA adapters attached, is amplified by PCR, is
  
DNA adapters attached, is amplified by PCR, is
+
carditis
  
carditis
+
enzyme’s active site for the substrate(s)
  
enzyme’s active site for the substrate(s)
+
attached to a bead, and then placed into a well with
  
attached to a bead, and then placed into a well with
+
* '''[[acute-phase proteins]]''' antimicrobial molecules
  
* '''[[acute-phase proteins]]''' antimicrobial molecules
+
* '''[[allosteric site]]''' location within an enzyme, other than
  
* '''[[allosteric site]]''' location within an enzyme, other than
+
sequencing reagents, and the flash of light produced
  
sequencing reagents, and the flash of light produced
+
produced by liver cells in response to pathogen-
  
produced by liver cells in response to pathogen-
+
the active site, to which molecules can bind,
  
the active site, to which molecules can bind,
+
by the release of pyrophosphate on addition of a
  
by the release of pyrophosphate on addition of a
+
induced stimulation events
  
induced stimulation events
+
regulating enzyme activity
  
regulating enzyme activity
+
nucleotide is monitored
  
nucleotide is monitored
+
* '''[[acyclovir]]''' antiviral guanosine analog; inhibits DNA
  
* '''[[acyclovir]]''' antiviral guanosine analog; inhibits DNA
+
* '''[[allylamines]]''' class of antifungal drugs that inhibit
  
* '''[[allylamines]]''' class of antifungal drugs that inhibit
+
* '''[[5’ cap]]''' methylguanosine nucleotide added to 5’ end
  
* '''[[5’ cap]]''' methylguanosine nucleotide added to 5’ end
+
replication
  
replication
+
ergosterol biosynthesis at an early point in the
  
ergosterol biosynthesis at an early point in the
+
of a eukaryotic primary transcript
  
of a eukaryotic primary transcript
+
pathway
  
pathway
+
* '''[[adaptive immunity]]''' third-line defense characterized
  
* '''[[adaptive immunity]]''' third-line defense characterized
+
* '''[[70S ribosome]]''' a ribosome composed of 50S and 30S
  
* '''[[70S ribosome]]''' a ribosome composed of 50S and 30S
+
by specificity and memory
  
by specificity and memory
+
* '''[[Alphaproteobacteria]]''' class of Proteobacteria that
  
* '''[[Alphaproteobacteria]]''' class of Proteobacteria that
+
subunits
  
subunits
+
are all oligotrophs
  
are all oligotrophs
+
* '''[[Addison disease]]''' autoimmune disease affecting
  
* '''[[Addison disease]]''' autoimmune disease affecting
+
* '''[[80S ribosome]]''' cytoplasmic eukaryotic ribosome
  
* '''[[80S ribosome]]''' cytoplasmic eukaryotic ribosome
+
adrenal gland function
  
adrenal gland function
+
* '''[[alveoli]]''' cul-de-sacs or small air pockets within the
  
* '''[[alveoli]]''' cul-de-sacs or small air pockets within the
+
composed of 60S and 40S subunits
  
composed of 60S and 40S subunits
+
lung that facilitate gas exchange
  
lung that facilitate gas exchange
+
* '''[[adenine]]''' purine nitrogenous base found in
  
* '''[[adenine]]''' purine nitrogenous base found in
+
nucleotides
  
nucleotides
+
* '''[[amantadine]]''' antiviral drug that targets the influenza
  
* '''[[amantadine]]''' antiviral drug that targets the influenza
+
virus by preventing viral escape from endosomes
  
virus by preventing viral escape from endosomes
+
* '''[[adenosine diphosphate (ADP)]]''' nucleotide derivative
  
* '''[[adenosine diphosphate (ADP)]]''' nucleotide derivative
+
upon host cell uptake, thus preventing viral RNA
  
upon host cell uptake, thus preventing viral RNA
+
and relative of ATP containing only one high-energy
  
and relative of ATP containing only one high-energy
+
* '''[[A]]'''
  
* '''[[A]]'''
+
release and subsequent viral replication
  
release and subsequent viral replication
+
phosphate bond
  
phosphate bond
+
* '''[[α-helix]]''' secondary structure consisting of a helix
  
* '''[[α-helix]]''' secondary structure consisting of a helix
+
* '''[[amensalism]]''' type of symbiosis in which one
  
* '''[[amensalism]]''' type of symbiosis in which one
+
stabilized by hydrogen bonds between nearby amino
  
stabilized by hydrogen bonds between nearby amino
+
* '''[[adenosine monophosphate (AMP)]]''' adenine
  
* '''[[adenosine monophosphate (AMP)]]''' adenine
+
population harms the other but remains unaffected
  
population harms the other but remains unaffected
+
acid residues in a polypeptide
  
acid residues in a polypeptide
+
molecule bonded to a ribose molecule and to a single
  
molecule bonded to a ribose molecule and to a single
+
itself
  
itself
+
phosphate group, having no high-energy phosphate
  
phosphate group, having no high-energy phosphate
+
* '''[[A (aminoacyl) site]]''' functional site of an intact
  
* '''[[A (aminoacyl) site]]''' functional site of an intact
+
bonds
  
bonds
+
* '''[[Ames test]]''' method that uses auxotrophic bacteria to
  
* '''[[Ames test]]''' method that uses auxotrophic bacteria to
+
ribosome that binds incoming charged aminoacyl
  
ribosome that binds incoming charged aminoacyl
+
detect mutations resulting from exposure to
  
detect mutations resulting from exposure to
+
tRNAs
  
tRNAs
+
* '''[[adenosine triphosphate (ATP)]]''' energy currency of
  
* '''[[adenosine triphosphate (ATP)]]''' energy currency of
+
potentially mutagenic chemical compounds
  
potentially mutagenic chemical compounds
+
the cell; a nucleotide derivative that safely stores
  
the cell; a nucleotide derivative that safely stores
+
* '''[[A-B exotoxin]]''' class of exotoxin that contains A
  
* '''[[A-B exotoxin]]''' class of exotoxin that contains A
+
chemical energy in its two high-energy phosphate
  
chemical energy in its two high-energy phosphate
+
* '''[[amino acid]]''' a molecule consisting of a hydrogen
  
* '''[[amino acid]]''' a molecule consisting of a hydrogen
+
subunits, which enter the cell and disrupt cellular
  
subunits, which enter the cell and disrupt cellular
+
bonds
  
bonds
+
atom, a carboxyl group, and an amine group bonded
  
atom, a carboxyl group, and an amine group bonded
+
activities, and B subunits, which bind to host cell
  
activities, and B subunits, which bind to host cell
+
to the same carbon. The group bonded to the carbon
  
to the same carbon. The group bonded to the carbon
+
receptors
  
receptors
+
* '''[[adhesins]]''' molecules on the surface of pathogens that
  
* '''[[adhesins]]''' molecules on the surface of pathogens that
+
varies and is represented by an R in the structural
  
varies and is represented by an R in the structural
+
promote colonization of host tissue
  
promote colonization of host tissue
+
* '''[[ABO blood group system]]''' set of glycoprotein
  
* '''[[ABO blood group system]]''' set of glycoprotein
+
formula
  
formula
+
antigens found on the surface of red blood cells; the
  
antigens found on the surface of red blood cells; the
+
* '''[[adhesion]]''' the capability of microbes to attach to host
  
* '''[[adhesion]]''' the capability of microbes to attach to host
+
* '''[[aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase]]''' enzyme that binds to a
  
* '''[[aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase]]''' enzyme that binds to a
+
presence or absence of specific carbohydrates
  
presence or absence of specific carbohydrates
+
cells
  
cells
+
tRNA molecule and catalyzes the addition of the
  
tRNA molecule and catalyzes the addition of the
+
determining blood type
  
determining blood type
+
* '''[[aerobic respiration]]''' use of an oxygen molecule as
  
* '''[[aerobic respiration]]''' use of an oxygen molecule as
+
correct amino acid to the tRNA
  
correct amino acid to the tRNA
+
* '''[[absorbance]]''' when a molecule captures energy from
  
* '''[[absorbance]]''' when a molecule captures energy from
+
the final electron acceptor of the electron transport
  
the final electron acceptor of the electron transport
+
* '''[[aminoglycosides]]''' protein synthesis inhibitors that
  
* '''[[aminoglycosides]]''' protein synthesis inhibitors that
+
a photon and vibrates or stretches, using the energy
  
a photon and vibrates or stretches, using the energy
+
system
  
system
+
bind to the 30S subunit and interfere with the
  
bind to the 30S subunit and interfere with the
+
* '''[[Acanthamoeba]]''' keratitis]]''' a condition characterized
  
* '''[[Acanthamoeba]]''' keratitis]]''' a condition characterized
+
* '''[[aerotolerant anaerobe]]''' organism that does not use
  
* '''[[aerotolerant anaerobe]]''' organism that does not use
+
ribosome’s proofreading ability, leading to the
  
ribosome’s proofreading ability, leading to the
+
by damage to the cornea and possible blindness
  
by damage to the cornea and possible blindness
+
oxygen but tolerates its presence
  
oxygen but tolerates its presence
+
generation of faulty proteins that insert into and
  
generation of faulty proteins that insert into and
+
caused by parasitic infection of the protozoan
  
caused by parasitic infection of the protozoan
+
disrupt the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane
  
disrupt the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane
+
* '''[[affinity maturation]]''' function of the immune system
  
* '''[[affinity maturation]]''' function of the immune system
+
Acanthamoeba
  
Acanthamoeba
+
by which B cells, upon re-exposure to antigen, are
  
by which B cells, upon re-exposure to antigen, are
+
* '''[[amoebiasis]]''' intestinal infection caused by  
  
* '''[[amoebiasis]]''' intestinal infection caused by
+
selected to produce higher affinity antibodies
  
selected to produce higher affinity antibodies
+
Entamoeba histolytica
  
Entamoeba histolytica
+
* '''[[acellular]]''' not made of cells
  
* '''[[acellular]]''' not made of cells
+
* '''[[affinity]]''' measure of how tightly an antibody-binding
  
* '''[[affinity]]''' measure of how tightly an antibody-binding
+
* '''[[amoebic dysentery]]''' severe form of intestinal
  
* '''[[amoebic dysentery]]''' severe form of intestinal
+
* '''[[acid-fast stain]]''' a stain that differentiates cells that
  
* '''[[acid-fast stain]]''' a stain that differentiates cells that
+
site binds to its epitope
  
site binds to its epitope
+
infection caused by Entamoeba histolytica,
  
infection caused by Entamoeba histolytica,
+
have waxy mycolic acids in their gram-positive cell
  
have waxy mycolic acids in their gram-positive cell
+
characterized by severe diarrhea with blood and
  
characterized by severe diarrhea with blood and
+
walls
  
walls
+
* '''[[aflatoxin]]''' chemical produced by the fungus
  
* '''[[aflatoxin]]''' chemical produced by the fungus
+
mucus
  
mucus
+
Aspergillus flavus; both a toxin and the most potent
  
Aspergillus flavus; both a toxin and the most potent
+
* '''[[acidic dye]]''' a chromophore with a negative charge
  
* '''[[acidic dye]]''' a chromophore with a negative charge
+
known natural carcinogen
  
known natural carcinogen
+
* '''[[amphipathic]]''' a molecule containing both polar and
  
* '''[[amphipathic]]''' a molecule containing both polar and
+
that attaches to positively charged structures
  
that attaches to positively charged structures
+
nonpolar parts
  
nonpolar parts
+
* '''[[African sleeping sickness]]''' see human African
  
* '''[[African sleeping sickness]]''' see human African
+
* '''[[acidophile]]''' organism that grows optimally at a pH
  
* '''[[acidophile]]''' organism that grows optimally at a pH
+
trypanosomiasis
  
trypanosomiasis
+
* '''[[amphitrichous]]''' having two flagella or tufts of
  
* '''[[amphitrichous]]''' having two flagella or tufts of
+
near 3.0
  
near 3.0
+
multiple flagella, with one flagellum or tuft located
  
multiple flagella, with one flagellum or tuft located
+
* '''[[agarose gel electrophoresis]]''' a method for separating
  
* '''[[agarose gel electrophoresis]]''' a method for separating
+
* '''[[acne]]''' a skin disease in which hair follicles or pores
  
* '''[[acne]]''' a skin disease in which hair follicles or pores
+
populations of DNA molecules of varying sizes by
  
populations of DNA molecules of varying sizes by
+
at each end of the bacterial cell
  
at each end of the bacterial cell
+
become clogged, leading to the formation of  
  
become clogged, leading to the formation of
+
differential migration rates caused by a voltage
  
differential migration rates caused by a voltage
+
* '''[[amphotericin B]]''' antifungal drug of the polyene class
  
* '''[[amphotericin B]]''' antifungal drug of the polyene class
+
comedones and infected lesions
  
comedones and infected lesions
+
gradient through a horizontal gel matrix
  
gradient through a horizontal gel matrix
+
that is used to treat several systemic fungal
  
that is used to treat several systemic fungal
+
* '''[[acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)]]'''
  
* '''[[acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)]]'''
+
infections
  
infections
+
* '''[[agglutination]]''' binding of different pathogen cells by
  
* '''[[agglutination]]''' binding of different pathogen cells by
+
disease caused by HIV, characterized by  
  
disease caused by HIV, characterized by
+
Fab regions of the same antibody to aggregate and
  
Fab regions of the same antibody to aggregate and
+
opportunistic infections and rare cancers
  
opportunistic infections and rare cancers
+
enhance elimination from body
  
enhance elimination from body
+
* '''[[amplitude]]''' the height of a wave
  
* '''[[amplitude]]''' the height of a wave
+
* '''[[actin]]''' a protein that polymerizes to form
  
* '''[[actin]]''' a protein that polymerizes to form
+
* '''[[anabolism]]''' chemical reactions that convert simpler
  
* '''[[anabolism]]''' chemical reactions that convert simpler
+
* '''[[agranulocytes]]''' leukocytes that lack granules in the
  
* '''[[agranulocytes]]''' leukocytes that lack granules in the
+
microfilaments
  
microfilaments
+
cytoplasm
  
cytoplasm
+
molecules into more complex ones
  
molecules into more complex ones
+
* '''[[activation energy]]''' energy needed to form or break
  
* '''[[activation energy]]''' energy needed to form or break
+
* '''[[alarmone]]''' small intracellular derivative of a
  
* '''[[alarmone]]''' small intracellular derivative of a
+
* '''[[anaerobe chamber]]''' closed compartment used to
  
* '''[[anaerobe chamber]]''' closed compartment used to
+
chemical bonds and convert a reactant or reactants to  
  
chemical bonds and convert a reactant or reactants to
+
handle and grow obligate anaerobic cultures
  
handle and grow obligate anaerobic cultures
+
nucleotide that signals a global bacterial response
  
nucleotide that signals a global bacterial response
+
a product or products
  
a product or products
+
(i.e., activating a regulon of operons) to an
  
(i.e., activating a regulon of operons) to an
+
* '''[[anaerobe jar]]''' container devoid of oxygen used to  
  
* '''[[anaerobe jar]]''' container devoid of oxygen used to
+
* '''[[activator]]''' protein that increases the transcription of a
  
* '''[[activator]]''' protein that increases the transcription of a
+
environmental stress
  
environmental stress
+
grow obligate anaerobes
  
grow obligate anaerobes
+
gene in response to an external stimulus
  
gene in response to an external stimulus
+
* '''[[albendazole]]''' antihelminthic drug of the
  
* '''[[albendazole]]''' antihelminthic drug of the
+
* '''[[anaerobic respiration]]''' use of a non-oxygen
  
* '''[[anaerobic respiration]]''' use of a non-oxygen
+
* '''[[active carrier]]''' an infected individual who can
  
* '''[[active carrier]]''' an infected individual who can
+
benzimidazole class that binds to helminthic β-
  
benzimidazole class that binds to helminthic β-
+
inorganic molecule, like CO2, nitrate, nitrite,
  
inorganic molecule, like CO2, nitrate, nitrite,
+
transmit the pathogen to others regardless of whether
  
transmit the pathogen to others regardless of whether
+
tubulin, preventing microtubule formation
  
tubulin, preventing microtubule formation
+
oxidized iron, or sulfate, as the final electron
  
oxidized iron, or sulfate, as the final electron
+
symptoms are currently present
  
symptoms are currently present
+
* '''[[algae]]''' (singular: alga) any of various unicellular and
  
* '''[[algae]]''' (singular: alga) any of various unicellular and
+
acceptor at the end of the electron transport system
  
acceptor at the end of the electron transport system
+
* '''[[active immunity]]''' stimulation of one’s own adaptive
  
* '''[[active immunity]]''' stimulation of one’s own adaptive
+
multicellular photosynthetic eukaryotic organisms;
  
multicellular photosynthetic eukaryotic organisms;
+
* '''[[analytical epidemiology]]''' study of disease outbreaks
  
* '''[[analytical epidemiology]]''' study of disease outbreaks
+
immune responses
  
immune responses
+
distinguished from plants by their lack of vascular
  
distinguished from plants by their lack of vascular
+
to establish associations between an agent and a
  
to establish associations between an agent and a
+
tissues and organs
  
tissues and organs
+
disease state through observational studies
  
disease state through observational studies
+
* '''[[active site]]''' location within an enzyme where
  
* '''[[active site]]''' location within an enzyme where
+
comparing groups of individuals
  
comparing groups of individuals
+
substrate(s) bind
  
substrate(s) bind
+
* '''[[alkaliphile]]''' organism that grows optimally at pH
  
* '''[[alkaliphile]]''' organism that grows optimally at pH
+
above 9.0
  
above 9.0
+
* '''[[acute disease]]''' disease of a relatively short duration
  
* '''[[acute disease]]''' disease of a relatively short duration
+
* '''[[anaphylactic shock]]''' another term for anaphylaxis
  
* '''[[anaphylactic shock]]''' another term for anaphylaxis
+
that develops and progresses in a predictable pattern
  
that develops and progresses in a predictable pattern
+
* '''[[alkylating agent]]''' type of strong disinfecting
  
* '''[[alkylating agent]]''' type of strong disinfecting
+
* '''[[anaphylaxis]]''' systemic and potentially life-
  
* '''[[anaphylaxis]]''' systemic and potentially life-
+
chemical that acts by replacing a hydrogen atom
  
chemical that acts by replacing a hydrogen atom
+
* '''[[acute glomerulonephritis]]''' inflammation of the
  
* '''[[acute glomerulonephritis]]''' inflammation of the
+
threatening type I hypersensitivity reaction
  
threatening type I hypersensitivity reaction
+
within a molecule with an alkyl group, thereby
  
within a molecule with an alkyl group, thereby
+
glomeruli of the kidney, probably resulting from
  
glomeruli of the kidney, probably resulting from
+
inactivating enzymes and nucleic acids
  
inactivating enzymes and nucleic acids
+
* '''[[anergy]]''' peripheral tolerance mechanism that
  
* '''[[anergy]]''' peripheral tolerance mechanism that
+
deposition of immune complexes and an
  
deposition of immune complexes and an
+
prevents self-reactive T cells from being activated by
  
prevents self-reactive T cells from being activated by
+
autoimmune response caused by self-antigen
  
autoimmune response caused by self-antigen
+
* '''[[allergen]]''' antigen capable of inducing type I
  
* '''[[allergen]]''' antigen capable of inducing type I
+
self-antigens through lack of co-stimulation
  
self-antigens through lack of co-stimulation
+
mimicry by a pathogen
  
mimicry by a pathogen
+
hypersensitivity reaction
  
hypersensitivity reaction
+
* '''[[annealing]]''' formation of hydrogen bonds between the
  
* '''[[annealing]]''' formation of hydrogen bonds between the
+
* '''[[acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis]]''' a severe
  
* '''[[acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis]]''' a severe
+
* '''[[allergy]]''' hypersensitivity response to an allergen
  
* '''[[allergy]]''' hypersensitivity response to an allergen
+
nucleotide base pairs of two single-stranded
  
nucleotide base pairs of two single-stranded
+
form of gingivitis, also called trench mouth
  
form of gingivitis, also called trench mouth
+
complementary nucleic acid sequences
  
complementary nucleic acid sequences
+
* '''[[allograft]]''' transplanted tissue from an individual of
  
* '''[[allograft]]''' transplanted tissue from an individual of
+
* '''[[acute otitis media]]''' inflammatory disease of the
  
* '''[[acute otitis media]]''' inflammatory disease of the
+
the same species that is genetically different from the  
  
the same species that is genetically different from the
+
middle ear resulting from a microbial infection
  
middle ear resulting from a microbial infection
+
recipient
  
recipient
+
1252
  
1252
+
Appendix E
  
Appendix E
+
* '''[[anoxygenic photosynthesis]]''' type of photosynthesis
  
* '''[[anoxygenic photosynthesis]]''' type of photosynthesis
+
* '''[[arbovirus]]''' any of a variety of viruses that are
  
* '''[[arbovirus]]''' any of a variety of viruses that are
+
* '''[[avidity]]''' strength of the sum of the interactions
  
* '''[[avidity]]''' strength of the sum of the interactions
+
found in many photosynthetic bacteria, including the  
  
found in many photosynthetic bacteria, including the
+
transmitted by arthropod vectors
  
transmitted by arthropod vectors
+
between an antibody and antigen
  
between an antibody and antigen
+
purple and green bacteria, where an electron donor
  
purple and green bacteria, where an electron donor
+
* '''[[archaea]]''' any of various unicellular prokaryotic
  
* '''[[archaea]]''' any of various unicellular prokaryotic
+
* '''[[axon]]''' long projection of a neuron along which an
  
* '''[[axon]]''' long projection of a neuron along which an
+
other than H2O is used to replace an electron lost by
  
other than H2O is used to replace an electron lost by
+
microorganisms, typically having cell walls
  
microorganisms, typically having cell walls
+
electrochemical signal is transmitted
  
electrochemical signal is transmitted
+
a reaction center pigment, resulting no oxygen
  
a reaction center pigment, resulting no oxygen
+
containing pseudopeptidoglycan
  
containing pseudopeptidoglycan
+
production
  
production
+
* '''[[azithromycin]]''' semisynthetic macrolide with
  
* '''[[azithromycin]]''' semisynthetic macrolide with
+
* '''[[Archaea]]''' domain of life separate from the domains
  
* '''[[Archaea]]''' domain of life separate from the domains
+
increased spectrum of activity, decreased toxicity,
  
increased spectrum of activity, decreased toxicity,
+
* '''[[anthrax]]''' a disease caused by Bacillus anthracis; the
  
* '''[[anthrax]]''' a disease caused by Bacillus anthracis; the
+
Bacteria and Eukarya
  
Bacteria and Eukarya
+
and increased half-life compared with erythromycin
  
and increased half-life compared with erythromycin
+
cutaneous form causes a skin lesion to develop;
  
cutaneous form causes a skin lesion to develop;
+
gastrointestinal and inhalation anthrax have high
  
gastrointestinal and inhalation anthrax have high
+
* '''[[artemisinin]]''' antiprotozoan and antifungal drug
  
* '''[[artemisinin]]''' antiprotozoan and antifungal drug
+
mortality rates
  
mortality rates
+
effective against malaria that is thought to increase
  
effective against malaria that is thought to increase
+
intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species in
  
intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species in
+
* '''[[antibiogram]]''' compilation of the antimicrobial
  
* '''[[antibiogram]]''' compilation of the antimicrobial
+
target microbes
  
target microbes
+
susceptibilities recorded for local bacterial strains,
  
susceptibilities recorded for local bacterial strains,
+
* '''[[B]]'''
  
* '''[[B]]'''
+
which is useful for monitoring local trends in
  
which is useful for monitoring local trends in
+
* '''[[artery]]''' large, thick-walled vessel that carries blood
  
* '''[[artery]]''' large, thick-walled vessel that carries blood
+
* '''[[β-lactamases]]''' bacterially produced enzymes that  
  
* '''[[β-lactamases]]''' bacterially produced enzymes that
+
antimicrobial resistance and aiding the prescription
  
antimicrobial resistance and aiding the prescription
+
from the heart to the body tissues
  
from the heart to the body tissues
+
cleave the β-lactam ring of susceptible β-lactam
  
cleave the β-lactam ring of susceptible β-lactam
+
of appropriate empiric antibacterial therapy
  
of appropriate empiric antibacterial therapy
+
antimicrobials, rendering them inactive and
  
antimicrobials, rendering them inactive and
+
* '''[[Arthus reaction]]''' localized type III hypersensitivity
  
* '''[[Arthus reaction]]''' localized type III hypersensitivity
+
conferring resistance
  
conferring resistance
+
* '''[[antibiotic-associated diarrhea]]''' diarrhea that
  
* '''[[antibiotic-associated diarrhea]]''' diarrhea that
+
develops after antibiotic treatment as a result of
  
develops after antibiotic treatment as a result of
+
* '''[[artificial active immunity]]''' immunity acquired
  
* '''[[artificial active immunity]]''' immunity acquired
+
* '''[[β-lactams]]''' group of antimicrobials that inhibit cell
  
* '''[[β-lactams]]''' group of antimicrobials that inhibit cell
+
disruption to the normal microbiota; C. difficile is a
  
disruption to the normal microbiota; C. difficile is a
+
through exposure to pathogens and pathogen
  
through exposure to pathogens and pathogen
+
wall synthesis; includes the penicillins,
  
wall synthesis; includes the penicillins,
+
particularly serious example
  
particularly serious example
+
antigens through a method other than natural
  
antigens through a method other than natural
+
cephalosporins, carbapenems, and monobactams;
  
cephalosporins, carbapenems, and monobactams;
+
infection
  
infection
+
inhibits the transpeptidase cross-linking activity of
  
inhibits the transpeptidase cross-linking activity of
+
* '''[[antibody screen]]''' test to make sure that a potential
  
* '''[[antibody screen]]''' test to make sure that a potential
+
blood recipient has not produced antibodies to  
  
blood recipient has not produced antibodies to
+
* '''[[artificial passive immunity]]''' transfer of antibodies  
  
* '''[[artificial passive immunity]]''' transfer of antibodies
+
penicillin-binding proteins
  
penicillin-binding proteins
+
antigens other than the ABO and Rh antigens
  
antigens other than the ABO and Rh antigens
+
produced by a donor to another individual for the  
  
produced by a donor to another individual for the
+
* '''[[β-oxidation]]''' process of fatty acid degradation that
  
* '''[[β-oxidation]]''' process of fatty acid degradation that
+
purpose of preventing or treating disease
  
purpose of preventing or treating disease
+
sequentially removes two-carbon acetyl groups,
  
sequentially removes two-carbon acetyl groups,
+
* '''[[antibody]]''' Y-shaped glycoprotein molecule produced
  
* '''[[antibody]]''' Y-shaped glycoprotein molecule produced
+
by B cells that binds to specific epitopes on an
  
by B cells that binds to specific epitopes on an
+
* '''[[ascariasis]]''' soil-transmitted intestinal infection caused
  
* '''[[ascariasis]]''' soil-transmitted intestinal infection caused
+
producing NADH and FADH2, on entry into the
  
producing NADH and FADH2, on entry into the
+
antigen
  
antigen
+
by the large nematode roundworm Ascaris
  
by the large nematode roundworm Ascaris
+
Krebs cycle
  
Krebs cycle
+
lumbricoides
  
lumbricoides
+
* '''[[β-pleated sheet]]''' secondary structure consisting of
  
* '''[[β-pleated sheet]]''' secondary structure consisting of
+
* '''[[antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity]]'''  
  
* '''[[antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity]]'''
+
* '''[[(ADCC)]]''' mechanism by which large pathogens are
  
* '''[[(ADCC)]]''' mechanism by which large pathogens are
+
* '''[[ascocarps]]''' cup-shaped fruiting bodies of an
  
* '''[[ascocarps]]''' cup-shaped fruiting bodies of an
+
pleats formed by hydrogen bonds between localized
  
pleats formed by hydrogen bonds between localized
+
marked for destruction by specific antibodies and
  
marked for destruction by specific antibodies and
+
ascomycete fungus
  
ascomycete fungus
+
segments of amino acid residues on the backbone of
  
segments of amino acid residues on the backbone of
+
then killed by secretion of cytotoxins by natural
  
then killed by secretion of cytotoxins by natural
+
the polypeptide chain
  
the polypeptide chain
+
* '''[[ascospore]]''' asexual spore produced by ascomycete
  
* '''[[ascospore]]''' asexual spore produced by ascomycete
+
killer cells, macrophages, or eosinophils
  
killer cells, macrophages, or eosinophils
+
* '''[[B-cell receptors (BCRs)]]''' membrane-bound IgD and
  
* '''[[B-cell receptors (BCRs)]]''' membrane-bound IgD and
+
fungi
  
fungi
+
* '''[[anticodon]]''' three-nucleotide sequence of a mature
  
* '''[[anticodon]]''' three-nucleotide sequence of a mature
+
IgM antibody that bind specific antigen epitopes
  
IgM antibody that bind specific antigen epitopes
+
* '''[[ascus]]''' structure of ascomycete fungi containing
  
* '''[[ascus]]''' structure of ascomycete fungi containing
+
with Fab antigen-binding region
  
with Fab antigen-binding region
+
tRNA that interacts with an mRNA codon through
  
tRNA that interacts with an mRNA codon through
+
spores
  
spores
+
complementary base pairing
  
complementary base pairing
+
* '''[[B lymphocyte]]''' antibody-producing cells of humoral
  
* '''[[B lymphocyte]]''' antibody-producing cells of humoral
+
* '''[[asepsis]]''' sterile state resulting from proper use of  
  
* '''[[asepsis]]''' sterile state resulting from proper use of
+
immunity; B cell
  
immunity; B cell
+
* '''[[antigen (also, immunogen)]]''' a molecule that
  
* '''[[antigen (also, immunogen)]]''' a molecule that
+
microbial control protocols
  
microbial control protocols
+
stimulates an adaptive immune response
  
stimulates an adaptive immune response
+
* '''[[babesiosis]]''' tickborne protozoan infection caused by
  
* '''[[babesiosis]]''' tickborne protozoan infection caused by
+
* '''[[antigenic]]''' able to stimulate an adaptive immune
  
* '''[[antigenic]]''' able to stimulate an adaptive immune
+
* '''[[aseptic technique]]''' method or protocol designed to  
  
* '''[[aseptic technique]]''' method or protocol designed to
+
Babesia spp. and characterized by malaise, fatigue,
  
Babesia spp. and characterized by malaise, fatigue,
+
prevent microbial contamination of sterile objects,  
  
prevent microbial contamination of sterile objects,
+
fever, headache, myalgia, and joint pain
  
fever, headache, myalgia, and joint pain
+
response
  
response
+
locations, or tissues
  
locations, or tissues
+
* '''[[antigenic drift]]''' form of slight antigenic variation that
  
* '''[[antigenic drift]]''' form of slight antigenic variation that
+
* '''[[bacillary dysentery]]''' gastrointestinal illness caused
  
* '''[[bacillary dysentery]]''' gastrointestinal illness caused
+
* '''[[aspergillosis]]''' fungal infection caused by the mold
  
* '''[[aspergillosis]]''' fungal infection caused by the mold
+
by Shigella bacteria, also called shigellosis
  
by Shigella bacteria, also called shigellosis
+
occurs because of point mutations in the genes that
  
occurs because of point mutations in the genes that
+
Aspergillus; immunocompromised patients are
  
Aspergillus; immunocompromised patients are
+
encode surface proteins
  
encode surface proteins
+
primarily at risk
  
primarily at risk
+
* '''[[bacillus]]''' (bacilli) rod-shaped prokaryotic cell
  
* '''[[bacillus]]''' (bacilli) rod-shaped prokaryotic cell
+
* '''[[antigenic shift]]''' form of major antigenic variation
  
* '''[[antigenic shift]]''' form of major antigenic variation
+
* '''[[asymptomatic carrier]]''' an infected individual who
  
* '''[[asymptomatic carrier]]''' an infected individual who
+
* '''[[bacitracin]]''' group of structurally similar peptides that
  
* '''[[bacitracin]]''' group of structurally similar peptides that
+
that occurs because of gene reassortment
  
that occurs because of gene reassortment
+
exhibits no signs or symptoms of disease yet is
  
exhibits no signs or symptoms of disease yet is
+
block the movement of peptidoglycan precursors
  
block the movement of peptidoglycan precursors
+
* '''[[antigenic variation]]''' changing of surface antigens
  
* '''[[antigenic variation]]''' changing of surface antigens
+
capable of transmitting the pathogen to others
  
capable of transmitting the pathogen to others
+
across the cell membrane, inhibiting peptidoglycan
  
across the cell membrane, inhibiting peptidoglycan
+
(carbohydrates or proteins) such that they are no
  
(carbohydrates or proteins) such that they are no
+
synthesis
  
synthesis
+
* '''[[asymptomatic]]''' not exhibiting any symptoms of
  
* '''[[asymptomatic]]''' not exhibiting any symptoms of
+
longer recognized by the host’s immune system
  
longer recognized by the host’s immune system
+
disease
  
disease
+
* '''[[bacteremia]]''' condition marked by the presence of
  
* '''[[bacteremia]]''' condition marked by the presence of
+
* '''[[antigen-presenting cells (APC)]]''' macrophages,
  
* '''[[antigen-presenting cells (APC)]]''' macrophages,
+
bacteria in the blood
  
bacteria in the blood
+
* '''[[atomic force microscope]]''' a scanning probe
  
* '''[[atomic force microscope]]''' a scanning probe
+
dendritic cells, and B cells that process and present
  
dendritic cells, and B cells that process and present
+
microscope that uses a thin probe that is passed just
  
microscope that uses a thin probe that is passed just
+
* '''[[bacteria]]''' (singular: bacterium) any of various
  
* '''[[bacteria]]''' (singular: bacterium) any of various
+
foreign pathogen antigens for the purpose of  
  
foreign pathogen antigens for the purpose of
+
above the specimen to measure forces between the  
  
above the specimen to measure forces between the
+
unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms typically
  
unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms typically
+
activating T cells and adaptive immune defenses
  
activating T cells and adaptive immune defenses
+
atoms and the probe
  
atoms and the probe
+
(but not always) having cell wells that contain
  
(but not always) having cell wells that contain
+
* '''[[antimetabolites]]''' compounds that are competitive
  
* '''[[antimetabolites]]''' compounds that are competitive
+
peptidoglycan
  
peptidoglycan
+
* '''[[ATP synthase]]''' integral membrane protein that
  
* '''[[ATP synthase]]''' integral membrane protein that
+
inhibitors for bacterial metabolic enzymes
  
inhibitors for bacterial metabolic enzymes
+
harnesses the energy of the proton motive force by
  
harnesses the energy of the proton motive force by
+
* '''[[bacterial lawn]]''' layer of confluent bacterial growth
  
* '''[[bacterial lawn]]''' layer of confluent bacterial growth
+
* '''[[antimicrobial drugs]]''' chemical compounds,
  
* '''[[antimicrobial drugs]]''' chemical compounds,
+
allowing hydrogen ions to diffuse down their
  
allowing hydrogen ions to diffuse down their
+
on an agar plate
  
on an agar plate
+
including naturally produced drugs, semisynthetic
  
including naturally produced drugs, semisynthetic
+
electrochemical gradient, causing components of this
  
electrochemical gradient, causing components of this
+
derivatives, and synthetic compounds, that target
  
derivatives, and synthetic compounds, that target
+
protein to spin, making ATP from ADP and Pi
  
protein to spin, making ATP from ADP and Pi
+
* '''[[bacterial meningitis]]''' bacterial infection that results
  
* '''[[bacterial meningitis]]''' bacterial infection that results
+
specific microbial structures and enzymes, killing
  
specific microbial structures and enzymes, killing
+
in an inflammation of the meninges
  
in an inflammation of the meninges
+
* '''[[attachment]]''' binding of phage or virus to host cell
  
* '''[[attachment]]''' binding of phage or virus to host cell
+
specific microbes or inhibiting their growth
  
specific microbes or inhibiting their growth
+
* '''[[bacterial vaginosis]]''' a condition caused by an
  
* '''[[bacterial vaginosis]]''' a condition caused by an
+
receptors
  
receptors
+
* '''[[antimicrobial peptides (AMPs)]]''' class of
  
* '''[[antimicrobial peptides (AMPs)]]''' class of
+
overgrowth of bacteria in the vagina that may or may
  
overgrowth of bacteria in the vagina that may or may
+
* '''[[attenuation]]''' regulatory system of prokaryotes
  
* '''[[attenuation]]''' regulatory system of prokaryotes
+
not cause symptoms
  
not cause symptoms
+
nonspecific, cell-derived chemical mediators with
  
nonspecific, cell-derived chemical mediators with
+
whereby secondary stem-loop structures formed
  
whereby secondary stem-loop structures formed
+
broad-spectrum antimicrobial properties
  
broad-spectrum antimicrobial properties
+
* '''[[bactericidal]]''' irreversible inhibition of a microbe’s
  
* '''[[bactericidal]]''' irreversible inhibition of a microbe’s
+
within the 5’ end of an mRNA being transcribed
  
within the 5’ end of an mRNA being transcribed
+
* '''[[antiparallel]]''' two strands of DNA helix oriented in
  
* '''[[antiparallel]]''' two strands of DNA helix oriented in
+
determine both if transcription to complete the
  
determine both if transcription to complete the
+
ability to divide
  
ability to divide
+
opposite directions; one strand is oriented in the 5’ to  
  
opposite directions; one strand is oriented in the 5’ to
+
synthesis of this mRNA will occur and if this mRNA
  
synthesis of this mRNA will occur and if this mRNA
+
* '''[[bactericide]]''' chemical or physical treatment that kills
  
* '''[[bactericide]]''' chemical or physical treatment that kills
+
3’ direction, while the other is oriented in the 3’ to 5’
  
3’ direction, while the other is oriented in the 3’ to 5’
+
will be used for translation
  
will be used for translation
+
bacteria
  
bacteria
+
direction
  
direction
+
* '''[[autoclave]]''' specialized device for the moist-heat
  
* '''[[autoclave]]''' specialized device for the moist-heat
+
* '''[[bacteriochlorophylls]]''' green, purple, or blue
  
* '''[[bacteriochlorophylls]]''' green, purple, or blue
+
* '''[[antisense RNA]]''' small noncoding RNA molecules
  
* '''[[antisense RNA]]''' small noncoding RNA molecules
+
sterilization of materials through the application of
  
sterilization of materials through the application of
+
pigments of bacteria; they are similar to chlorophyll
  
pigments of bacteria; they are similar to chlorophyll
+
that inhibit gene expression by binding to mRNA
  
that inhibit gene expression by binding to mRNA
+
pressure to steam, allowing the steam to reach
  
pressure to steam, allowing the steam to reach
+
of plants
  
of plants
+
transcripts via complementary base pairing
  
transcripts via complementary base pairing
+
temperatures above the boiling point of water
  
temperatures above the boiling point of water
+
* '''[[antisense strand]]''' transcription template strand of  
  
* '''[[antisense strand]]''' transcription template strand of
+
* '''[[autocrine function]]''' refers to a cytokine signal
  
* '''[[autocrine function]]''' refers to a cytokine signal
+
* '''[[bacteriology]]''' the study of bacteria
  
* '''[[bacteriology]]''' the study of bacteria
+
DNA; the strand that is transcribed for gene
  
DNA; the strand that is transcribed for gene
+
released from a cell to a receptor on its own surface
  
released from a cell to a receptor on its own surface
+
expression
  
expression
+
* '''[[bacteriophage]]''' virus that infects bacteria
  
* '''[[bacteriophage]]''' virus that infects bacteria
+
* '''[[autograft]]''' tissue transplanted from a location on an
  
* '''[[autograft]]''' tissue transplanted from a location on an
+
* '''[[antisepsis]]''' protocol that removes potential pathogens
  
* '''[[antisepsis]]''' protocol that removes potential pathogens
+
individual to a different location on the same
  
individual to a different location on the same
+
* '''[[bacteriostatic]]''' having the ability to inhibit bacterial
  
* '''[[bacteriostatic]]''' having the ability to inhibit bacterial
+
from living tissue
  
from living tissue
+
individual
  
individual
+
growth, generally by means of chemical or physical
  
growth, generally by means of chemical or physical
+
treatment; reversible inhibition of a microbe’s ability
  
treatment; reversible inhibition of a microbe’s ability
+
* '''[[antiseptic]]''' antimicrobial chemical that can be used
  
* '''[[antiseptic]]''' antimicrobial chemical that can be used
+
* '''[[autoimmune disease]]''' loss of tolerance to self,
  
* '''[[autoimmune disease]]''' loss of tolerance to self,
+
to divide
  
to divide
+
safely on living tissue
  
safely on living tissue
+
resulting in immune-mediated destruction of self
  
resulting in immune-mediated destruction of self
+
cells and tissues
  
cells and tissues
+
* '''[[barophile]]''' organism that grows under high
  
* '''[[barophile]]''' organism that grows under high
+
* '''[[antiserum]]''' serum obtained from an animal
  
* '''[[antiserum]]''' serum obtained from an animal
+
atmospheric pressure
  
atmospheric pressure
+
containing antibodies against a particular antigen
  
containing antibodies against a particular antigen
+
* '''[[autoinducer]]''' signaling molecule produced by a  
  
* '''[[autoinducer]]''' signaling molecule produced by a
+
that was artificially introduced to the animal
  
that was artificially introduced to the animal
+
bacterial cell that can modify the activity of
  
bacterial cell that can modify the activity of
+
* '''[[basal body]]''' component of eukaryotic flagellum or
  
* '''[[basal body]]''' component of eukaryotic flagellum or
+
surrounding cells; associated with quorum sensing
  
surrounding cells; associated with quorum sensing
+
cilium composed of nine microtubule triplets and
  
cilium composed of nine microtubule triplets and
+
* '''[[apoenzyme]]''' enzyme without its cofactor or
  
* '''[[apoenzyme]]''' enzyme without its cofactor or
+
attaches the flagellum or cilium to the cell
  
attaches the flagellum or cilium to the cell
+
coenzyme
  
coenzyme
+
* '''[[autoradiography]]''' the method of producing a
  
* '''[[autoradiography]]''' the method of producing a
+
photographic image from radioactive decay; in
  
photographic image from radioactive decay; in
+
* '''[[base sequence]]''' identity of the specific nucleotides
  
* '''[[base sequence]]''' identity of the specific nucleotides
+
* '''[[apoptosis]]''' programmed and organized cell death
  
* '''[[apoptosis]]''' programmed and organized cell death
+
present in a nucleic acid strand and their order within
  
present in a nucleic acid strand and their order within
+
molecular genetics the method allows the
  
molecular genetics the method allows the
+
without lysis of the cell
  
without lysis of the cell
+
visualization of radioactively-labeled DNA probes
  
visualization of radioactively-labeled DNA probes
+
the strand
  
the strand
+
* '''[[arachnoid mater]]''' middle membrane surrounding the  
  
* '''[[arachnoid mater]]''' middle membrane surrounding the
+
that have hybridized to a nucleic acid sample
  
that have hybridized to a nucleic acid sample
+
* '''[[basic dye]]''' a chromophore with a positive charge that  
  
* '''[[basic dye]]''' a chromophore with a positive charge that
+
brain that produces cerebrospinal fluid
  
brain that produces cerebrospinal fluid
+
* '''[[autotroph]]''' organism that converts inorganic carbon
  
* '''[[autotroph]]''' organism that converts inorganic carbon
+
attaches to negatively charged structures
  
attaches to negatively charged structures
+
* '''[[arboviral encephalitis]]''' infection by an arthropod-
  
* '''[[arboviral encephalitis]]''' infection by an arthropod-
+
dioxide into organic carbon
  
dioxide into organic carbon
+
* '''[[basidia (basidium, sing.)]]''' small club-shaped
  
* '''[[basidia (basidium, sing.)]]''' small club-shaped
+
borne virus that results in an inflammation of the
  
borne virus that results in an inflammation of the
+
structures of basidiomycete fungi where
  
structures of basidiomycete fungi where
+
* '''[[auxotroph]]''' nutritional mutant with a loss-of-function
  
* '''[[auxotroph]]''' nutritional mutant with a loss-of-function
+
brain
  
brain
+
basidiospores are produced
  
basidiospores are produced
+
mutation in a gene encoding the biosynthesis of a
  
mutation in a gene encoding the biosynthesis of a
+
specific nutrient such as an amino acid
  
specific nutrient such as an amino acid
+
This OpenStax book is available for free at http://cnx.org/content/col12087/1.5
  
This OpenStax book is available for free at http://cnx.org/content/col12087/1.5
+
Appendix E
  
Appendix E
+
1253
  
1253
+
* '''[[brightfield microscope]]''' a compound light
  
* '''[[brightfield microscope]]''' a compound light
+
* '''[[case-control study]]''' a type of observational study in
  
* '''[[case-control study]]''' a type of observational study in
+
* '''[[basidiocarps]]''' fruiting bodies of basidiomycete fungi
  
* '''[[basidiocarps]]''' fruiting bodies of basidiomycete fungi
+
microscope with two lenses; it produces a dark
  
microscope with two lenses; it produces a dark
+
which a group of affected individuals are compared,
  
which a group of affected individuals are compared,
+
* '''[[basidiospores]]''' spores produced sexually via budding
  
* '''[[basidiospores]]''' spores produced sexually via budding
+
image on a bright background
  
image on a bright background
+
usually retrospectively, to a similar group of
  
usually retrospectively, to a similar group of
+
in basidiomycete fungi
  
in basidiomycete fungi
+
unaffected individuals
  
unaffected individuals
+
* '''[[broad-spectrum antimicrobial]]''' drug that targets
  
* '''[[broad-spectrum antimicrobial]]''' drug that targets
+
* '''[[basophils]]''' leukocytes with granules containing
  
* '''[[basophils]]''' leukocytes with granules containing
+
many different types of microbes
  
many different types of microbes
+
* '''[[catabolic activator protein (CAP)/cAMP receptor]]'''
  
* '''[[catabolic activator protein (CAP)/cAMP receptor]]'''
+
histamine and other chemicals that facilitate allergic
  
histamine and other chemicals that facilitate allergic
+
* '''[[protein (CRP)]]''' protein that, when bound to cAMP in
  
* '''[[protein (CRP)]]''' protein that, when bound to cAMP in
+
* '''[[bronchi]]''' major air passages leading to the lungs after
  
* '''[[bronchi]]''' major air passages leading to the lungs after
+
responses and inflammation when released
  
responses and inflammation when released
+
the presence of low levels of glucose, binds to the
  
the presence of low levels of glucose, binds to the
+
bifurcating at the windpipe
  
bifurcating at the windpipe
+
promoters of operons that control the processing of
  
promoters of operons that control the processing of
+
* '''[[benzimidazoles]]''' class of antihelminthic drugs that  
  
* '''[[benzimidazoles]]''' class of antihelminthic drugs that
+
* '''[[bronchioles]]''' smaller air passages within the lung that  
  
* '''[[bronchioles]]''' smaller air passages within the lung that
+
alternative sugars
  
alternative sugars
+
bind to helminthic β-tubulin, preventing microtubule
  
bind to helminthic β-tubulin, preventing microtubule
+
are formed as the bronchi become further subdivided
  
are formed as the bronchi become further subdivided
+
formation
  
formation
+
* '''[[catabolism]]''' chemical reactions that break down
  
* '''[[catabolism]]''' chemical reactions that break down
+
complex molecules into simpler ones
  
complex molecules into simpler ones
+
* '''[[Betaproteobacteria]]''' class of Proteobacteria that are
  
* '''[[Betaproteobacteria]]''' class of Proteobacteria that are
+
* '''[[bronchitis]]''' inflammation of the bronchi
  
* '''[[bronchitis]]''' inflammation of the bronchi
+
all eutrophs
  
all eutrophs
+
* '''[[catabolite repression]]''' repression of the transcription
  
* '''[[catabolite repression]]''' repression of the transcription
+
* '''[[brucellosis]]''' zoonotic disease caused by bacteria of  
  
* '''[[brucellosis]]''' zoonotic disease caused by bacteria of
+
of operons encoding enzymes for the use of  
  
of operons encoding enzymes for the use of
+
* '''[[binary fission]]''' predominant form of bacterial
  
* '''[[binary fission]]''' predominant form of bacterial
+
the genus Brucella that results in undulant fever
  
the genus Brucella that results in undulant fever
+
substrates other than glucose when glucose levels are
  
substrates other than glucose when glucose levels are
+
reproduction in which one cell divides into two
  
reproduction in which one cell divides into two
+
* '''[[bubo]]''' swollen, inflamed lymph node that forms as a
  
* '''[[bubo]]''' swollen, inflamed lymph node that forms as a
+
high
  
high
+
daughter cells of equal size, which separate, each
  
daughter cells of equal size, which separate, each
+
result of a microbial infection
  
result of a microbial infection
+
offspring receiving a complete copy of the parental
  
offspring receiving a complete copy of the parental
+
* '''[[catalase]]''' enzyme that breaks down hydrogen
  
* '''[[catalase]]''' enzyme that breaks down hydrogen
+
genome
  
genome
+
* '''[[bubonic plague]]''' most common form of plague in
  
* '''[[bubonic plague]]''' most common form of plague in
+
peroxide to water and oxygen
  
peroxide to water and oxygen
+
humans, marked by the presence of swollen lymph
  
humans, marked by the presence of swollen lymph
+
* '''[[catalyst]]''' molecule that increases the rate of a
  
* '''[[catalyst]]''' molecule that increases the rate of a
+
* '''[[binocular]]''' having two eyepieces
  
* '''[[binocular]]''' having two eyepieces
+
nodes (buboes)
  
nodes (buboes)
+
chemical reaction but is not used or changed during
  
chemical reaction but is not used or changed during
+
* '''[[binomial nomenclature]]''' a universal convention for
  
* '''[[binomial nomenclature]]''' a universal convention for
+
* '''[[budding]]''' unequal reproductive division in which a
  
* '''[[budding]]''' unequal reproductive division in which a
+
the chemical reaction and, thus, is reusable
  
the chemical reaction and, thus, is reusable
+
the scientific naming of organisms using Latinized
  
the scientific naming of organisms using Latinized
+
smaller cell detaches from the parent cell
  
smaller cell detaches from the parent cell
+
* '''[[catarrhal stage]]''' in pertussis, a disease stage marked
  
* '''[[catarrhal stage]]''' in pertussis, a disease stage marked
+
names for genus and species
  
names for genus and species
+
* '''[[budding yeasts]]''' yeasts that divide by budding off of
  
* '''[[budding yeasts]]''' yeasts that divide by budding off of
+
by inflammation of the mucous membranes
  
by inflammation of the mucous membranes
+
* '''[[biofilm]]''' complex ecosystem of bacteria embedded in
  
* '''[[biofilm]]''' complex ecosystem of bacteria embedded in
+
daughter cells
  
daughter cells
+
combined with excessive secretions
  
combined with excessive secretions
+
a matrix
  
a matrix
+
* '''[[Burkitt lymphoma]]''' disease characterized by rapidly
  
* '''[[Burkitt lymphoma]]''' disease characterized by rapidly
+
* '''[[cat-scratch disease]]''' bacterial infection of the lymph
  
* '''[[cat-scratch disease]]''' bacterial infection of the lymph
+
* '''[[biogeochemical cycle]]''' recycling of inorganic matter
  
* '''[[biogeochemical cycle]]''' recycling of inorganic matter
+
growing solid tumor; caused by Epstein-Barr virus
  
growing solid tumor; caused by Epstein-Barr virus
+
nodes caused by Bartonella henselae; frequently
  
nodes caused by Bartonella henselae; frequently
+
between living organisms and their nonliving
  
between living organisms and their nonliving
+
(HHV-4)
  
(HHV-4)
+
transmitted via a cat scratch
  
transmitted via a cat scratch
+
environment
  
environment
+
* '''[[burst]]''' release of new virions by a lysed host cell
  
* '''[[burst]]''' release of new virions by a lysed host cell
+
* '''[[causative agent]]''' the pathogen or substance
  
* '''[[causative agent]]''' the pathogen or substance
+
* '''[[bioinformatics]]''' the analysis of large amounts of
  
* '''[[bioinformatics]]''' the analysis of large amounts of
+
infected by a virus
  
infected by a virus
+
responsible for causing a particular disease; etiologic
  
responsible for causing a particular disease; etiologic
+
information required for interpretation of these data
  
information required for interpretation of these data
+
agent
  
agent
+
* '''[[burst size]]''' the number of virions released from a host
  
* '''[[burst size]]''' the number of virions released from a host
+
* '''[[biological transmission]]''' movement of a pathogen
  
* '''[[biological transmission]]''' movement of a pathogen
+
cell when it is lysed because of a viral infection
  
cell when it is lysed because of a viral infection
+
* '''[[CCA amino acid binding end]]''' region of a mature
  
* '''[[CCA amino acid binding end]]''' region of a mature
+
between hosts facilitated by a biological vector in
  
between hosts facilitated by a biological vector in
+
tRNA that binds to an amino acid
  
tRNA that binds to an amino acid
+
which the pathogen grows and reproduces
  
which the pathogen grows and reproduces
+
* '''[[celiac disease]]''' disease largely of the small intestine
  
* '''[[celiac disease]]''' disease largely of the small intestine
+
* '''[[biological vector]]''' an animal (typically an arthropod)
  
* '''[[biological vector]]''' an animal (typically an arthropod)
+
caused by an immune response to gluten that results
  
caused by an immune response to gluten that results
+
that is infected with a pathogen and is capable of
  
that is infected with a pathogen and is capable of
+
in the production of autoantibodies and an
  
in the production of autoantibodies and an
+
* '''[[C]]'''
  
* '''[[C]]'''
+
transmitting the pathogen from one host to another
  
transmitting the pathogen from one host to another
+
inflammatory response
  
inflammatory response
+
* '''[[Calvin-Benson cycle]]''' most common CO2 fixation
  
* '''[[Calvin-Benson cycle]]''' most common CO2 fixation
+
* '''[[biomarker]]''' a protein expressed by a cell or tissue
  
* '''[[biomarker]]''' a protein expressed by a cell or tissue
+
pathway in most photoautotrophs; involves light-
  
pathway in most photoautotrophs; involves light-
+
* '''[[cell envelope]]''' the combination of external cellular
  
* '''[[cell envelope]]''' the combination of external cellular
+
that is indicative of disease
  
that is indicative of disease
+
independent reactions of photosynthesis that occur in
  
independent reactions of photosynthesis that occur in
+
structures (e.g., plasma membrane, cell wall, outer
  
structures (e.g., plasma membrane, cell wall, outer
+
the cytoplasm of photosynthetic bacteria and in the
  
the cytoplasm of photosynthetic bacteria and in the
+
membrane, glycocalyces) that collectively contain
  
membrane, glycocalyces) that collectively contain
+
* '''[[biomolecule]]''' a molecule that is part of living matter
  
* '''[[biomolecule]]''' a molecule that is part of living matter
+
stroma of eukaryotic chloroplasts
  
stroma of eukaryotic chloroplasts
+
the cytoplasm and internal structures of a cell
  
the cytoplasm and internal structures of a cell
+
* '''[[bioremediation]]''' use of microbes to remove
  
* '''[[bioremediation]]''' use of microbes to remove
+
* '''[[Campylobacter jejuni]]''' gastroenteritis]]''' gastroenteritis
  
* '''[[Campylobacter jejuni]]''' gastroenteritis]]''' gastroenteritis
+
* '''[[cell membrane]]''' lipid bilayer with embedded proteins
  
* '''[[cell membrane]]''' lipid bilayer with embedded proteins
+
xenobiotics or environmental pollutants from a
  
xenobiotics or environmental pollutants from a
+
caused by C. jejuni; generally mild but sometimes
  
caused by C. jejuni; generally mild but sometimes
+
and carbohydrates that defines the boundary of the
  
and carbohydrates that defines the boundary of the
+
contaminated site
  
contaminated site
+
with serious complications
  
with serious complications
+
cell (also called the cytoplasmic membrane or
  
cell (also called the cytoplasmic membrane or
+
plasma membrane)
  
plasma membrane)
+
* '''[[biosynthesis]]''' replication of viral genome and other
  
* '''[[biosynthesis]]''' replication of viral genome and other
+
* '''[[candidiasis]]''' fungal infection caused by Candida
  
* '''[[candidiasis]]''' fungal infection caused by Candida
+
protein components
  
protein components
+
spp., especially C. albicans; can affect various
  
spp., especially C. albicans; can affect various
+
* '''[[cell morphology]]''' cell shape, structure, and
  
* '''[[cell morphology]]''' cell shape, structure, and
+
regions of the body, e.g., skin (cutaneous
  
regions of the body, e.g., skin (cutaneous
+
arrangement, as viewed microscopically
  
arrangement, as viewed microscopically
+
* '''[[biotechnology]]''' the science of using living systems to
  
* '''[[biotechnology]]''' the science of using living systems to
+
benefit humankind
  
benefit humankind
+
candidiasis), oral cavity (oral thrush), or vagina
  
candidiasis), oral cavity (oral thrush), or vagina
+
* '''[[cell theory]]''' the theory that all organisms are
  
* '''[[cell theory]]''' the theory that all organisms are
+
(yeast infection)
  
(yeast infection)
+
composed of cells and that the cell is the
  
composed of cells and that the cell is the
+
* '''[[bisbiguanide]]''' type of chemical compound with
  
* '''[[bisbiguanide]]''' type of chemical compound with
+
* '''[[candle jar]]''' container with a tight-fitting lid in which
  
* '''[[candle jar]]''' container with a tight-fitting lid in which
+
fundamental unit of life
  
fundamental unit of life
+
antiseptic properties; disrupts cell membranes at low
  
antiseptic properties; disrupts cell membranes at low
+
concentrations and causes congealing of intracellular
  
concentrations and causes congealing of intracellular
+
a burning candle consumes oxygen and releases
  
a burning candle consumes oxygen and releases
+
* '''[[cell wall]]''' a structure in the cell envelope of some
  
* '''[[cell wall]]''' a structure in the cell envelope of some
+
contents at high concentrations
  
contents at high concentrations
+
carbon dioxide, thereby creating an environment
  
carbon dioxide, thereby creating an environment
+
cells that helps the cell maintain its shape and
  
cells that helps the cell maintain its shape and
+
suitable for capnophiles
  
suitable for capnophiles
+
withstand changes in osmotic pressure
  
withstand changes in osmotic pressure
+
* '''[[blastomycosis]]''' fungal disease associated with
  
* '''[[blastomycosis]]''' fungal disease associated with
+
infections by Blastomyces dermatitidis; can cause
  
infections by Blastomyces dermatitidis; can cause
+
* '''[[capillary]]''' small blood vessel found in the interstitial
  
* '''[[capillary]]''' small blood vessel found in the interstitial
+
* '''[[cellular immunity]]''' adaptive immunity involving T
  
* '''[[cellular immunity]]''' adaptive immunity involving T
+
disfiguring scarring of the hands and other
  
disfiguring scarring of the hands and other
+
space of tissue; delivers nutrients and oxygen, and  
  
space of tissue; delivers nutrients and oxygen, and
+
cells and the destruction of pathogens and infected
  
cells and the destruction of pathogens and infected
+
extremities
  
extremities
+
removes waste products
  
removes waste products
+
cells
  
cells
+
* '''[[capnophile]]''' organism that requires carbon dioxide
  
* '''[[capnophile]]''' organism that requires carbon dioxide
+
* '''[[cellulitis]]''' a subcutaneous skin infection that develops
  
* '''[[cellulitis]]''' a subcutaneous skin infection that develops
+
* '''[[blepharitis]]''' inflammation of the eyelids
  
* '''[[blepharitis]]''' inflammation of the eyelids
+
levels higher than atmospheric concentration
  
levels higher than atmospheric concentration
+
in the dermis or hypodermis, resulting in a red,
  
in the dermis or hypodermis, resulting in a red,
+
* '''[[blocking antibodies]]''' antigen-specific antibodies
  
* '''[[blocking antibodies]]''' antigen-specific antibodies
+
* '''[[capsid]]''' protein coat surrounding the genome of the
  
* '''[[capsid]]''' protein coat surrounding the genome of the
+
painful inflammation
  
painful inflammation
+
(usually of the IgG type) produced via
  
(usually of the IgG type) produced via
+
virus
  
virus
+
* '''[[cellulose]]''' a structural polysaccharide composed of
  
* '''[[cellulose]]''' a structural polysaccharide composed of
+
desensitization therapy
  
desensitization therapy
+
* '''[[capsomere]]''' individual protein subunits that make up
  
* '''[[capsomere]]''' individual protein subunits that make up
+
glucose monomers linked together in a linear chain
  
glucose monomers linked together in a linear chain
+
* '''[[blood-brain barrier]]''' tight cell junctions of the
  
* '''[[blood-brain barrier]]''' tight cell junctions of the
+
the capsid
  
the capsid
+
by glycosidic bonds
  
by glycosidic bonds
+
endothelia lining the blood vessels that serve the
  
endothelia lining the blood vessels that serve the
+
central nervous system, preventing passage of
  
central nervous system, preventing passage of
+
* '''[[capsule staining]]''' a negative staining technique that
  
* '''[[capsule staining]]''' a negative staining technique that
+
* '''[[Centers for Disease Control and Prevention]]'''  
  
* '''[[Centers for Disease Control and Prevention]]'''
+
stains around a bacterial capsule while leaving the
  
stains around a bacterial capsule while leaving the
+
* '''[[(CDC)]]''' the national public health agency in the  
  
* '''[[(CDC)]]''' the national public health agency in the
+
microbes from the bloodstream into the brain and
  
microbes from the bloodstream into the brain and
+
capsule clear
  
capsule clear
+
United States
  
United States
+
cerebrospinal fluid
  
cerebrospinal fluid
+
* '''[[capsule]]''' type of glycocalyx with organized layers of
  
* '''[[capsule]]''' type of glycocalyx with organized layers of
+
* '''[[central dogma]]''' scientific principle explaining the
  
* '''[[central dogma]]''' scientific principle explaining the
+
* '''[[blue-white screening]]''' a technique commonly used
  
* '''[[blue-white screening]]''' a technique commonly used
+
for identifying transformed bacterial cells containing
  
for identifying transformed bacterial cells containing
+
polysaccharides that aid in bacterial adherence to
  
polysaccharides that aid in bacterial adherence to
+
flow of genetic information from DNA to RNA to  
  
flow of genetic information from DNA to RNA to
+
recombinant plasmids using lacZ-encoding plasmid
  
recombinant plasmids using lacZ-encoding plasmid
+
surfaces and in evading destruction by immune cells
  
surfaces and in evading destruction by immune cells
+
protein
  
protein
+
vectors
  
vectors
+
* '''[[carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE)]]'''
  
* '''[[carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE)]]'''
+
* '''[[central nervous system (CNS)]]''' portion of the
  
* '''[[central nervous system (CNS)]]''' portion of the
+
* '''[[blunt ends]]''' ends of DNA molecules lacking single-
  
* '''[[blunt ends]]''' ends of DNA molecules lacking single-
+
group of bacteria that have developed resistance to
  
group of bacteria that have developed resistance to
+
nervous system made up of the brain and spinal cord
  
nervous system made up of the brain and spinal cord
+
stranded complementary overhangs that are
  
stranded complementary overhangs that are
+
all β-lactams, including carbapenems, and many
  
all β-lactams, including carbapenems, and many
+
* '''[[central tolerance]]''' negative selection of self-reactive
  
* '''[[central tolerance]]''' negative selection of self-reactive
+
produced when some restriction enzymes cut DNA
  
produced when some restriction enzymes cut DNA
+
other drug classes
  
other drug classes
+
T cells in thymus
  
T cells in thymus
+
* '''[[botulism]]''' form of flaccid paraylsis caused by the
  
* '''[[botulism]]''' form of flaccid paraylsis caused by the
+
* '''[[carbohydrate]]''' the most abundant type of  
  
* '''[[carbohydrate]]''' the most abundant type of
+
* '''[[centriole]]''' a component of a centrosome with the
  
* '''[[centriole]]''' a component of a centrosome with the
+
ingestion of a neurotoxin produced by Clostridium
  
ingestion of a neurotoxin produced by Clostridium
+
biomolecule, consisting of carbon, hydrogen, and
  
biomolecule, consisting of carbon, hydrogen, and
+
structural array of nine parallel microtubules
  
structural array of nine parallel microtubules
+
botulinum
  
botulinum
+
oxygen
  
oxygen
+
arranged in triplets; involved in eukaryotic cell
  
arranged in triplets; involved in eukaryotic cell
+
* '''[[bradykinin]]''' activated form of a proinflammatory
  
* '''[[bradykinin]]''' activated form of a proinflammatory
+
* '''[[carbon skeleton]]''' chain of carbon atoms to which one
  
* '''[[carbon skeleton]]''' chain of carbon atoms to which one
+
division
  
division
+
molecule induced in the presence of invader
  
molecule induced in the presence of invader
+
or more functional groups are bound
  
or more functional groups are bound
+
* '''[[centrosome]]''' a microtubule-organizing center for the
  
* '''[[centrosome]]''' a microtubule-organizing center for the
+
microbes; opens gaps between cells in blood vessels,
  
microbes; opens gaps between cells in blood vessels,
+
* '''[[carboxysome]]''' an inclusion composed of an outer
  
* '''[[carboxysome]]''' an inclusion composed of an outer
+
mitotic spindle found in animal cells; it separates
  
mitotic spindle found in animal cells; it separates
+
allowing fluid and cells to leak into surrounding
  
allowing fluid and cells to leak into surrounding
+
shell of thousands of protein subunits. Its interior is
  
shell of thousands of protein subunits. Its interior is
+
chromosomes during cell division and is composed
  
chromosomes during cell division and is composed
+
tissue
  
tissue
+
filled with ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/
  
filled with ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/
+
of a pair of centrioles positioned at right angles to
  
of a pair of centrioles positioned at right angles to
+
* '''[[bridge reaction]]''' reaction linking glycolysis to the
  
* '''[[bridge reaction]]''' reaction linking glycolysis to the
+
oxygenase (RuBisCO) and carbonic anhydrase,
  
oxygenase (RuBisCO) and carbonic anhydrase,
+
each other
  
each other
+
Krebs cycle during which each pyruvate is
  
Krebs cycle during which each pyruvate is
+
which are both used for carbon metabolism
  
which are both used for carbon metabolism
+
* '''[[cephalosporins]]''' a group of cell wall synthesis
  
* '''[[cephalosporins]]''' a group of cell wall synthesis
+
decarboxylated and oxidized (forming NADH), and
  
decarboxylated and oxidized (forming NADH), and
+
* '''[[carbuncle]]''' abscess containing a large, deep, purulent
  
* '''[[carbuncle]]''' abscess containing a large, deep, purulent
+
inhibitors within the class of β-lactams
  
inhibitors within the class of β-lactams
+
the resulting two-carbon acetyl group is attached to a
  
the resulting two-carbon acetyl group is attached to a
+
skin lesion
  
skin lesion
+
* '''[[cercarial dermatitis]]''' inflammation of the skin  
  
* '''[[cercarial dermatitis]]''' inflammation of the skin
+
large carrier called coenzyme A, resulting in the  
  
large carrier called coenzyme A, resulting in the
+
caused by a reaction to cercaria of Schistosoma spp.,  
  
caused by a reaction to cercaria of Schistosoma spp.,
+
formation of acetyl-CoA and CO; also called the
  
formation of acetyl-CoA and CO; also called the
+
* '''[[carcinogen]]''' agent that causes cancer
  
* '''[[carcinogen]]''' agent that causes cancer
+
which can penetrate the skin and blood vessels; also
  
which can penetrate the skin and blood vessels; also
+
transition reaction
  
transition reaction
+
called swimmer’s itch or clam digger’s itch
  
called swimmer’s itch or clam digger’s itch
+
1254
  
1254
+
Appendix E
  
Appendix E
+
* '''[[cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)]]''' sterile liquid produced in
  
* '''[[cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)]]''' sterile liquid produced in
+
* '''[[complement fixation test]]''' test for antibodies against
  
* '''[[complement fixation test]]''' test for antibodies against
+
* '''[[cisternae]]''' the sacs of the endoplasmic reticulum
  
* '''[[cisternae]]''' the sacs of the endoplasmic reticulum
+
the brain that fills the subarachnoid space of the  
  
the brain that fills the subarachnoid space of the
+
a specific pathogen using complement-mediated
  
a specific pathogen using complement-mediated
+
brain and spinal column
  
brain and spinal column
+
hemolysis
  
hemolysis
+
* '''[[citric acid cycle]]''' see Krebs cycle
  
* '''[[citric acid cycle]]''' see Krebs cycle
+
* '''[[cervix]]''' the part of the uterus that connects to the
  
* '''[[cervix]]''' the part of the uterus that connects to the
+
* '''[[complement system]]''' series of proteins that can
  
* '''[[complement system]]''' series of proteins that can
+
* '''[[class switching]]''' genetic rearrangement of constant
  
* '''[[class switching]]''' genetic rearrangement of constant
+
vagina
  
vagina
+
become activated in the presence of invading
  
become activated in the presence of invading
+
region gene segments in plasma cells to switch
  
region gene segments in plasma cells to switch
+
microbes, resulting in opsonization, inflammation,
  
microbes, resulting in opsonization, inflammation,
+
* '''[[CFB group]]''' phylum consisting of the gram-negative,  
  
* '''[[CFB group]]''' phylum consisting of the gram-negative,
+
antibody production from IgM to IgG, IgA, or IgE
  
antibody production from IgM to IgG, IgA, or IgE
+
and lysis of pathogens
  
and lysis of pathogens
+
rod-shaped nonproteobacteria genera Cytophaga,
  
rod-shaped nonproteobacteria genera Cytophaga,
+
* '''[[clindamycin]]''' semisynthetic protein synthesis
  
* '''[[clindamycin]]''' semisynthetic protein synthesis
+
Fusobacterium, and Bacteroides
  
Fusobacterium, and Bacteroides
+
* '''[[complementary base pairs]]''' base pairing due to
  
* '''[[complementary base pairs]]''' base pairing due to
+
inhibitor of the lincosamide class that binds to the
  
inhibitor of the lincosamide class that binds to the
+
hydrogen bonding that occurs between a specific
  
hydrogen bonding that occurs between a specific
+
* '''[[Chagas disease]]''' potentially fatal protozoan infection
  
* '''[[Chagas disease]]''' potentially fatal protozoan infection
+
50S subunit, inhibiting peptide bond formation
  
50S subunit, inhibiting peptide bond formation
+
purine and a specific pyrimidine; A bonds with T (in
  
purine and a specific pyrimidine; A bonds with T (in
+
caused by Trypanosoma cruzi and endemic to
  
caused by Trypanosoma cruzi and endemic to
+
DNA), and C bonds with G
  
DNA), and C bonds with G
+
Central and South America; transmitted by the
  
Central and South America; transmitted by the
+
* '''[[clone]]''' a genetically identical cell or individual
  
* '''[[clone]]''' a genetically identical cell or individual
+
triatomine bug (kissing bug)
  
triatomine bug (kissing bug)
+
* '''[[complementary DNA (cDNA)]]''' a DNA molecule
  
* '''[[complementary DNA (cDNA)]]''' a DNA molecule
+
* '''[[Clostridium perfringens]]''' gastroenteritis]]''' relatively
  
* '''[[Clostridium perfringens]]''' gastroenteritis]]''' relatively
+
complementary to mRNA that is made through the
  
complementary to mRNA that is made through the
+
* '''[[chancroid]]''' an STI caused by Haemophilus ducreyi
  
* '''[[chancroid]]''' an STI caused by Haemophilus ducreyi
+
mild gastrointestinal illness caused by C. perfringens
  
mild gastrointestinal illness caused by C. perfringens
+
activity of reverse transcriptase
  
activity of reverse transcriptase
+
that produces soft chancres on genitals
  
that produces soft chancres on genitals
+
* '''[[clusters of differentiation (CD)]]''' cell-surface
  
* '''[[clusters of differentiation (CD)]]''' cell-surface
+
* '''[[complex media]]''' media that contain extracts of
  
* '''[[complex media]]''' media that contain extracts of
+
* '''[[charged tRNA]]''' activated tRNA molecule carrying
  
* '''[[charged tRNA]]''' activated tRNA molecule carrying
+
glycoproteins that serve to identify and distinguish
  
glycoproteins that serve to identify and distinguish
+
animals and plants that are not chemically defined
  
animals and plants that are not chemically defined
+
its cognate amino acid
  
its cognate amino acid
+
white blood cells
  
white blood cells
+
* '''[[complex virus]]''' virus shape that often includes
  
* '''[[complex virus]]''' virus shape that often includes
+
* '''[[chemical mediators]]''' chemicals or enzymes
  
* '''[[chemical mediators]]''' chemicals or enzymes
+
* '''[[coagulase]]''' enzyme that causes the activation of
  
* '''[[coagulase]]''' enzyme that causes the activation of
+
intricate characteristics not seen in the other
  
intricate characteristics not seen in the other
+
produced by a variety of cells; provide nonspecific
  
produced by a variety of cells; provide nonspecific
+
fibrinogen to form fibrin, promoting clotting of the
  
fibrinogen to form fibrin, promoting clotting of the
+
categories of capsid
  
categories of capsid
+
antimicrobial defense mechanisms
  
antimicrobial defense mechanisms
+
blood
  
blood
+
* '''[[compound microscope]]''' a microscope that uses
  
* '''[[compound microscope]]''' a microscope that uses
+
* '''[[chemically defined media]]''' media in which all
  
* '''[[chemically defined media]]''' media in which all
+
* '''[[coarse focusing knob]]''' a knob on a microscope that
  
* '''[[coarse focusing knob]]''' a knob on a microscope that
+
multiple lenses to focus light from the specimen
  
multiple lenses to focus light from the specimen
+
components are chemically defined
  
components are chemically defined
+
produces relatively large movements to adjust focus
  
produces relatively large movements to adjust focus
+
* '''[[condenser lens]]''' a lens on a microscope that focuses
  
* '''[[condenser lens]]''' a lens on a microscope that focuses
+
* '''[[chemiosmosis]]''' flow of hydrogen ions across the
  
* '''[[chemiosmosis]]''' flow of hydrogen ions across the
+
* '''[[coccidioidomycosis]]''' disease caused by the highly
  
* '''[[coccidioidomycosis]]''' disease caused by the highly
+
light from the light source onto the specimen
  
light from the light source onto the specimen
+
membrane through ATP synthase
  
membrane through ATP synthase
+
infectious fungal pathogen Coccidioides immitis and
  
infectious fungal pathogen Coccidioides immitis and
+
related species
  
related species
+
* '''[[conditional mutation]]''' mutant form of a gene whose
  
* '''[[conditional mutation]]''' mutant form of a gene whose
+
* '''[[chemokines]]''' chemotactic cytokines that recruit
  
* '''[[chemokines]]''' chemotactic cytokines that recruit
+
mutant phenotype is expressed only under certain
  
mutant phenotype is expressed only under certain
+
specific subsets of leukocytes to infections, damaged
  
specific subsets of leukocytes to infections, damaged
+
* '''[[codon]]''' three-nucleotide sequence within mRNA that
  
* '''[[codon]]''' three-nucleotide sequence within mRNA that
+
environmental conditions
  
environmental conditions
+
tissue, and sites of inflammation
  
tissue, and sites of inflammation
+
specifies a particular amino acid to be incorporated
  
specifies a particular amino acid to be incorporated
+
into the polypeptide being synthesized
  
into the polypeptide being synthesized
+
* '''[[confocal microscope]]''' a scanning laser microscope
  
* '''[[confocal microscope]]''' a scanning laser microscope
+
* '''[[chemotaxis]]''' directional movement of a cell in
  
* '''[[chemotaxis]]''' directional movement of a cell in
+
that uses fluorescent dyes and excitation lasers to
  
that uses fluorescent dyes and excitation lasers to
+
response to a chemical attractant
  
response to a chemical attractant
+
* '''[[coenocyte]]''' multinucleated eukaryotic cell that forms
  
* '''[[coenocyte]]''' multinucleated eukaryotic cell that forms
+
create three-dimensional images
  
create three-dimensional images
+
as a result of multiple rounds of nuclear division
  
as a result of multiple rounds of nuclear division
+
* '''[[chemotroph]]''' organism that gets its energy from the
  
* '''[[chemotroph]]''' organism that gets its energy from the
+
without the accompanying division of the plasma
  
without the accompanying division of the plasma
+
* '''[[conidia]]''' asexual fungal spores not enclosed in a sac;
  
* '''[[conidia]]''' asexual fungal spores not enclosed in a sac;
+
transfer of electrons originating from chemical
  
transfer of electrons originating from chemical
+
membrane
  
membrane
+
produced in a chain at the end of specialized hyphae
  
produced in a chain at the end of specialized hyphae
+
compounds
  
compounds
+
called conidiophores
  
called conidiophores
+
* '''[[coenocytic hyphae]]''' nonseptate hyphae that are
  
* '''[[coenocytic hyphae]]''' nonseptate hyphae that are
+
* '''[[chickenpox]]''' common childhood disease caused by
  
* '''[[chickenpox]]''' common childhood disease caused by
+
multinucleate and lack cell walls or membranes
  
multinucleate and lack cell walls or membranes
+
* '''[[conjugate vaccine]]''' a vaccine consisting of a
  
* '''[[conjugate vaccine]]''' a vaccine consisting of a
+
the varicella-zoster virus and marked by the
  
the varicella-zoster virus and marked by the
+
between cells; characteristic of some fungi
  
between cells; characteristic of some fungi
+
polysaccharide antigen conjugated to a protein to
  
polysaccharide antigen conjugated to a protein to
+
formation of pustular lesions on the trunk
  
formation of pustular lesions on the trunk
+
enhance immune response to the polysaccharide;
  
enhance immune response to the polysaccharide;
+
* '''[[coenzyme]]''' organic molecule required for proper
  
* '''[[coenzyme]]''' organic molecule required for proper
+
* '''[[chikungunya fever]]''' mosquito-borne viral disease
  
* '''[[chikungunya fever]]''' mosquito-borne viral disease
+
conjugate vaccines are important for young children
  
conjugate vaccines are important for young children
+
enzyme function that is not consumed and is
  
enzyme function that is not consumed and is
+
caused by the chikungunya virus and characterized
  
caused by the chikungunya virus and characterized
+
who do not respond well to polysaccharide antigens
  
who do not respond well to polysaccharide antigens
+
reusable
  
reusable
+
by high fever, joint pain, rash, and blisters
  
by high fever, joint pain, rash, and blisters
+
* '''[[conjugated protein]]''' protein carrying a
  
* '''[[conjugated protein]]''' protein carrying a
+
* '''[[cofactor]]''' inorganic ion that helps stabilize enzyme
  
* '''[[cofactor]]''' inorganic ion that helps stabilize enzyme
+
* '''[[chirality]]''' property of stereoisomer molecules by
  
* '''[[chirality]]''' property of stereoisomer molecules by
+
nonpolypeptidic portion
  
nonpolypeptidic portion
+
conformation and function
  
conformation and function
+
which their structures are nonsuperimposable mirror-
  
which their structures are nonsuperimposable mirror-
+
* '''[[conjugation]]''' mechanism of horizontal gene transfer
  
* '''[[conjugation]]''' mechanism of horizontal gene transfer
+
images
  
images
+
* '''[[cognate amino acid]]''' amino acid added to a specific
  
* '''[[cognate amino acid]]''' amino acid added to a specific
+
in bacteria in which DNA is directly transferred from
  
in bacteria in which DNA is directly transferred from
+
tRNA molecule that correctly corresponds to the
  
tRNA molecule that correctly corresponds to the
+
* '''[[chitin]]''' polysaccharide that is an important
  
* '''[[chitin]]''' polysaccharide that is an important
+
one bacterial cell to another by a conjugation pilus
  
one bacterial cell to another by a conjugation pilus
+
tRNA’s anticodon and, hence, the mRNA’s codon,
  
tRNA’s anticodon and, hence, the mRNA’s codon,
+
component of fungal cell walls
  
component of fungal cell walls
+
reflecting the genetic code
  
reflecting the genetic code
+
* '''[[conjugation pilus (sex pilus)]]''' hollow tube composed
  
* '''[[conjugation pilus (sex pilus)]]''' hollow tube composed
+
* '''[[chlamydia]]''' a common STI caused by Chlamydia
  
* '''[[chlamydia]]''' a common STI caused by Chlamydia
+
of protein encoded by the conjugation plasmid that
  
of protein encoded by the conjugation plasmid that
+
* '''[[cohort method]]''' a method used in observational
  
* '''[[cohort method]]''' a method used in observational
+
trachomatis
  
trachomatis
+
brings two bacterial cells into contact with each
  
brings two bacterial cells into contact with each
+
studies in which a group of individuals is followed
  
studies in which a group of individuals is followed
+
other for the process of conjugation
  
other for the process of conjugation
+
* '''[[chloramphenicol]]''' protein synthesis inhibitor with
  
* '''[[chloramphenicol]]''' protein synthesis inhibitor with
+
over time and factors potentially important in the
  
over time and factors potentially important in the
+
broad-spectrum activity that binds to the 50S
  
broad-spectrum activity that binds to the 50S
+
development of disease are evaluated
  
development of disease are evaluated
+
* '''[[conjunctiva]]''' the mucous membranes covering the
  
* '''[[conjunctiva]]''' the mucous membranes covering the
+
subunit, inhibiting peptide bond formation
  
subunit, inhibiting peptide bond formation
+
eyeball and inner eyelid
  
eyeball and inner eyelid
+
* '''[[colistin]]''' membrane-active polymyxin that was
  
* '''[[colistin]]''' membrane-active polymyxin that was
+
* '''[[chlorophyll]]''' a type of photosynthetic pigment found
  
* '''[[chlorophyll]]''' a type of photosynthetic pigment found
+
historically used for bowel decontamination but now
  
historically used for bowel decontamination but now
+
* '''[[conjunctivitis]]''' inflammation of the conjunctiva, the
  
* '''[[conjunctivitis]]''' inflammation of the conjunctiva, the
+
in some prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells
  
in some prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells
+
used for systemic infections with drug-resistant
  
used for systemic infections with drug-resistant
+
mucous membrane covering the eye and inside of the
  
mucous membrane covering the eye and inside of the
+
pathogens
  
pathogens
+
eyelid
  
eyelid
+
* '''[[chloroplast]]''' organelle found in plant and algal cells
  
* '''[[chloroplast]]''' organelle found in plant and algal cells
+
in which photosynthesis occurs
  
in which photosynthesis occurs
+
* '''[[constitutively expressed]]''' describes genes that are
  
* '''[[constitutively expressed]]''' describes genes that are
+
* '''[[colitis]]''' inflammation of the large intestine
  
* '''[[colitis]]''' inflammation of the large intestine
+
transcribed and translated continuously to provide
  
transcribed and translated continuously to provide
+
* '''[[cholera]]''' gastrointestinal illness caused by Vibrio
  
* '''[[cholera]]''' gastrointestinal illness caused by Vibrio
+
* '''[[collagenase]]''' enzyme that digests collagen, the
  
* '''[[collagenase]]''' enzyme that digests collagen, the
+
the cell with constant intermediate levels of the  
  
the cell with constant intermediate levels of the
+
cholera characterized by severe diarrhea
  
cholera characterized by severe diarrhea
+
dominant protein in connective tissue
  
dominant protein in connective tissue
+
protein products
  
protein products
+
* '''[[chromatin]]''' combination of DNA with DNA binding
  
* '''[[chromatin]]''' combination of DNA with DNA binding
+
* '''[[colony-forming unit (CFU)]]''' a counting quantity
  
* '''[[colony-forming unit (CFU)]]''' a counting quantity
+
* '''[[contact dermatitis]]''' inflammation of the skin
  
* '''[[contact dermatitis]]''' inflammation of the skin
+
proteins
  
proteins
+
represented by a colony formed on solid medium
  
represented by a colony formed on solid medium
+
resulting from a type IV hypersensitivity to an
  
resulting from a type IV hypersensitivity to an
+
* '''[[chromogenic substrate]]''' colorless substrate
  
* '''[[chromogenic substrate]]''' colorless substrate
+
from a single cell or a few cells
  
from a single cell or a few cells
+
allergen or irritant
  
allergen or irritant
+
(chromogen) that is converted into a colored end
  
(chromogen) that is converted into a colored end
+
* '''[[commensalism]]''' type of symbiosis in which one
  
* '''[[commensalism]]''' type of symbiosis in which one
+
product by the enzyme
  
product by the enzyme
+
* '''[[contact]]''' see exposure
  
* '''[[contact]]''' see exposure
+
population benefits and the other is not affected
  
population benefits and the other is not affected
+
* '''[[chromophores]]''' pigments that absorb and reflect
  
* '''[[chromophores]]''' pigments that absorb and reflect
+
* '''[[contact transmission]]''' movement of a pathogen
  
* '''[[contact transmission]]''' movement of a pathogen
+
* '''[[commercial sterilization]]''' type of sterilization
  
* '''[[commercial sterilization]]''' type of sterilization
+
particular wavelengths of light (giving them a color)
  
particular wavelengths of light (giving them a color)
+
between hosts due to contact between the two; may
  
between hosts due to contact between the two; may
+
protocol used in food production; uses conditions
  
protocol used in food production; uses conditions
+
be direct or indirect
  
be direct or indirect
+
* '''[[chromosome]]''' discrete DNA structure within a cell
  
* '''[[chromosome]]''' discrete DNA structure within a cell
+
that are less harsh (lower temperatures) to preserve
  
that are less harsh (lower temperatures) to preserve
+
that controls cellular activities
  
that controls cellular activities
+
food quality but still effectively destroy vegetative
  
food quality but still effectively destroy vegetative
+
* '''[[contagious]]''' easily spread from person to person
  
* '''[[contagious]]''' easily spread from person to person
+
cells and endospores of common foodborne
  
cells and endospores of common foodborne
+
* '''[[chronic disease]]''' any disease that progresses and  
  
* '''[[chronic disease]]''' any disease that progresses and
+
pathogens such as Clostridium botulinum
  
pathogens such as Clostridium botulinum
+
* '''[[continuous cell line]]''' derived from transformed cells
  
* '''[[continuous cell line]]''' derived from transformed cells
+
persists over a long time
  
persists over a long time
+
or tumors, these cells are often able to be subcultured
  
or tumors, these cells are often able to be subcultured
+
* '''[[common cold]]''' most common cause of rhinitis in
  
* '''[[common cold]]''' most common cause of rhinitis in
+
* '''[[chronic granulomatous disease]]''' primary
  
* '''[[chronic granulomatous disease]]''' primary
+
many times, or, in the case of immortal cell lines,
  
many times, or, in the case of immortal cell lines,
+
humans; associated with a variety of adenoviruses,  
  
humans; associated with a variety of adenoviruses,
+
immunodeficiency caused by an impaired ability of  
  
immunodeficiency caused by an impaired ability of
+
grown indefinitely
  
grown indefinitely
+
coronaviruses, and rhinoviruses
  
coronaviruses, and rhinoviruses
+
phagocytic cells to kill ingested bacteria in the
  
phagocytic cells to kill ingested bacteria in the
+
* '''[[continuous common source spread]]''' a mode of
  
* '''[[continuous common source spread]]''' a mode of
+
phagolysosome
  
phagolysosome
+
* '''[[common source spread]]''' a mode of disease
  
* '''[[common source spread]]''' a mode of disease
+
disease transmission in which every infection
  
disease transmission in which every infection
+
transmission in which every infection originates
  
transmission in which every infection originates
+
* '''[[chronic wasting disease]]''' prion disease of deer and
  
* '''[[chronic wasting disease]]''' prion disease of deer and
+
originates from the same source and that source
  
originates from the same source and that source
+
from the same source  
  
from the same source
+
elk in the United States and Canada
  
elk in the United States and Canada
+
produces infections for longer than one incubation
  
produces infections for longer than one incubation
+
* '''[[communicable]]''' able to be transmitted directly or
  
* '''[[communicable]]''' able to be transmitted directly or
+
period
  
period
+
* '''[[cilia (singular: cilium)]]''' short filamentous structures
  
* '''[[cilia (singular: cilium)]]''' short filamentous structures
+
indirectly from one person to another
  
indirectly from one person to another
+
found on some eukaryotic cells; each is composed of
  
found on some eukaryotic cells; each is composed of
+
* '''[[contractile vacuoles]]''' organelles found in some cells,
  
* '''[[contractile vacuoles]]''' organelles found in some cells,
+
microtubules in a 9+2 array, and may be used for
  
microtubules in a 9+2 array, and may be used for
+
* '''[[community]]''' group of interacting populations of
  
* '''[[community]]''' group of interacting populations of
+
especially in some protists, that take up water and
  
especially in some protists, that take up water and
+
locomotion, feeding, and/or movement of
  
locomotion, feeding, and/or movement of
+
organisms
  
organisms
+
then move the water out of the cell for
  
then move the water out of the cell for
+
extracellular particles that come in contact with the  
  
extracellular particles that come in contact with the
+
osmoregulatory purposes (i.e., to maintain an
  
osmoregulatory purposes (i.e., to maintain an
+
* '''[[competitive inhibitor]]''' molecule that binds to an  
  
* '''[[competitive inhibitor]]''' molecule that binds to an
+
cell
  
cell
+
appropriate salt and water balance)
  
appropriate salt and water balance)
+
enzyme’s active site, preventing substrate binding
  
enzyme’s active site, preventing substrate binding
+
* '''[[ciliated epithelial cells]]''' hair-like cells in the
  
* '''[[ciliated epithelial cells]]''' hair-like cells in the
+
* '''[[contrast]]''' visible differences between parts of a
  
* '''[[contrast]]''' visible differences between parts of a
+
* '''[[competitive interactions]]''' interactions between  
  
* '''[[competitive interactions]]''' interactions between
+
respiratory tract that beat, pushing mucus secretions
  
respiratory tract that beat, pushing mucus secretions
+
microscopic specimen
  
microscopic specimen
+
populations in which one of them competes with
  
populations in which one of them competes with
+
and trapped debris away from the sensitive tissues of  
  
and trapped debris away from the sensitive tissues of
+
another for resources
  
another for resources
+
* '''[[convalescence stage]]''' the final stage of a whooping
  
* '''[[convalescence stage]]''' the final stage of a whooping
+
the lungs
  
the lungs
+
cough infection, marked by a chronic cough
  
cough infection, marked by a chronic cough
+
* '''[[complement activation]]''' cascading activation of the
  
* '''[[complement activation]]''' cascading activation of the
+
* '''[[ciliates]]''' protists with cilia (Ciliophora), including
  
* '''[[ciliates]]''' protists with cilia (Ciliophora), including
+
complement proteins in the blood, resulting in
  
complement proteins in the blood, resulting in
+
* '''[[Coombs’ reagent]]''' antiserum containing antihuman
  
* '''[[Coombs’ reagent]]''' antiserum containing antihuman
+
Paramecium and Stentor, classified within the
  
Paramecium and Stentor, classified within the
+
opsonization, inflammation, and lysis of pathogens
  
opsonization, inflammation, and lysis of pathogens
+
immunoglobulins used to facilitate hemagglutination
  
immunoglobulins used to facilitate hemagglutination
+
Chromalveolata
  
Chromalveolata
+
by cross-linking the human antibodies attached to
  
by cross-linking the human antibodies attached to
+
red blood cells
  
red blood cells
+
This OpenStax book is available for free at http://cnx.org/content/col12087/1.5
  
This OpenStax book is available for free at http://cnx.org/content/col12087/1.5
+
Appendix E
  
Appendix E
+
1255
  
1255
+
* '''[[cooperative interactions]]''' interactions between
  
* '''[[cooperative interactions]]''' interactions between
+
* '''[[cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection]]''' human
  
* '''[[cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection]]''' human
+
* '''[[deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)]]''' double-stranded
  
* '''[[deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)]]''' double-stranded
+
populations in which both benefit
  
populations in which both benefit
+
herpesvirus 5 infection that is typically
  
herpesvirus 5 infection that is typically
+
nucleic acid composed of deoxyribonucleotides that  
  
nucleic acid composed of deoxyribonucleotides that
+
asymptomatic but can become serious in
  
asymptomatic but can become serious in
+
serves as the genetic material of the cell
  
serves as the genetic material of the cell
+
* '''[[cortex]]''' tightly packed layer of fungal filaments at the  
  
* '''[[cortex]]''' tightly packed layer of fungal filaments at the
+
immunocompromised patients, transplant recipients,
  
immunocompromised patients, transplant recipients,
+
outer surface of a lichen; foliose lichens have a
  
outer surface of a lichen; foliose lichens have a
+
* '''[[deoxyribonucleotides]]''' DNA nucleotides containing
  
* '''[[deoxyribonucleotides]]''' DNA nucleotides containing
+
and developing fetuses
  
and developing fetuses
+
second cortex layer beneath the medulla
  
second cortex layer beneath the medulla
+
deoxyribose as the pentose sugar component
  
deoxyribose as the pentose sugar component
+
* '''[[cytopathic effect]]''' cell abnormality resulting from a
  
* '''[[cytopathic effect]]''' cell abnormality resulting from a
+
* '''[[counterstain]]''' a secondary stain that adds contrasting
  
* '''[[counterstain]]''' a secondary stain that adds contrasting
+
* '''[[dermatophyte]]''' any fungus of the genera
  
* '''[[dermatophyte]]''' any fungus of the genera
+
viral infection
  
viral infection
+
color to cells from which the primary stain has been
  
color to cells from which the primary stain has been
+
Microsporum, Epidermophyton, or Trichophyton,
  
Microsporum, Epidermophyton, or Trichophyton,
+
washed out by a decolorizing agent
  
washed out by a decolorizing agent
+
* '''[[cytoplasm]]''' the gel-like material composed of water
  
* '''[[cytoplasm]]''' the gel-like material composed of water
+
which feed on keratin (a protein found in skin, hair,
  
which feed on keratin (a protein found in skin, hair,
+
and dissolved or suspended chemicals contained
  
and dissolved or suspended chemicals contained
+
and nails) and can cause cutaneous infections
  
and nails) and can cause cutaneous infections
+
* '''[[crenation]]''' shriveling of a cell
  
* '''[[crenation]]''' shriveling of a cell
+
within the plasma membrane of a cell  
  
within the plasma membrane of a cell
+
* '''[[dermis]]''' the second layer of human skin, found
  
* '''[[dermis]]''' the second layer of human skin, found
+
* '''[[Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease]]''' form of transmissible
  
* '''[[Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease]]''' form of transmissible
+
between the epidermis and the hypodermis
  
between the epidermis and the hypodermis
+
* '''[[cytoplasmic membrane]]''' see cell membrane
  
* '''[[cytoplasmic membrane]]''' see cell membrane
+
spongiform encephalopathy found in humans;
  
spongiform encephalopathy found in humans;
+
* '''[[descriptive epidemiology]]''' a method of studying a
  
* '''[[descriptive epidemiology]]''' a method of studying a
+
typically a fatal disease
  
typically a fatal disease
+
* '''[[cytoproct]]''' a protozoan cell structure that is
  
* '''[[cytoproct]]''' a protozoan cell structure that is
+
disease outbreak using case histories, contact
  
disease outbreak using case histories, contact
+
specialized for excretion
  
specialized for excretion
+
* '''[[crisis phase]]''' point at which a fever breaks, reaching
  
* '''[[crisis phase]]''' point at which a fever breaks, reaching
+
interviews, medical information, and other sources
  
interviews, medical information, and other sources
+
a peak before the hypothalamus resets back to
  
a peak before the hypothalamus resets back to
+
* '''[[cytosine]]''' pyrimidine nitrogenous base found in
  
* '''[[cytosine]]''' pyrimidine nitrogenous base found in
+
of information
  
of information
+
normal body temperature
  
normal body temperature
+
nucleotides
  
nucleotides
+
* '''[[desensitization]]''' injections of antigen that lead to
  
* '''[[desensitization]]''' injections of antigen that lead to
+
* '''[[critical item]]''' object that must be sterile because it
  
* '''[[critical item]]''' object that must be sterile because it
+
* '''[[cytoskeleton]]''' a network of filaments or tubules in the
  
* '''[[cytoskeleton]]''' a network of filaments or tubules in the
+
production of antigen-specific IgG molecules,
  
production of antigen-specific IgG molecules,
+
will be used inside the body, often penetrating sterile
  
will be used inside the body, often penetrating sterile
+
eukaryotic cell that provides shape and structural
  
eukaryotic cell that provides shape and structural
+
effectively outcompeting IgE molecules on the
  
effectively outcompeting IgE molecules on the
+
tissues or the bloodstream
  
tissues or the bloodstream
+
support for cells; aids movement of materials
  
support for cells; aids movement of materials
+
surface of sensitized mast cells for antigen
  
surface of sensitized mast cells for antigen
+
throughout the cell
  
throughout the cell
+
* '''[[cross-match]]''' in the major cross-match, donor red
  
* '''[[cross-match]]''' in the major cross-match, donor red
+
* '''[[desiccation]]''' method of microbial control involving
  
* '''[[desiccation]]''' method of microbial control involving
+
blood cells are checked for agglutination using
  
blood cells are checked for agglutination using
+
* '''[[cytostome]]''' a protozoan cell structure that is
  
* '''[[cytostome]]''' a protozoan cell structure that is
+
the removal of water from cells through drying or
  
the removal of water from cells through drying or
+
recipient serum; in the minor cross-match, donor
  
recipient serum; in the minor cross-match, donor
+
specialized for phagocytosis (i.e., to take in food)
  
specialized for phagocytosis (i.e., to take in food)
+
dehydration
  
dehydration
+
serum is checked for agglutinizing antibodies against
  
serum is checked for agglutinizing antibodies against
+
* '''[[cytotoxic T cells]]''' effector cells of cellular immunity
  
* '''[[cytotoxic T cells]]''' effector cells of cellular immunity
+
* '''[[desquamation]]''' peeling and shedding of outermost
  
* '''[[desquamation]]''' peeling and shedding of outermost
+
recipient red blood cells
  
recipient red blood cells
+
that target and eliminate cells infected with
  
that target and eliminate cells infected with
+
skin
  
skin
+
* '''[[cross-presentation]]''' a mechanism by which dendritic
  
* '''[[cross-presentation]]''' a mechanism by which dendritic
+
intracellular pathogens through induction of
  
intracellular pathogens through induction of
+
* '''[[diapedesis]]''' process by which leukocytes pass
  
* '''[[diapedesis]]''' process by which leukocytes pass
+
cells process antigens for MHC I presentation to
  
cells process antigens for MHC I presentation to
+
apoptosis
  
apoptosis
+
through capillary walls to reach infected tissue; also
  
through capillary walls to reach infected tissue; also
+
CD8 T cells through phagocytosis of the pathogen
  
CD8 T cells through phagocytosis of the pathogen
+
called extravasation
  
called extravasation
+
(which would normally lead to MHC II presentation)
  
(which would normally lead to MHC II presentation)
+
* '''[[cytotoxicity]]''' harmful effects to host cell
  
* '''[[cytotoxicity]]''' harmful effects to host cell
+
* '''[[diaphragm]]''' a component of a microscope; typically
  
* '''[[diaphragm]]''' a component of a microscope; typically
+
* '''[[cross-resistance]]''' when a single resistance
  
* '''[[cross-resistance]]''' when a single resistance
+
consists of a disk under the stage with holes of
  
consists of a disk under the stage with holes of
+
mechanism confers resistance to multiple
  
mechanism confers resistance to multiple
+
various sizes; can be adjusted to allow more or less
  
various sizes; can be adjusted to allow more or less
+
antimicrobial drugs
  
antimicrobial drugs
+
light from the light source to reach the specimen
  
light from the light source to reach the specimen
+
* '''[[cross-sectional study]]''' a type of observational study
  
* '''[[cross-sectional study]]''' a type of observational study
+
* '''[[D]]'''  
  
* '''[[D]]'''
+
* '''[[differential interference-contrast microscope]]''' a
  
* '''[[differential interference-contrast microscope]]''' a
+
in which measurements are made on cases, both
  
in which measurements are made on cases, both
+
* '''[[dacryocystitis]]''' inflammation of the lacrimal sac
  
* '''[[dacryocystitis]]''' inflammation of the lacrimal sac
+
microscope that uses polarized light to increase
  
microscope that uses polarized light to increase
+
affected and unaffected, at one point in time and the
  
affected and unaffected, at one point in time and the
+
often associated with a plugged nasolacrimal duct
  
often associated with a plugged nasolacrimal duct
+
contrast
  
contrast
+
measurements analyzed to uncover associations with
  
measurements analyzed to uncover associations with
+
the disease state
  
the disease state
+
* '''[[daptomycin]]''' cyclic lipopetide that disrupts the  
  
* '''[[daptomycin]]''' cyclic lipopetide that disrupts the
+
* '''[[differential media]]''' media that contain additives that  
  
* '''[[differential media]]''' media that contain additives that
+
bacterial cell membrane
  
bacterial cell membrane
+
make it possible to distinguish bacterial colonies
  
make it possible to distinguish bacterial colonies
+
* '''[[crustose lichens]]''' lichens that are tightly attached to  
  
* '''[[crustose lichens]]''' lichens that are tightly attached to
+
the substrate, giving them a crusty appearance
  
the substrate, giving them a crusty appearance
+
* '''[[darkfield microscope]]''' a compound light microscope
  
* '''[[darkfield microscope]]''' a compound light microscope
+
based on metabolic activities of the organisms
  
based on metabolic activities of the organisms
+
that produces a bright image on a dark background;
  
that produces a bright image on a dark background;
+
* '''[[differential staining]]''' staining that uses multiple dyes
  
* '''[[differential staining]]''' staining that uses multiple dyes
+
* '''[[cryptococcosis]]''' fungal pneumonia caused by the
  
* '''[[cryptococcosis]]''' fungal pneumonia caused by the
+
typically a modified brightfield microscope
  
typically a modified brightfield microscope
+
to differentiate between structures or organisms
  
to differentiate between structures or organisms
+
encapsulated yeast Cryptococcus neoformans
  
encapsulated yeast Cryptococcus neoformans
+
commonly found in bird droppings
  
commonly found in bird droppings
+
* '''[[death phase (decline phase)]]''' phase of the growth
  
* '''[[death phase (decline phase)]]''' phase of the growth
+
* '''[[diffraction]]''' the changing of direction (bending or
  
* '''[[diffraction]]''' the changing of direction (bending or
+
curve at which the number of dying cells exceeds the
  
curve at which the number of dying cells exceeds the
+
spreading) that occurs when a light wave interacts
  
spreading) that occurs when a light wave interacts
+
* '''[[cryptosporidiosis]]''' intestinal infection caused by
  
* '''[[cryptosporidiosis]]''' intestinal infection caused by
+
number of new cells formed
  
number of new cells formed
+
with an opening or barrier
  
with an opening or barrier
+
Cryptosporidium parvum or C. hominis
  
Cryptosporidium parvum or C. hominis
+
* '''[[decimal reduction time (DRT)]]''' or D-value]]''' amount
  
* '''[[decimal reduction time (DRT)]]''' or D-value]]''' amount
+
* '''[[dikaryotic]]''' having two separate nuclei within one
  
* '''[[dikaryotic]]''' having two separate nuclei within one
+
* '''[[culture density]]''' the number of cells per volume of
  
* '''[[culture density]]''' the number of cells per volume of
+
of time it takes for a specific protocol to produce a
  
of time it takes for a specific protocol to produce a
+
cell
  
cell
+
broth
  
broth
+
one order of magnitude decrease in the number of
  
one order of magnitude decrease in the number of
+
organisms; that is, death of 90% of the population
  
organisms; that is, death of 90% of the population
+
* '''[[dimorphic fungus]]''' a fungus that can take the form of  
  
* '''[[dimorphic fungus]]''' a fungus that can take the form of
+
* '''[[culture medium]]''' combination of compounds in
  
* '''[[culture medium]]''' combination of compounds in
+
a yeast or a mold, depending on environmental
  
a yeast or a mold, depending on environmental
+
solution that supports growth
  
solution that supports growth
+
* '''[[decolorizing agent]]''' a substance that removes a stain,
  
* '''[[decolorizing agent]]''' a substance that removes a stain,
+
conditions
  
conditions
+
* '''[[cutaneous mycosis]]''' any fungal infection that affects
  
* '''[[cutaneous mycosis]]''' any fungal infection that affects
+
usually from some parts of the specimen
  
usually from some parts of the specimen
+
* '''[[dioecious]]''' refers to sexually reproducing organisms
  
* '''[[dioecious]]''' refers to sexually reproducing organisms
+
the surface of the skin, hair, or nails
  
the surface of the skin, hair, or nails
+
* '''[[deeply branching bacteria]]''' bacteria that occupy the  
  
* '''[[deeply branching bacteria]]''' bacteria that occupy the
+
in which individuals have either male or female
  
in which individuals have either male or female
+
* '''[[cyanobacteria]]''' phototrophic, chlorophyll-containing
  
* '''[[cyanobacteria]]''' phototrophic, chlorophyll-containing
+
lowest branches of the phylogenetic tree of life
  
lowest branches of the phylogenetic tree of life
+
reproductive organs (not both)
  
reproductive organs (not both)
+
bacteria that produce large amounts of gaseous
  
bacteria that produce large amounts of gaseous
+
* '''[[definitive host]]''' the preferred host organism for a
  
* '''[[definitive host]]''' the preferred host organism for a
+
* '''[[diphtheria]]''' serious infection of the larynx, caused by
  
* '''[[diphtheria]]''' serious infection of the larynx, caused by
+
oxygen
  
oxygen
+
parasite, in which the parasite reaches maturity and
  
parasite, in which the parasite reaches maturity and
+
the toxigenic bacterium Corynebacterium
  
the toxigenic bacterium Corynebacterium
+
* '''[[cyclic AMP (cAMP)]]''' intracellular signaling
  
* '''[[cyclic AMP (cAMP)]]''' intracellular signaling
+
may reproduce sexually
  
may reproduce sexually
+
diphtheriae
  
diphtheriae
+
molecule made through the action of adenylyl
  
molecule made through the action of adenylyl
+
* '''[[degeneracy]]''' redundancy in the genetic code because
  
* '''[[degeneracy]]''' redundancy in the genetic code because
+
cyclase from ATP when glucose levels are low, with
  
cyclase from ATP when glucose levels are low, with
+
a given amino acid is encoded by more than one
  
a given amino acid is encoded by more than one
+
* '''[[diploid]]''' having two copies of each chromosome
  
* '''[[diploid]]''' having two copies of each chromosome
+
the ability to bind to a catabolite activator protein to
  
the ability to bind to a catabolite activator protein to
+
nucleotide triplet codon
  
nucleotide triplet codon
+
* '''[[direct agglutination assay]]''' assay that can be used to
  
* '''[[direct agglutination assay]]''' assay that can be used to
+
allow it to bind to regulatory regions and activate the
  
allow it to bind to regulatory regions and activate the
+
* '''[[degerming]]''' protocol that significantly reduces
  
* '''[[degerming]]''' protocol that significantly reduces
+
detect the agglutination of bacteria by the action of
  
detect the agglutination of bacteria by the action of
+
transcription of operons encoding enzymes for
  
transcription of operons encoding enzymes for
+
microbial numbers by using mild chemicals (e.g.,
  
microbial numbers by using mild chemicals (e.g.,
+
antibodies in patient serum
  
antibodies in patient serum
+
metabolism of alternative substrates
  
metabolism of alternative substrates
+
soap) and gentle scrubbing of a small area of skin or
  
soap) and gentle scrubbing of a small area of skin or
+
* '''[[direct antihuman globulin test (DAT)]]''' another
  
* '''[[direct antihuman globulin test (DAT)]]''' another
+
* '''[[cyclic photophosphorylation]]''' pathway used in
  
* '''[[cyclic photophosphorylation]]''' pathway used in
+
tissue to avoid the transmission of pathogenic
  
tissue to avoid the transmission of pathogenic
+
name for a direct Coombs’ test
  
name for a direct Coombs’ test
+
photosynthetic organisms when the cell’s need for  
  
photosynthetic organisms when the cell’s need for
+
microbes
  
microbes
+
ATP outweighs that for NADPH, thus bypassing
  
ATP outweighs that for NADPH, thus bypassing
+
* '''[[direct contact transmission]]''' movement of a
  
* '''[[direct contact transmission]]''' movement of a
+
NADPH production
  
NADPH production
+
* '''[[degranulation]]''' release of the contents of mast cell
  
* '''[[degranulation]]''' release of the contents of mast cell
+
pathogen between hosts by physical contact or
  
pathogen between hosts by physical contact or
+
granules in response to the cross-linking of IgE
  
granules in response to the cross-linking of IgE
+
transfer in droplets at a distance less than one meter
  
transfer in droplets at a distance less than one meter
+
* '''[[cyclosporiasis]]''' intestinal infection caused by
  
* '''[[cyclosporiasis]]''' intestinal infection caused by
+
molecules on the cell surface with allergen
  
molecules on the cell surface with allergen
+
Cyclospora cayetanensis
  
Cyclospora cayetanensis
+
molecules
  
molecules
+
* '''[[direct Coombs’ test]]''' assay that looks for antibodies
  
* '''[[direct Coombs’ test]]''' assay that looks for antibodies
+
in vivo against red blood cells caused by various
  
in vivo against red blood cells caused by various
+
* '''[[cystic echinococcosis]]''' hydatid disease, an infection
  
* '''[[cystic echinococcosis]]''' hydatid disease, an infection
+
* '''[[dehydration synthesis]]''' chemical reaction in which
  
* '''[[dehydration synthesis]]''' chemical reaction in which
+
types of infections, drug reactions, and autoimmune
  
types of infections, drug reactions, and autoimmune
+
caused by the tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus
  
caused by the tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus
+
monomer molecules bind end to end in a process that
  
monomer molecules bind end to end in a process that
+
disorders
  
disorders
+
that can cause cyst formation
  
that can cause cyst formation
+
results in the formation of water molecules as a
  
results in the formation of water molecules as a
+
byproduct
  
byproduct
+
* '''[[direct ELISA]]''' enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent
  
* '''[[direct ELISA]]''' enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent
+
* '''[[cysticerci]]''' larval form of a tapeworm
  
* '''[[cysticerci]]''' larval form of a tapeworm
+
assay in which the antigens are immobilized in the
  
assay in which the antigens are immobilized in the
+
* '''[[deletion]]''' type of mutation involving the removal of
  
* '''[[deletion]]''' type of mutation involving the removal of
+
well of a microtiter plate; only a single antibody is
  
well of a microtiter plate; only a single antibody is
+
* '''[[cystitis]]''' inflammation of the bladder
  
* '''[[cystitis]]''' inflammation of the bladder
+
one or more bases from a DNA sequence
  
one or more bases from a DNA sequence
+
used in the test
  
used in the test
+
* '''[[cysts]]''' microbial cells surrounded by a protective
  
* '''[[cysts]]''' microbial cells surrounded by a protective
+
* '''[[Deltaproteobacteria]]''' class of Proteobacteria that
  
* '''[[Deltaproteobacteria]]''' class of Proteobacteria that
+
* '''[[direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) test]]''' FA
  
* '''[[direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) test]]''' FA
+
outer covering; some microbial cysts are formed to
  
outer covering; some microbial cysts are formed to
+
includes sulfate-reducing bacteria
  
includes sulfate-reducing bacteria
+
technique in which the labeled antibody binds to the
  
technique in which the labeled antibody binds to the
+
help the microbe survive harsh conditions, whereas
  
help the microbe survive harsh conditions, whereas
+
* '''[[denatured protein]]''' protein that has lost its secondary
  
* '''[[denatured protein]]''' protein that has lost its secondary
+
target antigen
  
target antigen
+
others are a normal part of the life cycle
  
others are a normal part of the life cycle
+
and tertiary structures (and quaternary structure, if
  
and tertiary structures (and quaternary structure, if
+
* '''[[direct hemagglutination assay]]''' test that determines
  
* '''[[direct hemagglutination assay]]''' test that determines
+
* '''[[cytochrome oxidase]]''' final ETS complex used in
  
* '''[[cytochrome oxidase]]''' final ETS complex used in
+
applicable) without the loss of its primary structure
  
applicable) without the loss of its primary structure
+
the titer of certain bacteria and viruses that causes
  
the titer of certain bacteria and viruses that causes
+
aerobic respiration that transfers energy-depleted
  
aerobic respiration that transfers energy-depleted
+
* '''[[dendrites]]''' branched extensions of the soma of a
  
* '''[[dendrites]]''' branched extensions of the soma of a
+
clumping of red blood cells
  
clumping of red blood cells
+
electrons to oxygen to form H2O
  
electrons to oxygen to form H2O
+
neuron that interact with other cells
  
neuron that interact with other cells
+
* '''[[direct microscopic cell count]]''' counting of cells  
  
* '''[[direct microscopic cell count]]''' counting of cells
+
* '''[[cytokine storm]]''' an excessive release of cytokines,
  
* '''[[cytokine storm]]''' an excessive release of cytokines,
+
* '''[[dengue fever]]''' mosquito-borne viral hemorrhagic
  
* '''[[dengue fever]]''' mosquito-borne viral hemorrhagic
+
using a calibrated slide under a light microscope
  
using a calibrated slide under a light microscope
+
typically triggered by a superantigen, that results in
  
typically triggered by a superantigen, that results in
+
disease; also known as breakbone fever
  
disease; also known as breakbone fever
+
* '''[[direct repair (light repair or photoreactivation)]]'''
  
* '''[[direct repair (light repair or photoreactivation)]]'''
+
unregulated activation of T cells
  
unregulated activation of T cells
+
* '''[[dental calculus]]''' calcified heavy plaque on teeth, also
  
* '''[[dental calculus]]''' calcified heavy plaque on teeth, also
+
light-dependent mechanism for repairing pyrimidine
  
light-dependent mechanism for repairing pyrimidine
+
* '''[[cytokines]]''' protein molecules that act as a chemical
  
* '''[[cytokines]]''' protein molecules that act as a chemical
+
called tartar
  
called tartar
+
dimers involving the enzyme photolyase
  
dimers involving the enzyme photolyase
+
signals; produced by cells in response to a
  
signals; produced by cells in response to a
+
* '''[[dental caries]]''' cavities formed in the teeth as a result
  
* '''[[dental caries]]''' cavities formed in the teeth as a result
+
* '''[[disaccharide]]''' one of two monosaccharides linked
  
* '''[[disaccharide]]''' one of two monosaccharides linked
+
stimulation event
  
stimulation event
+
of tooth decay caused by microbial activity
  
of tooth decay caused by microbial activity
+
together by a glycosidic bond
  
together by a glycosidic bond
+
1256
  
1256
+
Appendix E
  
Appendix E
+
* '''[[disease]]''' any condition in which the normal structure
  
* '''[[disease]]''' any condition in which the normal structure
+
* '''[[ectoplasm]]''' outer, more gelatinous layer of cytoplasm
  
* '''[[ectoplasm]]''' outer, more gelatinous layer of cytoplasm
+
* '''[[endosymbiotic theory]]''' the theory that mitochondria
  
* '''[[endosymbiotic theory]]''' the theory that mitochondria
+
or function of the body is damaged or impaired
  
or function of the body is damaged or impaired
+
under a protist cell membrane
  
under a protist cell membrane
+
and chloroplasts arose as a result of prokaryotic cells
  
and chloroplasts arose as a result of prokaryotic cells
+
establishing a symbiotic relationship within a  
  
establishing a symbiotic relationship within a
+
* '''[[disinfectant]]''' antimicrobial chemical applied to a  
  
* '''[[disinfectant]]''' antimicrobial chemical applied to a
+
* '''[[edema]]''' swelling due to accumulation of fluid and
  
* '''[[edema]]''' swelling due to accumulation of fluid and
+
eukaryotic host
  
eukaryotic host
+
fomite during disinfection that may be toxic to
  
fomite during disinfection that may be toxic to
+
protein in tissue as a result of increased permeability
  
protein in tissue as a result of increased permeability
+
tissues
  
tissues
+
of capillary walls during an inflammatory response;
  
of capillary walls during an inflammatory response;
+
* '''[[endothelia]]''' layer of epithelial cells lining blood
  
* '''[[endothelia]]''' layer of epithelial cells lining blood
+
chronic edema can also result from blockage of  
  
chronic edema can also result from blockage of
+
vessels, lymphatics, the blood-brain barrier, and
  
vessels, lymphatics, the blood-brain barrier, and
+
* '''[[disinfection]]''' protocol that removes potential
  
* '''[[disinfection]]''' protocol that removes potential
+
lymphatic vessels, as in the case of elephantiasis
  
lymphatic vessels, as in the case of elephantiasis
+
some other tissues
  
some other tissues
+
pathogens from a fomite
  
pathogens from a fomite
+
* '''[[effector cells]]''' activated cells of cellular immunity
  
* '''[[effector cells]]''' activated cells of cellular immunity
+
* '''[[endotoxin]]''' lipid A component of lipopolysaccharides
  
* '''[[endotoxin]]''' lipid A component of lipopolysaccharides
+
* '''[[disk-diffusion method]]''' a technique for measuring of  
  
* '''[[disk-diffusion method]]''' a technique for measuring of
+
that are involved in the immediate immune response,
  
that are involved in the immediate immune response,
+
in the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria
  
in the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria
+
the effectiveness of one or more antimicrobial agents
  
the effectiveness of one or more antimicrobial agents
+
primarily to defend the body against pathogens
  
primarily to defend the body against pathogens
+
against a known bacterium; involves measuring the  
  
against a known bacterium; involves measuring the
+
* '''[[enriched media]]''' media that contain additional
  
* '''[[enriched media]]''' media that contain additional
+
zone(s) of inhibition around the chemical agent(s) in
  
zone(s) of inhibition around the chemical agent(s) in
+
* '''[[electron carrier]]''' cellular molecule that accepts high-
  
* '''[[electron carrier]]''' cellular molecule that accepts high-
+
essential nutrients to support growth
  
essential nutrients to support growth
+
a culture of the bacterium
  
a culture of the bacterium
+
energy electrons from reduced molecules like foods
  
energy electrons from reduced molecules like foods
+
* '''[[enrichment culture]]''' media providing growth
  
* '''[[enrichment culture]]''' media providing growth
+
and later serves as an electron donor in subsequent
  
and later serves as an electron donor in subsequent
+
* '''[[dispersion]]''' the separation of light of different
  
* '''[[dispersion]]''' the separation of light of different
+
conditions that favor the expansion of an organism
  
conditions that favor the expansion of an organism
+
redox reactions
  
redox reactions
+
frequencies due to different degrees of refraction
  
frequencies due to different degrees of refraction
+
present in low numbers
  
present in low numbers
+
* '''[[electron microscope]]''' a type of microscope that uses
  
* '''[[electron microscope]]''' a type of microscope that uses
+
* '''[[disulfide bridge]]''' covalent bond between the sulfur
  
* '''[[disulfide bridge]]''' covalent bond between the sulfur
+
* '''[[enteric]]''' bacteria of the family Enterobacteriaceae,
  
* '''[[enteric]]''' bacteria of the family Enterobacteriaceae,
+
short-wavelength electron beams rather than light to
  
short-wavelength electron beams rather than light to
+
atoms of two sulfhydryl side chains
  
atoms of two sulfhydryl side chains
+
which live in the human intestinal tract
  
which live in the human intestinal tract
+
increase magnification and resolution
  
increase magnification and resolution
+
* '''[[DNA gyrase (topoisomerase II)]]''' bacterial
  
* '''[[DNA gyrase (topoisomerase II)]]''' bacterial
+
* '''[[electron transport system (ETS)]]''' series of
  
* '''[[electron transport system (ETS)]]''' series of
+
* '''[[enteritis]]''' inflammation of the lining of the intestine
  
* '''[[enteritis]]''' inflammation of the lining of the intestine
+
topoisomerase that relaxes the supercoiled
  
topoisomerase that relaxes the supercoiled
+
membrane-associated protein complexes and
  
membrane-associated protein complexes and
+
chromosome to make DNA more accessible for the
  
chromosome to make DNA more accessible for the
+
* '''[[enterobiasis]]''' intestinal infection caused by the  
  
* '''[[enterobiasis]]''' intestinal infection caused by the
+
associated mobile accessory electron carriers
  
associated mobile accessory electron carriers
+
initiation of replication
  
initiation of replication
+
pinworm Enterobius vermicularis
  
pinworm Enterobius vermicularis
+
important in the generation of the proton motive
  
important in the generation of the proton motive
+
* '''[[DNA ligase]]''' enzyme that catalyzes the formation of a
  
* '''[[DNA ligase]]''' enzyme that catalyzes the formation of a
+
force required for ATP production by chemiosmosis;
  
force required for ATP production by chemiosmosis;
+
* '''[[enterohemorrhagic]]''' E. coli]]''' (EHEC)]]''' E. coli bacteria
  
* '''[[enterohemorrhagic]]''' E. coli]]''' (EHEC)]]''' E. coli bacteria
+
covalent phosphodiester linkage between the 3’-OH
  
covalent phosphodiester linkage between the 3’-OH
+
the last component involved in the cellular
  
the last component involved in the cellular
+
that cause severe gastrointestinal illness with
  
that cause severe gastrointestinal illness with
+
end of one DNA fragment and the 5’ phosphate end
  
end of one DNA fragment and the 5’ phosphate end
+
respiration of glucose
  
respiration of glucose
+
potential serious complications such as hemolytic
  
potential serious complications such as hemolytic
+
of another DNA fragment
  
of another DNA fragment
+
uremic syndrome
  
uremic syndrome
+
* '''[[electroporation]]''' a genetic engineering technique in
  
* '''[[electroporation]]''' a genetic engineering technique in
+
* '''[[DNA packaging]]''' process in which histones or other
  
* '''[[DNA packaging]]''' process in which histones or other
+
which cells are exposed to a short electric pulse,
  
which cells are exposed to a short electric pulse,
+
* '''[[enteroinvasive]]''' E. coli]]''' (EIEC)]]''' E. coli bacteria that
  
* '''[[enteroinvasive]]''' E. coli]]''' (EIEC)]]''' E. coli bacteria that
+
DNA binding proteins perform various levels of
  
DNA binding proteins perform various levels of
+
inducing them to take up DNA molecules from their
  
inducing them to take up DNA molecules from their
+
cause relatively mild gastrointestinal illness
  
cause relatively mild gastrointestinal illness
+
DNA wrapping and attachment to scaffolding
  
DNA wrapping and attachment to scaffolding
+
environment
  
environment
+
* '''[[enteropathogenic]]''' E. coli]]''' (EPEC)]]''' E. coli bacteria
  
* '''[[enteropathogenic]]''' E. coli]]''' (EPEC)]]''' E. coli bacteria
+
proteins to allow the DNA to fit inside a cell
  
proteins to allow the DNA to fit inside a cell
+
* '''[[elementary bodies]]''' metabolically and reproductively
  
* '''[[elementary bodies]]''' metabolically and reproductively
+
that cause serious gastrointestinal illness
  
that cause serious gastrointestinal illness
+
* '''[[DNA polymerase]]''' class of enzymes that adds
  
* '''[[DNA polymerase]]''' class of enzymes that adds
+
inactive, endospore-like form of intracellular
  
inactive, endospore-like form of intracellular
+
* '''[[enterotoxigenic]]''' E. coli]]''' (ETEC)]]''' E. coli bacteria that
  
* '''[[enterotoxigenic]]''' E. coli]]''' (ETEC)]]''' E. coli bacteria that
+
nucleotides to the free 3’-OH group of a growing
  
nucleotides to the free 3’-OH group of a growing
+
bacteria that spreads infection outside of cells
  
bacteria that spreads infection outside of cells
+
cause a relatively mild illness commonly called
  
cause a relatively mild illness commonly called
+
DNA chain that are complementary to the template
  
DNA chain that are complementary to the template
+
* '''[[elongation in DNA replication]]''' stage of DNA  
  
* '''[[elongation in DNA replication]]''' stage of DNA
+
traveler’s diarrhea
  
traveler’s diarrhea
+
strand
  
strand
+
replication during which DNA polymerase adds
  
replication during which DNA polymerase adds
+
* '''[[DNA primers]]''' short, synthetic, single-stranded DNA  
  
* '''[[DNA primers]]''' short, synthetic, single-stranded DNA
+
nucleotides, complementary to the parental strand, to
  
nucleotides, complementary to the parental strand, to
+
* '''[[enterotoxin]]''' toxin that affects the intestines
  
* '''[[enterotoxin]]''' toxin that affects the intestines
+
fragments of known sequence that bind to specific
  
fragments of known sequence that bind to specific
+
the 3’ end of a growing DNA strand
  
the 3’ end of a growing DNA strand
+
* '''[[Entner-Doudoroff (ED) pathway]]''' alternative
  
* '''[[Entner-Doudoroff (ED) pathway]]''' alternative
+
target sequences within a sample due to
  
target sequences within a sample due to
+
* '''[[elongation in transcription]]''' stage of transcription
  
* '''[[elongation in transcription]]''' stage of transcription
+
glycolytic pathway used by some bacteria
  
glycolytic pathway used by some bacteria
+
complementarity between the target DNA sequence
  
complementarity between the target DNA sequence
+
during which RNA polymerase extends the RNA
  
during which RNA polymerase extends the RNA
+
and the primer; commonly used in PCR but may be
  
and the primer; commonly used in PCR but may be
+
* '''[[enveloped virus]]''' a virus formed with a nucleic-acid
  
* '''[[enveloped virus]]''' a virus formed with a nucleic-acid
+
molecule by adding RNA nucleotides,
  
molecule by adding RNA nucleotides,
+
used in other hybridization techniques
  
used in other hybridization techniques
+
packed capsid surrounded by a lipid layer
  
packed capsid surrounded by a lipid layer
+
complementary to the template DNA strand
  
complementary to the template DNA strand
+
* '''[[DNA probe]]''' a single-stranded DNA fragment that is
  
* '''[[DNA probe]]''' a single-stranded DNA fragment that is
+
* '''[[enzyme]]''' catalyst for biochemical reactions inside
  
* '''[[enzyme]]''' catalyst for biochemical reactions inside
+
* '''[[elongation of translation]]''' stage of translation during
  
* '''[[elongation of translation]]''' stage of translation during
+
complementary to part of the gene (DNA or RNA)
  
complementary to part of the gene (DNA or RNA)
+
cells
  
cells
+
which amino acids are added one by one to the C-
  
which amino acids are added one by one to the C-
+
of interest
  
of interest
+
terminus of the growing polypeptide
  
terminus of the growing polypeptide
+
* '''[[enzyme immunoassay (EIA)]]''' type of assay wherein
  
* '''[[enzyme immunoassay (EIA)]]''' type of assay wherein
+
* '''[[DNAse]]''' pathogen-produced nuclease that degrades
  
* '''[[DNAse]]''' pathogen-produced nuclease that degrades
+
an enzyme is coupled to an antibody; addition of a
  
an enzyme is coupled to an antibody; addition of a
+
* '''[[Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas (EMP) pathway]]''' type
  
* '''[[Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas (EMP) pathway]]''' type
+
extracellular DNA
  
extracellular DNA
+
chromogenic substrate for the antibody allows
  
chromogenic substrate for the antibody allows
+
of glycolysis found in animals and the most common
  
of glycolysis found in animals and the most common
+
quantification or identification of the antigen bound
  
quantification or identification of the antigen bound
+
* '''[[dosage]]''' amount of medication given during a certain
  
* '''[[dosage]]''' amount of medication given during a certain
+
in microbes
  
in microbes
+
by the antibody
  
by the antibody
+
time interval
  
time interval
+
* '''[[emerging infectious disease]]''' a disease that is new to
  
* '''[[emerging infectious disease]]''' a disease that is new to
+
* '''[[enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)]]'''  
  
* '''[[enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)]]'''
+
the human population or has increased in prevalence
  
the human population or has increased in prevalence
+
* '''[[double immunodiffusion]]''' see Ouchterlony assay
  
* '''[[double immunodiffusion]]''' see Ouchterlony assay
+
specialized form of EIA in which either the primary
  
specialized form of EIA in which either the primary
+
over the previous 20 years
  
over the previous 20 years
+
antibody or the antigen is first attached to a solid
  
antibody or the antigen is first attached to a solid
+
* '''[[doubling time]]''' the time it takes for the population to  
  
* '''[[doubling time]]''' the time it takes for the population to
+
* '''[[enantiomers]]''' stereoisomers that are mirror images of
  
* '''[[enantiomers]]''' stereoisomers that are mirror images of
+
surface such as the well of a microtiter plate
  
surface such as the well of a microtiter plate
+
double; also referred to as generation time
  
double; also referred to as generation time
+
each other and nonsuperimposable
  
each other and nonsuperimposable
+
* '''[[eosinophils]]''' leukocytes with granules containing
  
* '''[[eosinophils]]''' leukocytes with granules containing
+
* '''[[droplet transmission]]''' direct contact transmission of
  
* '''[[droplet transmission]]''' direct contact transmission of
+
histamine and major basic protein; facilitate allergic
  
histamine and major basic protein; facilitate allergic
+
a pathogen transferred in sneezed or coughed
  
a pathogen transferred in sneezed or coughed
+
* '''[[encephalitis]]''' inflammation of the tissues of the brain
  
* '''[[encephalitis]]''' inflammation of the tissues of the brain
+
responses and protection against parasitic protozoa
  
responses and protection against parasitic protozoa
+
droplets of mucus that land on the new host within a
  
droplets of mucus that land on the new host within a
+
and helminths
  
and helminths
+
radius of one meter
  
radius of one meter
+
* '''[[encystment]]''' the process of forming a cyst
  
* '''[[encystment]]''' the process of forming a cyst
+
* '''[[epidemic disease]]''' an illness with a higher-than-
  
* '''[[epidemic disease]]''' an illness with a higher-than-
+
* '''[[drug resistance]]''' ability of a microbe to persist and
  
* '''[[drug resistance]]''' ability of a microbe to persist and
+
* '''[[endemic disease]]''' an illness that is constantly present
  
* '''[[endemic disease]]''' an illness that is constantly present
+
expected incidence in a given period within a given
  
expected incidence in a given period within a given
+
grow in the presence of an antimicrobial drug
  
grow in the presence of an antimicrobial drug
+
(often at low levels) in a population
  
(often at low levels) in a population
+
population  
  
population
+
* '''[[dry-heat sterilization]]''' protocol that involves the
  
* '''[[dry-heat sterilization]]''' protocol that involves the
+
* '''[[endergonic reaction]]''' chemical reaction that requires
  
* '''[[endergonic reaction]]''' chemical reaction that requires
+
* '''[[epidemic typhus]]''' severe and sometimes fatal
  
* '''[[epidemic typhus]]''' severe and sometimes fatal
+
direct application of high heat
  
direct application of high heat
+
energy beyond activation energy to occur
  
energy beyond activation energy to occur
+
infection caused by Rickettsia prowazekii and
  
infection caused by Rickettsia prowazekii and
+
* '''[[dura mater]]''' tough, outermost membrane that
  
* '''[[dura mater]]''' tough, outermost membrane that
+
* '''[[endocarditis]]''' inflammation of the endocardium,  
  
* '''[[endocarditis]]''' inflammation of the endocardium,
+
transmitted by body lice
  
transmitted by body lice
+
surrounds the brain
  
surrounds the brain
+
especially the heart valves
  
especially the heart valves
+
* '''[[epidemiology]]''' the study of where and when
  
* '''[[epidemiology]]''' the study of where and when
+
* '''[[dynein]]''' motor proteins that interact with
  
* '''[[dynein]]''' motor proteins that interact with
+
* '''[[endocrine function]]''' refers to a cytokine signal
  
* '''[[endocrine function]]''' refers to a cytokine signal
+
infectious diseases occur in a population and how
  
infectious diseases occur in a population and how
+
microtubules in eukaryotic flagella and cilia
  
microtubules in eukaryotic flagella and cilia
+
released from a cell and carried by the bloodstream
  
released from a cell and carried by the bloodstream
+
they are transmitted and maintained in nature
  
they are transmitted and maintained in nature
+
to a distant recipient cell
  
to a distant recipient cell
+
* '''[[dysentery]]''' intestinal inflammation that causes
  
* '''[[dysentery]]''' intestinal inflammation that causes
+
* '''[[epidermis]]''' the outermost layer of human skin
  
* '''[[epidermis]]''' the outermost layer of human skin
+
diarrhea with blood and mucus
  
diarrhea with blood and mucus
+
* '''[[endocytosis]]''' the uptake of molecules through plasma
  
* '''[[endocytosis]]''' the uptake of molecules through plasma
+
membrane invagination and vacuole/vesicle
  
membrane invagination and vacuole/vesicle
+
* '''[[epididymis]]''' coiled tube that collects sperm from the
  
* '''[[epididymis]]''' coiled tube that collects sperm from the
+
* '''[[dysuria]]''' urination accompanied by burning,
  
* '''[[dysuria]]''' urination accompanied by burning,
+
formation
  
formation
+
testes and passes it on to the vas deferens
  
testes and passes it on to the vas deferens
+
discomfort, or pain
  
discomfort, or pain
+
* '''[[endomembrane system]]''' a series of organelles
  
* '''[[endomembrane system]]''' a series of organelles
+
* '''[[epididymitis]]''' inflammation of the epididymis caused
  
* '''[[epididymitis]]''' inflammation of the epididymis caused
+
(endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatuses,
  
(endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatuses,
+
by a bacterial infection
  
by a bacterial infection
+
lysosomes, and transport vesicles) arranged as
  
lysosomes, and transport vesicles) arranged as
+
* '''[[epigenetic regulation]]''' chemical modification of
  
* '''[[epigenetic regulation]]''' chemical modification of
+
membranous tubules, sacs, and disks that synthesize
  
membranous tubules, sacs, and disks that synthesize
+
DNA or associated histones to influence
  
DNA or associated histones to influence
+
* '''[[E]]'''
  
* '''[[E]]'''
+
many cell components
  
many cell components
+
transcription
  
transcription
+
* '''[[E (exit) site]]''' functional site of an intact ribosome that
  
* '''[[E (exit) site]]''' functional site of an intact ribosome that
+
* '''[[endoplasm]]''' inner, more fluid layer of cytoplasm
  
* '''[[endoplasm]]''' inner, more fluid layer of cytoplasm
+
releases dissociated uncharged tRNAs so that they
  
releases dissociated uncharged tRNAs so that they
+
under a protist cell membrane (inside of the
  
under a protist cell membrane (inside of the
+
* '''[[epiglottis]]''' flap of cartilage that covers the larynx
  
* '''[[epiglottis]]''' flap of cartilage that covers the larynx
+
can be recharged with free amino acids
  
can be recharged with free amino acids
+
during swallowing; diverts food to the esophagus
  
during swallowing; diverts food to the esophagus
+
ectoplasm)
  
ectoplasm)
+
and prevents it from entering the respiratory tract
  
and prevents it from entering the respiratory tract
+
* '''[[East African trypanosomiasis]]''' acute form of
  
* '''[[East African trypanosomiasis]]''' acute form of
+
* '''[[endoplasmic reticulum]]''' part of the endomembrane
  
* '''[[endoplasmic reticulum]]''' part of the endomembrane
+
African trypanosomiasis caused by Trypanosoma
  
African trypanosomiasis caused by Trypanosoma
+
system that is an interconnected array of tubules and
  
system that is an interconnected array of tubules and
+
* '''[[epiglottitis]]''' inflammation of the epiglottis
  
* '''[[epiglottitis]]''' inflammation of the epiglottis
+
brucei rhodesiense
  
brucei rhodesiense
+
flattened sacs with a single lipid bilayer that may be
  
flattened sacs with a single lipid bilayer that may be
+
* '''[[eastern equine encephalitis]]''' serious, but rare,
  
* '''[[eastern equine encephalitis]]''' serious, but rare,
+
either rough or smooth; important in synthesizing
  
either rough or smooth; important in synthesizing
+
* '''[[epiphyte]]''' a plant that grows on another plant
  
* '''[[epiphyte]]''' a plant that grows on another plant
+
mosquito-borne viral infection of the brain that is
  
mosquito-borne viral infection of the brain that is
+
proteins and lipids
  
proteins and lipids
+
* '''[[epitope]]''' smaller exposed region on an antigen that is
  
* '''[[epitope]]''' smaller exposed region on an antigen that is
+
found primarily on the Atlantic and Gulf coast states
  
found primarily on the Atlantic and Gulf coast states
+
* '''[[endospore]]''' a cellular structure formed by some
  
* '''[[endospore]]''' a cellular structure formed by some
+
recognized by B-cell and T-cell receptors and
  
recognized by B-cell and T-cell receptors and
+
of the United States
  
of the United States
+
bacteria in response to adverse conditions; preserves
  
bacteria in response to adverse conditions; preserves
+
antibodies
  
antibodies
+
* '''[[Ebola virus disease (EVD)]]''' potentially fatal viral
  
* '''[[Ebola virus disease (EVD)]]''' potentially fatal viral
+
DNA of the cell in a dormant state until conditions
  
DNA of the cell in a dormant state until conditions
+
* '''[[Epsilonproteobacteria]]''' class of Proteobacteria that
  
* '''[[Epsilonproteobacteria]]''' class of Proteobacteria that
+
hemorrhagic fever found primarily in western Africa
  
hemorrhagic fever found primarily in western Africa
+
are favorable again
  
are favorable again
+
are microaerophilic
  
are microaerophilic
+
and transmitted through contact with body fluids
  
and transmitted through contact with body fluids
+
* '''[[endospore staining]]''' a differential staining technique
  
* '''[[endospore staining]]''' a differential staining technique
+
* '''[[equivalence zone]]''' region where the
  
* '''[[equivalence zone]]''' region where the
+
* '''[[eclipse phase]]''' period after viral infection during
  
* '''[[eclipse phase]]''' period after viral infection during
+
that uses two stains to make bacterial endospores
  
that uses two stains to make bacterial endospores
+
antibody-antigen ratio produces the greatest amount
  
antibody-antigen ratio produces the greatest amount
+
which the infective virus is not detected, either
  
which the infective virus is not detected, either
+
appear distinct from the rest of the cell
  
appear distinct from the rest of the cell
+
of precipitin in a precipitin reaction
  
of precipitin in a precipitin reaction
+
intracellularly or extracellularly, and biosynthesis is
  
intracellularly or extracellularly, and biosynthesis is
+
occurring
  
occurring
+
This OpenStax book is available for free at http://cnx.org/content/col12087/1.5
  
This OpenStax book is available for free at http://cnx.org/content/col12087/1.5
+
Appendix E
  
Appendix E
+
1257
  
1257
+
* '''[[erysipelas]]''' a skin infection, typically caused by
  
* '''[[erysipelas]]''' a skin infection, typically caused by
+
* '''[[extracellular matrix]]''' material composed of
  
* '''[[extracellular matrix]]''' material composed of
+
* '''[[flagella]]''' long, rigid, spiral structures used by
  
* '''[[flagella]]''' long, rigid, spiral structures used by
+
Streptococcus pyogenes, that presents as a red, large,  
  
Streptococcus pyogenes, that presents as a red, large,
+
proteoglycans and fibrous proteins secreted by some
  
proteoglycans and fibrous proteins secreted by some
+
prokaryotic cells for motility in aqueous
  
prokaryotic cells for motility in aqueous
+
intensely inflamed patch of skin involving the
  
intensely inflamed patch of skin involving the
+
eukaryotic cells that lack cell walls; helps
  
eukaryotic cells that lack cell walls; helps
+
environments; composed of a filament made of
  
environments; composed of a filament made of
+
dermis, usually with clear borders, typically on the
  
dermis, usually with clear borders, typically on the
+
multicellular structures withstand physical stresses
  
multicellular structures withstand physical stresses
+
flagellin, a hook, and motor (basal body) that are
  
flagellin, a hook, and motor (basal body) that are
+
legs or face
  
legs or face
+
and coordinates signaling from the external surface
  
and coordinates signaling from the external surface
+
attached to the cell envelope
  
attached to the cell envelope
+
of the cell to the interior of the cell  
  
of the cell to the interior of the cell
+
* '''[[erythema nodosum]]''' a condition that causes
  
* '''[[erythema nodosum]]''' a condition that causes
+
* '''[[flagella staining]]''' a staining protocol that uses a
  
* '''[[flagella staining]]''' a staining protocol that uses a
+
inflammation in the subcutaneous fat cells of the
  
inflammation in the subcutaneous fat cells of the
+
* '''[[extracellular polymeric substances (EPS)]]''' hydrated
  
* '''[[extracellular polymeric substances (EPS)]]''' hydrated
+
mordant to coat the flagella with stain until they are
  
mordant to coat the flagella with stain until they are
+
hypodermis resulting in red nodules
  
hypodermis resulting in red nodules
+
gel secreted by bacteria in a biofilm containing
  
gel secreted by bacteria in a biofilm containing
+
thick enough to be seen
  
thick enough to be seen
+
polysaccharides, proteins, nucleic acids, and some
  
polysaccharides, proteins, nucleic acids, and some
+
* '''[[erythema]]''' redness at the site of inflammation,  
  
* '''[[erythema]]''' redness at the site of inflammation,
+
* '''[[flagellum (eukaryotic) (plural: flagella)]]''' long,  
  
* '''[[flagellum (eukaryotic) (plural: flagella)]]''' long,
+
lipids
  
lipids
+
usually due to dilation of blood vessels in the area to
  
usually due to dilation of blood vessels in the area to
+
whip-like, filamentous external structure found on
  
whip-like, filamentous external structure found on
+
help bring in white blood cells
  
help bring in white blood cells
+
* '''[[extrachromosomal DNA]]''' additional molecules of
  
* '''[[extrachromosomal DNA]]''' additional molecules of
+
some eukaryotic cells; composed of microtubules in
  
some eukaryotic cells; composed of microtubules in
+
DNA distinct from the chromosomes that are also
  
DNA distinct from the chromosomes that are also
+
a 9+2 arrangement; used for locomotion
  
a 9+2 arrangement; used for locomotion
+
* '''[[erythrocyte]]''' red blood cell
  
* '''[[erythrocyte]]''' red blood cell
+
part of the cell’s genome
  
part of the cell’s genome
+
* '''[[flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD/FADH]]'''2]]''')]]'''
  
* '''[[flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD/FADH]]'''2]]''')]]'''
+
* '''[[erythrogenic toxin]]''' exotoxin produced by some
  
* '''[[erythrogenic toxin]]''' exotoxin produced by some
+
* '''[[extravasation]]''' process by which leukocytes pass
  
* '''[[extravasation]]''' process by which leukocytes pass
+
oxidized/reduced forms of an electron carrier in cells
  
oxidized/reduced forms of an electron carrier in cells
+
strains of Streptococcus pyogenes; activity of the
  
strains of Streptococcus pyogenes; activity of the
+
through capillary walls to reach infected tissue; also
  
through capillary walls to reach infected tissue; also
+
* '''[[flocculant]]''' visible aggregation that forms between a
  
* '''[[flocculant]]''' visible aggregation that forms between a
+
toxin can produce the characteristic rash of scarlet
  
toxin can produce the characteristic rash of scarlet
+
called diapedesis
  
called diapedesis
+
substance in suspension (e.g., lipid in water) and
  
substance in suspension (e.g., lipid in water) and
+
fever
  
fever
+
antibodies against the substance
  
antibodies against the substance
+
* '''[[erythromycin]]''' protein synthesis inhibitor of the  
  
* '''[[erythromycin]]''' protein synthesis inhibitor of the
+
* '''[[flow cytometry]]''' technique analyzing cells for
  
* '''[[flow cytometry]]''' technique analyzing cells for
+
macrolide class that is often used as an alternative to
  
macrolide class that is often used as an alternative to
+
fluorescence intensity; specific subsets of cells are
  
fluorescence intensity; specific subsets of cells are
+
penicillin
  
penicillin
+
* '''[[F]]'''
  
* '''[[F]]'''
+
usually labeled in some way prior to the analysis
  
usually labeled in some way prior to the analysis
+
* '''[[eschar]]''' a localized mass of dead skin tissue
  
* '''[[eschar]]''' a localized mass of dead skin tissue
+
* '''[[F]]'''-]]''' (recipient) cell]]''' E. coli cell lacking the F plasmid
  
* '''[[F]]'''-]]''' (recipient) cell]]''' E. coli cell lacking the F plasmid
+
* '''[[fluconazole]]''' antifungal drug of the imidazole class
  
* '''[[fluconazole]]''' antifungal drug of the imidazole class
+
and thus incapable of forming a conjugation pilus
  
and thus incapable of forming a conjugation pilus
+
that is administered orally or intravenously for the
  
that is administered orally or intravenously for the
+
* '''[[Etest]]''' simple, rapid method for determining MIC,
  
* '''[[Etest]]''' simple, rapid method for determining MIC,
+
but capable of receiving the F plasmid during
  
but capable of receiving the F plasmid during
+
treatment of several types of systemic yeast
  
treatment of several types of systemic yeast
+
involving commercially available plastic strips that
  
involving commercially available plastic strips that
+
conjugation
  
conjugation
+
infections
  
infections
+
contain a gradient of an antimicrobial and are placed
  
contain a gradient of an antimicrobial and are placed
+
on an agar plate inoculated with a bacterial lawn
  
on an agar plate inoculated with a bacterial lawn
+
* '''[[F pilus (F pili)]]''' specialized type of pilus that aids in
  
* '''[[F pilus (F pili)]]''' specialized type of pilus that aids in
+
* '''[[fluid mosaic model]]''' refers to the ability of  
  
* '''[[fluid mosaic model]]''' refers to the ability of
+
DNA transfer between cells; conjugation pilus of E.
  
DNA transfer between cells; conjugation pilus of E.
+
membrane components to move fluidly within the
  
membrane components to move fluidly within the
+
* '''[[etiologic agent]]''' the pathogen or substance
  
* '''[[etiologic agent]]''' the pathogen or substance
+
coli
  
coli
+
plane of the membrane, as well as the mosaic-like
  
plane of the membrane, as well as the mosaic-like
+
responsible for causing a particular disease;
  
responsible for causing a particular disease;
+
* '''[[F plasmid (fertility factor)]]''' bacterial plasmid in E.
  
* '''[[F plasmid (fertility factor)]]''' bacterial plasmid in E.
+
composition of the components
  
composition of the components
+
causative agent
  
causative agent
+
coli containing genes encoding the ability to
  
coli containing genes encoding the ability to
+
* '''[[flukes]]''' any of the parasitic nonsegmented flatworms
  
* '''[[flukes]]''' any of the parasitic nonsegmented flatworms
+
* '''[[etiology]]''' the science of the causes of disease
  
* '''[[etiology]]''' the science of the causes of disease
+
conjugate, including genes encoding the formation
  
conjugate, including genes encoding the formation
+
(trematodes) that have an oral sucker and sometimes
  
(trematodes) that have an oral sucker and sometimes
+
of the conjugation pilus
  
of the conjugation pilus
+
a second ventral sucker; they attach to the inner
  
a second ventral sucker; they attach to the inner
+
* '''[[Eukarya]]''' the domain of life that includes all
  
* '''[[Eukarya]]''' the domain of life that includes all
+
unicellular and multicellular organisms with cells
  
unicellular and multicellular organisms with cells
+
* '''[[F’ plasmid]]''' integrated F plasmid imprecisely excised
  
* '''[[F’ plasmid]]''' integrated F plasmid imprecisely excised
+
walls of intestines, lungs, large blood vessels, or the
  
walls of intestines, lungs, large blood vessels, or the
+
from the chromosome; carries with it some
  
from the chromosome; carries with it some
+
liver in human hosts
  
liver in human hosts
+
that contain membrane-bound nuclei and organelles
  
that contain membrane-bound nuclei and organelles
+
chromosomal DNA adjacent to the integration site
  
chromosomal DNA adjacent to the integration site
+
* '''[[fluorescence microscope]]''' a microscope that uses
  
* '''[[fluorescence microscope]]''' a microscope that uses
+
* '''[[eukaryote]]''' an organism made up of one or more
  
* '''[[eukaryote]]''' an organism made up of one or more
+
* '''[[F]]'''+]]''' (donor) cell]]''' E. coli cell containing the F plasmid,
  
* '''[[F]]'''+]]''' (donor) cell]]''' E. coli cell containing the F plasmid,
+
natural fluorochromes or fluorescent stains to
  
natural fluorochromes or fluorescent stains to
+
cells that contain a membrane-bound nucleus and
  
cells that contain a membrane-bound nucleus and
+
capable of forming a conjugation pilus
  
capable of forming a conjugation pilus
+
increase contrast
  
increase contrast
+
organelles
  
organelles
+
* '''[[Fab region]]''' arm of an antibody molecule that
  
* '''[[Fab region]]''' arm of an antibody molecule that
+
* '''[[fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS)]]'''  
  
* '''[[fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS)]]'''
+
* '''[[eukaryotic cell]]''' has a nucleus surrounded by a
  
* '''[[eukaryotic cell]]''' has a nucleus surrounded by a
+
includes an antigen-binding site
  
includes an antigen-binding site
+
technique for using a flow cytometer to physically
  
technique for using a flow cytometer to physically
+
complex nuclear membrane that contains multiple,
  
complex nuclear membrane that contains multiple,
+
separate cells into two populations based on
  
separate cells into two populations based on
+
rod-shaped chromosomes
  
rod-shaped chromosomes
+
* '''[[facultative anaerobe]]''' organism that grows better in
  
* '''[[facultative anaerobe]]''' organism that grows better in
+
fluorescence intensity
  
fluorescence intensity
+
* '''[[eustachian tube]]''' small passage between the
  
* '''[[eustachian tube]]''' small passage between the
+
the presence of oxygen but can proliferate in its
  
the presence of oxygen but can proliferate in its
+
nasopharynx and the middle ear that allows pressure
  
nasopharynx and the middle ear that allows pressure
+
absence
  
absence
+
* '''[[fluorescent antibody (FA) techniques]]''' suite of
  
* '''[[fluorescent antibody (FA) techniques]]''' suite of
+
assays that use a fluorescently labeled antibody to
  
assays that use a fluorescently labeled antibody to
+
to equalize across the tympanic membrane
  
to equalize across the tympanic membrane
+
* '''[[false negative]]''' negative result to a test for an
  
* '''[[false negative]]''' negative result to a test for an
+
bind to and so make an antigen easy to visualize
  
bind to and so make an antigen easy to visualize
+
* '''[[eutrophs]]''' microorganisms that require a copious
  
* '''[[eutrophs]]''' microorganisms that require a copious
+
infection or condition (e.g., presence of antigen,
  
infection or condition (e.g., presence of antigen,
+
antibody, or nucleic acid) when the infection or  
  
antibody, or nucleic acid) when the infection or
+
* '''[[fluorescent enzyme immunoassay (FEIA)]]''' EIA in
  
* '''[[fluorescent enzyme immunoassay (FEIA)]]''' EIA in
+
amount of organic nutrients; also called copiotrophs
  
amount of organic nutrients; also called copiotrophs
+
condition is actually present
  
condition is actually present
+
which the substrate is a fluorogen that becomes
  
which the substrate is a fluorogen that becomes
+
fluorescent following reaction with the enzyme
  
fluorescent following reaction with the enzyme
+
* '''[[excystment]]''' the process of emerging from a cyst
  
* '''[[excystment]]''' the process of emerging from a cyst
+
* '''[[false positive]]''' positive result to a test for an infection
  
* '''[[false positive]]''' positive result to a test for an infection
+
* '''[[exergonic reaction]]''' chemical reaction that does not
  
* '''[[exergonic reaction]]''' chemical reaction that does not
+
or condition (e.g., presence of antigen, antibody, or
  
or condition (e.g., presence of antigen, antibody, or
+
* '''[[fluorescent]]''' the ability of certain materials to absorb
  
* '''[[fluorescent]]''' the ability of certain materials to absorb
+
require energy beyond activation energy to proceed;
  
require energy beyond activation energy to proceed;
+
nucleic acid) when the infection or condition is
  
nucleic acid) when the infection or condition is
+
energy and then immediately release that energy in
  
energy and then immediately release that energy in
+
actually absent
  
actually absent
+
the form of light
  
the form of light
+
releases energy when the reaction occurs
  
releases energy when the reaction occurs
+
* '''[[fastidious organism]]''' organism that has extensive
  
* '''[[fastidious organism]]''' organism that has extensive
+
* '''[[fluorochromes]]''' chromophores that fluoresce (absorb
  
* '''[[fluorochromes]]''' chromophores that fluoresce (absorb
+
* '''[[exocytosis]]''' the release of the contents of transport
  
* '''[[exocytosis]]''' the release of the contents of transport
+
growth requirements
  
growth requirements
+
and then emit light)
  
and then emit light)
+
vesicles to the cell’s exterior by fusion of the
  
vesicles to the cell’s exterior by fusion of the
+
transport vesicle’s membrane with the plasma
  
transport vesicle’s membrane with the plasma
+
* '''[[fatty acid]]''' lipid that contains long-chain
  
* '''[[fatty acid]]''' lipid that contains long-chain
+
* '''[[fluorogen]]''' nonfluorescent molecule that becomes
  
* '''[[fluorogen]]''' nonfluorescent molecule that becomes
+
membrane
  
membrane
+
hydrocarbons terminated with a carboxylic acid
  
hydrocarbons terminated with a carboxylic acid
+
fluorescent on enzyme or laser activation
  
fluorescent on enzyme or laser activation
+
* '''[[exoenzyme]]''' secreted enzyme that enhances the
  
* '''[[exoenzyme]]''' secreted enzyme that enhances the
+
functional group
  
functional group
+
* '''[[fluorophore]]''' molecule that fluoresces when excited
  
* '''[[fluorophore]]''' molecule that fluoresces when excited
+
ability of microorganisms to invade host cells
  
ability of microorganisms to invade host cells
+
* '''[[fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analysis]]''' technique
  
* '''[[fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analysis]]''' technique
+
by light
  
by light
+
* '''[[exon]]''' protein-coding sequence of a eukaryotic gene
  
* '''[[exon]]''' protein-coding sequence of a eukaryotic gene
+
in which the microbe’s fatty acids are extracted,
  
in which the microbe’s fatty acids are extracted,
+
* '''[[fluoroquinolones]]''' class of synthetic antimicrobials
  
* '''[[fluoroquinolones]]''' class of synthetic antimicrobials
+
that is transcribed into RNA and spliced together to
  
that is transcribed into RNA and spliced together to
+
converted to volatile methyl esters, and analyzed by
  
converted to volatile methyl esters, and analyzed by
+
that inhibit the activity of DNA gyrase, preventing
  
that inhibit the activity of DNA gyrase, preventing
+
code for a polypeptide
  
code for a polypeptide
+
gas chromatography, yielding chromatograms that
  
gas chromatography, yielding chromatograms that
+
DNA replication
  
DNA replication
+
may be compared to reference data for identification
  
may be compared to reference data for identification
+
* '''[[exonuclease]]''' enzymatic activity that removes RNA
  
* '''[[exonuclease]]''' enzymatic activity that removes RNA
+
purposes
  
purposes
+
* '''[[focal infection]]''' infection in which the pathogen
  
* '''[[focal infection]]''' infection in which the pathogen
+
primers in DNA introduced by primase
  
primers in DNA introduced by primase
+
causes infection in one location that then spreads to a
  
causes infection in one location that then spreads to a
+
* '''[[Fc region]]''' region on the trunk of an antibody
  
* '''[[Fc region]]''' region on the trunk of an antibody
+
secondary location
  
secondary location
+
* '''[[exotoxin]]''' biologically active product that causes
  
* '''[[exotoxin]]''' biologically active product that causes
+
molecule involved in complement activation and
  
molecule involved in complement activation and
+
adverse changes in the host cells
  
adverse changes in the host cells
+
opsonization
  
opsonization
+
* '''[[focal length]]''' the distance from the lens to the image
  
* '''[[focal length]]''' the distance from the lens to the image
+
point when the object is at a definite distance from  
  
point when the object is at a definite distance from
+
* '''[[experimental epidemiology]]''' the use of laboratory
  
* '''[[experimental epidemiology]]''' the use of laboratory
+
* '''[[feedback inhibition]]''' mechanism of regulating
  
* '''[[feedback inhibition]]''' mechanism of regulating
+
the lens (this is also the distance to the focal point)
  
the lens (this is also the distance to the focal point)
+
and clinical studies to directly study disease in a
  
and clinical studies to directly study disease in a
+
metabolic pathway whereby the product of a  
  
metabolic pathway whereby the product of a
+
population
  
population
+
metabolic pathway noncompetitively binds to an
  
metabolic pathway noncompetitively binds to an
+
* '''[[focal point]]''' a property of the lens; the image point
  
* '''[[focal point]]''' a property of the lens; the image point
+
* '''[[experimental study]]''' a type of scientific study that
  
* '''[[experimental study]]''' a type of scientific study that
+
enzyme early on in the pathway, temporarily
  
enzyme early on in the pathway, temporarily
+
when light entering the lens is parallel (i.e., the
  
when light entering the lens is parallel (i.e., the
+
preventing the synthesis of the product
  
preventing the synthesis of the product
+
object is an infinite distance from the lens)
  
object is an infinite distance from the lens)
+
involves manipulation of the study subjects by the  
  
involves manipulation of the study subjects by the
+
researcher through application of specific treatments
  
researcher through application of specific treatments
+
* '''[[fermentation]]''' process that uses an organic molecule
  
* '''[[fermentation]]''' process that uses an organic molecule
+
* '''[[foliose lichens]]''' lichens that have lobes that may
  
* '''[[foliose lichens]]''' lichens that have lobes that may
+
hypothesized to affect the outcome while
  
hypothesized to affect the outcome while
+
as a final electron acceptor to regenerate NAD+ from
  
as a final electron acceptor to regenerate NAD+ from
+
appear to resemble leaves
  
appear to resemble leaves
+
maintaining rigorously controlled conditions
  
maintaining rigorously controlled conditions
+
NADH such that glycolysis can continue
  
NADH such that glycolysis can continue
+
* '''[[folliculitis]]''' a skin infection characterized by localized
  
* '''[[folliculitis]]''' a skin infection characterized by localized
+
* '''[[exposure]]''' contact between potential pathogen and
  
* '''[[exposure]]''' contact between potential pathogen and
+
* '''[[fever]]''' system-wide sign of inflammation that raises
  
* '''[[fever]]''' system-wide sign of inflammation that raises
+
inflammation of hair follicles, typically producing an
  
inflammation of hair follicles, typically producing an
+
host; also called contamination or contact
  
host; also called contamination or contact
+
the body temperature and stimulates the immune
  
the body temperature and stimulates the immune
+
itchy red rash
  
itchy red rash
+
* '''[[extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs)]]''' β-
  
* '''[[extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs)]]''' β-
+
response
  
response
+
* '''[[fomite]]''' inanimate item that may harbor microbes and
  
* '''[[fomite]]''' inanimate item that may harbor microbes and
+
lactamases carried by some gram-negative bacteria
  
lactamases carried by some gram-negative bacteria
+
* '''[[fifth disease]]''' a highly contagious illness, more
  
* '''[[fifth disease]]''' a highly contagious illness, more
+
aid in disease transmission
  
aid in disease transmission
+
that provide resistance to all penicillins,
  
that provide resistance to all penicillins,
+
commonly affecting children, marked by a
  
commonly affecting children, marked by a
+
* '''[[foodborne disease]]''' disease that is transmitted
  
* '''[[foodborne disease]]''' disease that is transmitted
+
cephalosporins, monobactams, and β-lactamase-
  
cephalosporins, monobactams, and β-lactamase-
+
distinctive “slapped-cheek” rash and caused by
  
distinctive “slapped-cheek” rash and caused by
+
through contaminated food
  
through contaminated food
+
inhibitor combinations, but not carbapenems
  
inhibitor combinations, but not carbapenems
+
parvovirus B19
  
parvovirus B19
+
* '''[[fragmentation]]''' newly formed cells split away from
  
* '''[[fragmentation]]''' newly formed cells split away from
+
* '''[[extensively drug resistant]]''' Mycobacterium]]'''  
  
* '''[[extensively drug resistant]]''' Mycobacterium]]'''
+
* '''[[fimbriae]]''' filamentous appendages found by the
  
* '''[[fimbriae]]''' filamentous appendages found by the
+
the parent filament in actinomycetes and
  
the parent filament in actinomycetes and
+
* '''[[tuberculosis]]''' (XDR-TB)]]''' strains of M. tuberculosis
  
* '''[[tuberculosis]]''' (XDR-TB)]]''' strains of M. tuberculosis
+
hundreds on some bacterial cells; they aid adherence
  
hundreds on some bacterial cells; they aid adherence
+
cyanobacteria
  
cyanobacteria
+
that are resistant to rifampin and isoniazid, and also
  
that are resistant to rifampin and isoniazid, and also
+
to host cells
  
to host cells
+
are resistant to any fluoroquinolone and at least one
  
are resistant to any fluoroquinolone and at least one
+
* '''[[frameshift mutation]]''' mutation resulting from either
  
* '''[[frameshift mutation]]''' mutation resulting from either
+
of three other drugs (amikacin, kanamycin, or
  
of three other drugs (amikacin, kanamycin, or
+
* '''[[fine focusing knob]]''' a knob on a microscope that
  
* '''[[fine focusing knob]]''' a knob on a microscope that
+
an insertion or a deletion in a number of nucleotides
  
an insertion or a deletion in a number of nucleotides
+
capreomycin)
  
capreomycin)
+
produces relatively small movements to adjust focus
  
produces relatively small movements to adjust focus
+
that, if not a multiple of three, changes every amino
  
that, if not a multiple of three, changes every amino
+
* '''[[fixation]]''' the process by which cells are killed and
  
* '''[[fixation]]''' the process by which cells are killed and
+
acid after the mutation
  
acid after the mutation
+
attached to a slide
  
attached to a slide
+
* '''[[free ribosome]]''' eukaryotic 80S ribosome found in the
  
* '''[[free ribosome]]''' eukaryotic 80S ribosome found in the
+
cytoplasm; synthesizes water-soluble proteins
  
cytoplasm; synthesizes water-soluble proteins
+
1258
  
1258
+
Appendix E
  
Appendix E
+
* '''[[frequency]]''' the rate of vibration for a light wave or
  
* '''[[frequency]]''' the rate of vibration for a light wave or
+
* '''[[giardiasis]]''' intestinal infection caused by Giardia
  
* '''[[giardiasis]]''' intestinal infection caused by Giardia
+
* '''[[halophile]]''' organism that depends on high
  
* '''[[halophile]]''' organism that depends on high
+
other electromagnetic wave
  
other electromagnetic wave
+
lamblia
  
lamblia
+
concentrations of salt in the environment to grow
  
concentrations of salt in the environment to grow
+
* '''[[fruticose lichens]]''' lichens that are generally branched
  
* '''[[fruticose lichens]]''' lichens that are generally branched
+
* '''[[gingivitis]]''' inflammation of the gums that can cause
  
* '''[[gingivitis]]''' inflammation of the gums that can cause
+
* '''[[halotolerant]]''' organism that grows in the presence of  
  
* '''[[halotolerant]]''' organism that grows in the presence of
+
with a rounded appearance
  
with a rounded appearance
+
bleeding
  
bleeding
+
high salt concentration but does not require it
  
high salt concentration but does not require it
+
* '''[[functional groups]]''' specific groups of atoms that may
  
* '''[[functional groups]]''' specific groups of atoms that may
+
* '''[[glial cell]]''' assists in the organization of neurons,
  
* '''[[glial cell]]''' assists in the organization of neurons,
+
* '''[[Hansen’s Disease]]''' chronic bacterial infection of  
  
* '''[[Hansen’s Disease]]''' chronic bacterial infection of
+
occur within a molecule, conferring specific
  
occur within a molecule, conferring specific
+
provides a scaffold for some aspects of neuron
  
provides a scaffold for some aspects of neuron
+
peripheral nervous tissues caused by the acid-fast
  
peripheral nervous tissues caused by the acid-fast
+
chemical properties
  
chemical properties
+
function, and aids in recovery from neural injury
  
function, and aids in recovery from neural injury
+
bacterium, Mycobacterium leprae; also known as
  
bacterium, Mycobacterium leprae; also known as
+
leprosy
  
leprosy
+
* '''[[fungi]]''' (singular: fungus) any of various unicellular or
  
* '''[[fungi]]''' (singular: fungus) any of various unicellular or
+
* '''[[glomerulonephritis]]''' a type of kidney infection
  
* '''[[glomerulonephritis]]''' a type of kidney infection
+
multicellular eukaryotic organisms, typically having
  
multicellular eukaryotic organisms, typically having
+
involving the glomeruli of the nephrons
  
involving the glomeruli of the nephrons
+
* '''[[hantavirus pulmonary syndrome]]''' acute lung
  
* '''[[hantavirus pulmonary syndrome]]''' acute lung
+
cell walls made out of chitin and lacking
  
cell walls made out of chitin and lacking
+
infection by a hantavirus following inhalation of  
  
infection by a hantavirus following inhalation of
+
* '''[[glomerulus]]''' capillary bed in the nephron of the
  
* '''[[glomerulus]]''' capillary bed in the nephron of the
+
photosynthetic pigments, vascular tissues, and
  
photosynthetic pigments, vascular tissues, and
+
aerosols from the urine or feces of infected rodents
  
aerosols from the urine or feces of infected rodents
+
kidney that filters blood to form urine  
  
kidney that filters blood to form urine
+
organs
  
organs
+
* '''[[glycocalyx]]''' cell envelope structure (either capsules or
  
* '''[[glycocalyx]]''' cell envelope structure (either capsules or
+
* '''[[haploid]]''' having one copy of each chromosome
  
* '''[[haploid]]''' having one copy of each chromosome
+
* '''[[fungicide]]''' chemical or physical treatment that kills
  
* '''[[fungicide]]''' chemical or physical treatment that kills
+
slime layer) outside the cell wall in some bacteria;
  
slime layer) outside the cell wall in some bacteria;
+
fungi
  
fungi
+
* '''[[hapten]]''' a molecule that is too small to be antigenic
  
* '''[[hapten]]''' a molecule that is too small to be antigenic
+
allows bacteria to adhere to surfaces, aids in biofilm
  
allows bacteria to adhere to surfaces, aids in biofilm
+
alone but becomes antigenic when conjugated to a
  
alone but becomes antigenic when conjugated to a
+
* '''[[fungistatic]]''' having the ability to inhibit fungal
  
* '''[[fungistatic]]''' having the ability to inhibit fungal
+
formation, and provides protection from predation
  
formation, and provides protection from predation
+
larger protein molecule
  
larger protein molecule
+
growth, generally by means of chemical or physical
  
growth, generally by means of chemical or physical
+
* '''[[glycogen]]''' highly branched storage polysaccharide in
  
* '''[[glycogen]]''' highly branched storage polysaccharide in
+
treatment
  
treatment
+
* '''[[hard chancre]]''' a generally painless ulcer that
  
* '''[[hard chancre]]''' a generally painless ulcer that
+
animal cells and bacteria
  
animal cells and bacteria
+
develops at the site of infection in primary syphilis
  
develops at the site of infection in primary syphilis
+
* '''[[furuncle]]''' a small, purulent skin lesion; sometimes
  
* '''[[furuncle]]''' a small, purulent skin lesion; sometimes
+
* '''[[glycolipid]]''' complex lipid that contains a
  
* '''[[glycolipid]]''' complex lipid that contains a
+
called a boil
  
called a boil
+
* '''[[Hashimoto thyroiditis]]''' hypothyroidism caused by
  
* '''[[Hashimoto thyroiditis]]''' hypothyroidism caused by
+
carbohydrate moiety
  
carbohydrate moiety
+
an autoimmune disease affecting thyroid function
  
an autoimmune disease affecting thyroid function
+
* '''[[fusion inhibitor]]''' antiviral drug that blocks the fusion
  
* '''[[fusion inhibitor]]''' antiviral drug that blocks the fusion
+
* '''[[glycolysis]]''' first step in the breakdown of glucose, the  
  
* '''[[glycolysis]]''' first step in the breakdown of glucose, the
+
of HIV receptors to the coreceptors required for
  
of HIV receptors to the coreceptors required for
+
* '''[[healthcare-associated infection (HAI)]]''' an infection
  
* '''[[healthcare-associated infection (HAI)]]''' an infection
+
most common example of which is the Embden-  
  
most common example of which is the Embden-
+
virus entry into the cell, specifically, chemokine
  
virus entry into the cell, specifically, chemokine
+
acquired in a hospital or other health-care facility
  
acquired in a hospital or other health-care facility
+
Meyerhoff-Parnas pathway, producing two
  
Meyerhoff-Parnas pathway, producing two
+
receptor type 5
  
receptor type 5
+
unrelated to the reason for which the patient was
  
unrelated to the reason for which the patient was
+
pyruvates, two NADH molecules, and two (net
  
pyruvates, two NADH molecules, and two (net
+
initially admitted; nosocomial infection
  
initially admitted; nosocomial infection
+
yield) ATP per starting glucose molecule
  
yield) ATP per starting glucose molecule
+
* '''[[heavy chains]]''' longest identical peptide chains in
  
* '''[[heavy chains]]''' longest identical peptide chains in
+
* '''[[glycopeptides]]''' class of antibacterials that inhibit cell
  
* '''[[glycopeptides]]''' class of antibacterials that inhibit cell
+
antibody molecules (two per antibody monomer),
  
antibody molecules (two per antibody monomer),
+
wall synthesis by binding to peptidoglycan subunits
  
wall synthesis by binding to peptidoglycan subunits
+
composed of variable and constant region segments
  
composed of variable and constant region segments
+
* '''[[G]]'''
  
* '''[[G]]'''
+
and blocking their insertion into the cell wall
  
and blocking their insertion into the cell wall
+
* '''[[Gammaproteobacteria]]''' class of Proteobacteria that
  
* '''[[Gammaproteobacteria]]''' class of Proteobacteria that
+
backbone, as well as blocking transpeptidation
  
backbone, as well as blocking transpeptidation
+
* '''[[helical virus]]''' cylindrical or rod shaped
  
* '''[[helical virus]]''' cylindrical or rod shaped
+
is very diverse and includes a number of human
  
is very diverse and includes a number of human
+
* '''[[glycoprotein]]''' conjugated protein with a carbohydrate
  
* '''[[glycoprotein]]''' conjugated protein with a carbohydrate
+
pathogens
  
pathogens
+
attached
  
attached
+
* '''[[helicase]]''' enzyme that unwinds DNA by breaking the
  
* '''[[helicase]]''' enzyme that unwinds DNA by breaking the
+
hydrogen bonds between the nitrogenous base pairs,
  
hydrogen bonds between the nitrogenous base pairs,
+
* '''[[gas gangrene]]''' rapidly spreading infection of necrotic
  
* '''[[gas gangrene]]''' rapidly spreading infection of necrotic
+
* '''[[glycosidic bond]]''' forms between the hydroxyl groups
  
* '''[[glycosidic bond]]''' forms between the hydroxyl groups
+
using ATP
  
using ATP
+
tissues caused by the gram-positive anaerobe
  
tissues caused by the gram-positive anaerobe
+
of two sugar molecules
  
of two sugar molecules
+
Clostridium perfringens and other Clostridium spp.
  
Clostridium perfringens and other Clostridium spp.
+
* '''[[helminth]]''' a multicellular parasitic worm
  
* '''[[helminth]]''' a multicellular parasitic worm
+
* '''[[Golgi apparatus]]''' an organelle of the endomembrane
  
* '''[[Golgi apparatus]]''' an organelle of the endomembrane
+
* '''[[gastritis]]''' inflammation of the lining of the stomach
  
* '''[[gastritis]]''' inflammation of the lining of the stomach
+
system that is composed of a series of flattened
  
system that is composed of a series of flattened
+
* '''[[helper T cells]]''' class of T cells that is the central
  
* '''[[helper T cells]]''' class of T cells that is the central
+
membranous disks, called dictyosomes, each having
  
membranous disks, called dictyosomes, each having
+
orchestrator of the cellular and humoral defenses of
  
orchestrator of the cellular and humoral defenses of
+
* '''[[gastroenteritis]]''' inflammation of the lining of the
  
* '''[[gastroenteritis]]''' inflammation of the lining of the
+
a single lipid bilayer, that are stacked together;
  
a single lipid bilayer, that are stacked together;
+
adaptive immunity and the cellular defenses of
  
adaptive immunity and the cellular defenses of
+
stomach and intestine
  
stomach and intestine
+
important in the processing of lipids and proteins
  
important in the processing of lipids and proteins
+
innate immunity
  
innate immunity
+
* '''[[gene expression]]''' production of proteins from the
  
* '''[[gene expression]]''' production of proteins from the
+
* '''[[gonorrhea]]''' a common STI of the reproductive
  
* '''[[gonorrhea]]''' a common STI of the reproductive
+
* '''[[hemagglutination]]''' visible clumping of red blood
  
* '''[[hemagglutination]]''' visible clumping of red blood
+
information contained in DNA through the processes
  
information contained in DNA through the processes
+
system caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae
  
system caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae
+
cells that can be caused by some viruses, bacteria,
  
cells that can be caused by some viruses, bacteria,
+
of transcription and translation
  
of transcription and translation
+
and certain diseases in which antibodies are
  
and certain diseases in which antibodies are
+
* '''[[graft-versus-host disease]]''' specific type of
  
* '''[[graft-versus-host disease]]''' specific type of
+
* '''[[gene gun]]''' an apparatus that shoots gold or tungsten
  
* '''[[gene gun]]''' an apparatus that shoots gold or tungsten
+
produced that bind to self-red blood cells
  
produced that bind to self-red blood cells
+
transplantation reaction in which a transplanted
  
transplantation reaction in which a transplanted
+
particles coated with recombinant DNA molecules at
  
particles coated with recombinant DNA molecules at
+
immune system (e.g., a bone marrow transplant)
  
immune system (e.g., a bone marrow transplant)
+
* '''[[hematopoiesis]]''' formation, development, and
  
* '''[[hematopoiesis]]''' formation, development, and
+
high speeds into plant protoplasts
  
high speeds into plant protoplasts
+
contains APCs and T cells that are activated and
  
contains APCs and T cells that are activated and
+
differentiation of blood cells from pluripotent
  
differentiation of blood cells from pluripotent
+
* '''[[gene silencing]]''' a genetic engineering technique in
  
* '''[[gene silencing]]''' a genetic engineering technique in
+
attack the recipient’s tissue
  
attack the recipient’s tissue
+
hematopoietic stem cells
  
hematopoietic stem cells
+
which researchers prevent the expression of a
  
which researchers prevent the expression of a
+
* '''[[Gram stain procedure]]''' a differential staining
  
* '''[[Gram stain procedure]]''' a differential staining
+
* '''[[hematuria]]''' condition in which there is blood in the
  
* '''[[hematuria]]''' condition in which there is blood in the
+
particular gene by using small interfering RNAs
  
particular gene by using small interfering RNAs
+
technique that distinguishes bacteria based upon
  
technique that distinguishes bacteria based upon
+
urine
  
urine
+
(siRNAs) or microRNAs (miRNAs) to interfere with
  
(siRNAs) or microRNAs (miRNAs) to interfere with
+
their cell wall structure
  
their cell wall structure
+
translation
  
translation
+
* '''[[hemolysin]]''' class of exotoxin that targets and lyses
  
* '''[[hemolysin]]''' class of exotoxin that targets and lyses
+
* '''[[granulocytes]]''' leukocytes found in the peripheral
  
* '''[[granulocytes]]''' leukocytes found in the peripheral
+
red blood cells, as well as other cells
  
red blood cells, as well as other cells
+
* '''[[gene therapy]]''' a form of treatment for diseases that
  
* '''[[gene therapy]]''' a form of treatment for diseases that
+
blood that are characterized by numerous granules in
  
blood that are characterized by numerous granules in
+
result from genetic mutations; involves the
  
result from genetic mutations; involves the
+
* '''[[hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN)]]''' type II
  
* '''[[hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN)]]''' type II
+
the cytoplasm; granulocytes include neutrophils,
  
the cytoplasm; granulocytes include neutrophils,
+
introduction of nonmutated, functional genes into the  
  
introduction of nonmutated, functional genes into the
+
eosinophils, and basophils
  
eosinophils, and basophils
+
hypersensitivity reaction that occurs when maternal
  
hypersensitivity reaction that occurs when maternal
+
genome of the patient, often by way of a viral vector
  
genome of the patient, often by way of a viral vector
+
anti-Rh antibodies cross the placenta and target fetal
  
anti-Rh antibodies cross the placenta and target fetal
+
* '''[[granuloma]]''' walled-off area of chronically inflamed
  
* '''[[granuloma]]''' walled-off area of chronically inflamed
+
Rh+ red blood cells for lysis
  
Rh+ red blood cells for lysis
+
* '''[[generalized transduction]]''' transfer of a random piece
  
* '''[[generalized transduction]]''' transfer of a random piece
+
tissue containing microbial pathogens, macrophages,
  
tissue containing microbial pathogens, macrophages,
+
of bacterial chromosome DNA by the phage
  
of bacterial chromosome DNA by the phage
+
* '''[[hemolytic transfusion reaction (HTR)]]''' condition
  
* '''[[hemolytic transfusion reaction (HTR)]]''' condition
+
and cellular materials unable to be eliminated
  
and cellular materials unable to be eliminated
+
resulting after an incompatible blood transfusion;
  
resulting after an incompatible blood transfusion;
+
* '''[[generation time]]''' see doubling time
  
* '''[[generation time]]''' see doubling time
+
* '''[[granulomatous amoebic encephalitis (GAE)]]'''  
  
* '''[[granulomatous amoebic encephalitis (GAE)]]'''
+
caused by type II hypersensitivity reaction and
  
caused by type II hypersensitivity reaction and
+
serious brain infection of immunocompromised
  
serious brain infection of immunocompromised
+
destruction of red blood cells
  
destruction of red blood cells
+
* '''[[genes]]''' segments of DNA molecules that code for
  
* '''[[genes]]''' segments of DNA molecules that code for
+
individuals caused by Acanthamoeba or Balamuthia
  
individuals caused by Acanthamoeba or Balamuthia
+
proteins or stable RNA molecules
  
proteins or stable RNA molecules
+
mandrillaris
  
mandrillaris
+
* '''[[hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome]]''' serious
  
* '''[[hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome]]''' serious
+
hemorrhagic fever caused by hantavirus infection
  
hemorrhagic fever caused by hantavirus infection
+
* '''[[genetic code]]''' correspondence between mRNA
  
* '''[[genetic code]]''' correspondence between mRNA
+
* '''[[granzymes]]''' proteases released from a natural killer
  
* '''[[granzymes]]''' proteases released from a natural killer
+
nucleotide codons and the translated amino acids
  
nucleotide codons and the translated amino acids
+
* '''[[HEPA filter]]''' high-efficiency particulate air filter
  
* '''[[HEPA filter]]''' high-efficiency particulate air filter
+
cell that enter the cytoplasm of a target cell, inducing
  
cell that enter the cytoplasm of a target cell, inducing
+
with an effective pore size that captures bacterial
  
with an effective pore size that captures bacterial
+
* '''[[genetic engineering]]''' the direct alteration of an  
  
* '''[[genetic engineering]]''' the direct alteration of an
+
apoptosis
  
apoptosis
+
cells, endospores, and viruses as air passes through,
  
cells, endospores, and viruses as air passes through,
+
organism’s genetics to achieve desirable traits
  
organism’s genetics to achieve desirable traits
+
* '''[[Graves disease]]''' hyperthyroidism caused by an
  
* '''[[Graves disease]]''' hyperthyroidism caused by an
+
removing them from the air
  
removing them from the air
+
* '''[[genital herpes]]''' an STI caused by the herpes simplex
  
* '''[[genital herpes]]''' an STI caused by the herpes simplex
+
autoimmune disease affecting thyroid function
  
autoimmune disease affecting thyroid function
+
virus
  
virus
+
* '''[[hepatitis]]''' inflammation of the liver
  
* '''[[hepatitis]]''' inflammation of the liver
+
* '''[[green nonsulfur bacteria]]''' similar to green sulfur
  
* '''[[green nonsulfur bacteria]]''' similar to green sulfur
+
* '''[[genital warts]]''' soft, pink, irregular growths that
  
* '''[[genital warts]]''' soft, pink, irregular growths that
+
bacteria but use substrates other than sulfides for
  
bacteria but use substrates other than sulfides for
+
* '''[[herd immunity]]''' a reduction in disease prevalence
  
* '''[[herd immunity]]''' a reduction in disease prevalence
+
develop in the external genitalia or anus as a result of
  
develop in the external genitalia or anus as a result of
+
oxidation
  
oxidation
+
brought about when few individuals in a population
  
brought about when few individuals in a population
+
human papillomavirus infection
  
human papillomavirus infection
+
are susceptible to an infectious agent
  
are susceptible to an infectious agent
+
* '''[[green sulfur bacteria]]''' phototrophic, anaerobic
  
* '''[[green sulfur bacteria]]''' phototrophic, anaerobic
+
bacteria that use sulfide for oxidation and produce
  
bacteria that use sulfide for oxidation and produce
+
* '''[[herpes keratitis]]''' eye infection caused by herpes
  
* '''[[herpes keratitis]]''' eye infection caused by herpes
+
* '''[[genome]]''' entire genetic content of a cell
  
* '''[[genome]]''' entire genetic content of a cell
+
large amounts of green bacteriochlorophyll
  
large amounts of green bacteriochlorophyll
+
simplex virus
  
simplex virus
+
* '''[[genomic library]]''' a repository of an organism’s entire
  
* '''[[genomic library]]''' a repository of an organism’s entire
+
* '''[[growth curve]]''' a graph modeling the number of cells
  
* '''[[growth curve]]''' a graph modeling the number of cells
+
* '''[[herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2)]]''' the type of  
  
* '''[[herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2)]]''' the type of
+
genome maintained as cloned fragments in the
  
genome maintained as cloned fragments in the
+
in a culture over time
  
in a culture over time
+
herpesvirus most commonly associated with genital
  
herpesvirus most commonly associated with genital
+
genomes of strains of a host organism
  
genomes of strains of a host organism
+
herpes
  
herpes
+
* '''[[guanine]]''' purine nitrogenous base found in
  
* '''[[guanine]]''' purine nitrogenous base found in
+
* '''[[genomics]]''' the study and comparison of entire
  
* '''[[genomics]]''' the study and comparison of entire
+
nucleotides
  
nucleotides
+
* '''[[herpetic gingivostomatitis]]''' inflammation of the
  
* '''[[herpetic gingivostomatitis]]''' inflammation of the
+
genomes, including the complete set of genes, their
  
genomes, including the complete set of genes, their
+
mouth and gums often caused by the HSV-1 virus
  
mouth and gums often caused by the HSV-1 virus
+
nucleotide sequence and organization, and their
  
nucleotide sequence and organization, and their
+
* '''[[Guillain-Barré syndrome]]''' an autoimmune disease,  
  
* '''[[Guillain-Barré syndrome]]''' an autoimmune disease,
+
interactions within a species and with other species
  
interactions within a species and with other species
+
often triggered by bacterial and viral infections,
  
often triggered by bacterial and viral infections,
+
* '''[[heterolactic fermentation]]''' process producing a
  
* '''[[heterolactic fermentation]]''' process producing a
+
characterized by the destruction of myelin sheaths
  
characterized by the destruction of myelin sheaths
+
mixture of lactic acid, ethanol and/or acetic acid, and
  
mixture of lactic acid, ethanol and/or acetic acid, and
+
* '''[[genotype]]''' full collection of genes that a cell contains
  
* '''[[genotype]]''' full collection of genes that a cell contains
+
around neurons, resulting in flaccid paralysis
  
around neurons, resulting in flaccid paralysis
+
CO2 as fermentation products; the microbes that do
  
CO2 as fermentation products; the microbes that do
+
within its genome
  
within its genome
+
this use pentose phosphate pathway glycolysis,
  
this use pentose phosphate pathway glycolysis,
+
* '''[[gummas]]''' granulomatous lesions that develop in
  
* '''[[gummas]]''' granulomatous lesions that develop in
+
* '''[[germ theory of disease]]''' the theory that many
  
* '''[[germ theory of disease]]''' the theory that many
+
which is why they generate multiple fermentation
  
which is why they generate multiple fermentation
+
tertiary syphilis
  
tertiary syphilis
+
diseases are the result of microbial infection
  
diseases are the result of microbial infection
+
products
  
products
+
* '''[[germination]]''' process of an endospore returning to
  
* '''[[germination]]''' process of an endospore returning to
+
* '''[[heterotroph]]''' organism that uses fixed organic carbon
  
* '''[[heterotroph]]''' organism that uses fixed organic carbon
+
the vegetative state
  
the vegetative state
+
compounds as its carbon source
  
compounds as its carbon source
+
* '''[[Ghon complex]]''' calcified lesion containing
  
* '''[[Ghon complex]]''' calcified lesion containing
+
* '''[[H]]'''  
  
* '''[[H]]'''
+
* '''[[hexose monophosphate shunt]]''' see pentose
  
* '''[[hexose monophosphate shunt]]''' see pentose
+
Mycobacterium tuberculosis; forms in the lungs of
  
Mycobacterium tuberculosis; forms in the lungs of
+
phosphate pathway
  
phosphate pathway
+
* '''[[hair follicle]]''' a structure embedded in the dermis from
  
* '''[[hair follicle]]''' a structure embedded in the dermis from
+
patients with tuberculosis
  
patients with tuberculosis
+
which hair grows
  
which hair grows
+
This OpenStax book is available for free at http://cnx.org/content/col12087/1.5
  
This OpenStax book is available for free at http://cnx.org/content/col12087/1.5
+
Appendix E
  
Appendix E
+
1259
  
1259
+
* '''[[Hfr cell]]''' E. coli cell in which an F plasmid has
  
* '''[[Hfr cell]]''' E. coli cell in which an F plasmid has
+
* '''[[hypertonic medium]]''' an environment in which the
  
* '''[[hypertonic medium]]''' an environment in which the
+
* '''[[in vivo]]''' inside the organism
  
* '''[[in vivo]]''' inside the organism
+
integrated into the host cell’s chromosome
  
integrated into the host cell’s chromosome
+
solute concentration outside a cell exceeds that
  
solute concentration outside a cell exceeds that
+
inside the cell, causing water molecules to move out
  
inside the cell, causing water molecules to move out
+
* '''[[inactivated vaccine]]''' vaccine composed of whole
  
* '''[[inactivated vaccine]]''' vaccine composed of whole
+
* '''[[high G+C gram-positive bacteria]]''' bacteria that
  
* '''[[high G+C gram-positive bacteria]]''' bacteria that
+
of the cell, resulting in crenation (shriveling) or
  
of the cell, resulting in crenation (shriveling) or
+
pathogen cells or viruses that have been killed or  
  
pathogen cells or viruses that have been killed or
+
have more than 50% guanine and cytosine
  
have more than 50% guanine and cytosine
+
plasmolysis.
  
plasmolysis.
+
inactivated through treatment with heat, radiation, or
  
inactivated through treatment with heat, radiation, or
+
nucleotides in their DNA
  
nucleotides in their DNA
+
chemicals
  
chemicals
+
* '''[[hyphae]]''' tubular, filamentous structures that makes up
  
* '''[[hyphae]]''' tubular, filamentous structures that makes up
+
* '''[[high-energy phosphate bond]]''' bond between the
  
* '''[[high-energy phosphate bond]]''' bond between the
+
most fungi
  
most fungi
+
* '''[[incidence]]''' the number of individuals with new
  
* '''[[incidence]]''' the number of individuals with new
+
negatively charged phosphate groups that holds a lot
  
negatively charged phosphate groups that holds a lot
+
infections of a particular disease in a given period of
  
infections of a particular disease in a given period of
+
of potential energy
  
of potential energy
+
* '''[[hypodermis]]''' the layer of tissue under the dermis,
  
* '''[[hypodermis]]''' the layer of tissue under the dermis,
+
time
  
time
+
consisting primarily of fibrous and adipose
  
consisting primarily of fibrous and adipose
+
* '''[[histamine]]''' proinflammatory molecule released by
  
* '''[[histamine]]''' proinflammatory molecule released by
+
connective tissue
  
connective tissue
+
* '''[[inclusion conjunctivitis]]''' inflammation of the
  
* '''[[inclusion conjunctivitis]]''' inflammation of the
+
basophils and mast cells in response to stimulation
  
basophils and mast cells in response to stimulation
+
conjunctiva in newborns caused by Chlamydia
  
conjunctiva in newborns caused by Chlamydia
+
by other cytokines and chemical mediators
  
by other cytokines and chemical mediators
+
* '''[[hypotonic medium]]''' an environment in which the
  
* '''[[hypotonic medium]]''' an environment in which the
+
trachomatis transmitted during childbirth
  
trachomatis transmitted during childbirth
+
solute concentration inside a cell exceeds that
  
solute concentration inside a cell exceeds that
+
* '''[[histones]]''' DNA-binding proteins found in eukaryotes
  
* '''[[histones]]''' DNA-binding proteins found in eukaryotes
+
outside the cell, causing water molecules to move
  
outside the cell, causing water molecules to move
+
* '''[[inclusions]]''' prokaryotic cell cytoplasmic structures
  
* '''[[inclusions]]''' prokaryotic cell cytoplasmic structures
+
and archaea that aid in orderly packaging of
  
and archaea that aid in orderly packaging of
+
into the cell, possibly leading to swelling and  
  
into the cell, possibly leading to swelling and
+
for storing specific nutrients and other resources
  
for storing specific nutrients and other resources
+
chromosomal DNA
  
chromosomal DNA
+
possibly lysis
  
possibly lysis
+
needed by cells
  
needed by cells
+
* '''[[histoplasmosis]]''' fungal disease caused by the
  
* '''[[histoplasmosis]]''' fungal disease caused by the
+
* '''[[incubation period]]''' the first stage of acute disease,
  
* '''[[incubation period]]''' the first stage of acute disease,
+
dimorphic fungus Histoplasma capsulatum
  
dimorphic fungus Histoplasma capsulatum
+
during which the pathogen begins multiplying in the
  
during which the pathogen begins multiplying in the
+
* '''[[holoenzyme]]''' enzyme with a bound cofactor or
  
* '''[[holoenzyme]]''' enzyme with a bound cofactor or
+
host and signs and symptoms are not observable
  
host and signs and symptoms are not observable
+
coenzyme
  
coenzyme
+
* '''[[I]]'''
  
* '''[[I]]'''
+
* '''[[indirect agglutination assay]]''' assay that can be used
  
* '''[[indirect agglutination assay]]''' assay that can be used
+
* '''[[holozoic]]''' refers to protozoans that consume food
  
* '''[[holozoic]]''' refers to protozoans that consume food
+
* '''[[iatrogenic disease]]''' disease caused by or acquired
  
* '''[[iatrogenic disease]]''' disease caused by or acquired
+
to detect the agglutination of small latex beads;
  
to detect the agglutination of small latex beads;
+
particles through phagoctytosis
  
particles through phagoctytosis
+
during a medical procedure
  
during a medical procedure
+
beads may be coated with antigen when looking for
  
beads may be coated with antigen when looking for
+
the presence of specific antibodies, or with antibody
  
the presence of specific antibodies, or with antibody
+
* '''[[homolactic fermentation]]''' process producing only
  
* '''[[homolactic fermentation]]''' process producing only
+
* '''[[icosahedral]]''' three-dimensional, 20-sided structure
  
* '''[[icosahedral]]''' three-dimensional, 20-sided structure
+
when looking for the presence of antigen
  
when looking for the presence of antigen
+
lactic acid as a fermentation product; the microbes
  
lactic acid as a fermentation product; the microbes
+
with 12 vertices
  
with 12 vertices
+
that do this use Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas glycolysis
  
that do this use Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas glycolysis
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