Difference between revisions of "Glossary of Microbiology"

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{{catz}}
  
Glossary
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==#-9==
  
* '''[[454 sequencing (pyrosequencing)]]''' a next generation
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* '''[[454 sequencing (pyrosequencing)]]''' a next generation sequencing technique in which fragmented DNA has DNA adapters attached, is amplified by PCR, is attached to a bead, and then placed into a well with sequencing reagents, and the flash of light produced by the release of pyrophosphate on addition of a nucleotide is monitored
  
* '''[[acute rheumatic fever]]''' sequela of streptococcal
+
* '''[[5’ cap]]''' methylguanosine nucleotide added to 5’ end of a eukaryotic primary transcript
  
* '''[[allosteric activator]]''' molecule that binds to an
+
* '''[[70S ribosome]]''' a ribosome composed of 50S and 30S subunits
  
sequencing technique in which fragmented DNA has
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* '''[[80S ribosome]]''' cytoplasmic eukaryotic ribosome composed of 60S and 40S subunits
  
pharyngitis; comorbidities include arthritis and
+
==A==
  
enzyme’s allosteric site, increasing the affinity of the
+
* '''[[α-helix]]''' secondary structure consisting of a helix stabilized by hydrogen bonds between nearby amino acid residues in a polypeptide
  
DNA adapters attached, is amplified by PCR, is
+
* '''[[A (aminoacyl) site]]''' functional site of an intact ribosome that binds incoming charged aminoacyl tRNAs
  
carditis
+
* '''[[A-B exotoxin]]''' class of exotoxin that contains A subunits, which enter the cell and disrupt cellular activities, and B subunits, which bind to host cell receptors
  
enzyme’s active site for the substrate(s)
+
* '''[[ABO blood group system]]''' set of glycoprotein antigens found on the surface of red blood cells; the presence or absence of specific carbohydrates determining blood type
  
attached to a bead, and then placed into a well with
+
* '''[[absorbance]]''' when a molecule captures energy from a photon and vibrates or stretches, using the energy
  
* '''[[acute-phase proteins]]''' antimicrobial molecules
+
* '''[[Acanthamoeba keratitis]]''' a condition characterized by damage to the cornea and possible blindness caused by parasitic infection of the protozoan Acanthamoeba
  
* '''[[allosteric site]]''' location within an enzyme, other than
+
* '''[[acellular]]''' not made of cells
  
sequencing reagents, and the flash of light produced
+
* '''[[acid-fast stain]]''' a stain that differentiates cells that have waxy mycolic acids in their gram-positive cell walls
  
produced by liver cells in response to pathogen-
+
* '''[[acidic dye]]''' a chromophore with a negative charge that attaches to positively charged structures
  
the active site, to which molecules can bind,
+
* '''[[acidophile]]''' organism that grows optimally at a pH near 3.0
  
by the release of pyrophosphate on addition of a
+
* '''[[acne]]''' a skin disease in which hair follicles or pores become clogged, leading to the formation of comedones and infected lesions
  
induced stimulation events
+
* '''[[acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)]]''' disease caused by HIV, characterized by opportunistic infections and rare cancers
  
regulating enzyme activity
+
* '''[[actin]]''' a protein that polymerizes to form microfilaments
  
nucleotide is monitored
+
* '''[[activation energy]]''' energy needed to form or break chemical bonds and convert a reactant or reactants to a product or products
  
* '''[[acyclovir]]''' antiviral guanosine analog; inhibits DNA
+
* '''[[activator]]''' protein that increases the transcription of a gene in response to an external stimulus
  
* '''[[allylamines]]''' class of antifungal drugs that inhibit
+
* '''[[active carrier]]''' an infected individual who can transmit the pathogen to others regardless of whether symptoms are currently present
  
* '''[[5’ cap]]''' methylguanosine nucleotide added to 5’ end
+
* '''[[active immunity]]''' stimulation of one’s own adaptive immune responses
  
replication
+
* '''[[active site]]''' location within an enzyme where substrate(s) bind
  
ergosterol biosynthesis at an early point in the
+
* '''[[acute disease]]''' disease of a relatively short duration that develops and progresses in a predictable pattern
  
of a eukaryotic primary transcript
+
* '''[[acute glomerulonephritis]]''' inflammation of the glomeruli of the kidney, probably resulting from deposition of immune complexes and an autoimmune response caused by self-antigen mimicry by a pathogen
  
pathway
+
* '''[[acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis]]''' a severe form of gingivitis, also called trench mouth
  
* '''[[adaptive immunity]]''' third-line defense characterized
+
* '''[[acute otitis media]]''' inflammatory disease of the middle ear resulting from a microbial infection
  
* '''[[70S ribosome]]''' a ribosome composed of 50S and 30S
+
* '''[[acute rheumatic fever]]''' sequela of streptococcal pharyngitis; comorbidities include arthritis and carditis
  
by specificity and memory
+
* '''[[acute-phase proteins]]''' antimicrobial molecules produced by liver cells in response to pathogen-induced stimulation events
  
* '''[[Alphaproteobacteria]]''' class of Proteobacteria that
+
* '''[[acyclovir]]''' antiviral guanosine analog; inhibits DNA replication
  
subunits
+
* '''[[adaptive immunity]]''' third-line defense characterized by specificity and memory
  
are all oligotrophs
+
* '''[[Addison disease]]''' autoimmune disease affecting adrenal gland function
  
* '''[[Addison disease]]''' autoimmune disease affecting
+
* '''[[adenine]]''' purine nitrogenous base found in nucleotides
  
* '''[[80S ribosome]]''' cytoplasmic eukaryotic ribosome
+
* '''[[adenosine diphosphate (ADP)]]''' nucleotide derivative and relative of ATP containing only one high-energy phosphate bond
  
adrenal gland function
+
* '''[[adenosine monophosphate (AMP)]]''' adenine molecule bonded to a ribose molecule and to a single phosphate group, having no high-energy phosphate bonds
  
* '''[[alveoli]]''' cul-de-sacs or small air pockets within the
+
* '''[[adenosine triphosphate (ATP)]]''' energy currency of the cell; a nucleotide derivative that safely stores chemical energy in its two high-energy phosphate bonds
  
composed of 60S and 40S subunits
+
* '''[[adhesins]]''' molecules on the surface of pathogens that promote colonization of host tissue
  
lung that facilitate gas exchange
+
* '''[[adhesion]]''' the capability of microbes to attach to host cells
  
* '''[[adenine]]''' purine nitrogenous base found in
+
* '''[[aerobic respiration]]''' use of an oxygen molecule as the final electron acceptor of the electron transport system
  
nucleotides
+
* '''[[aerotolerant anaerobe]]''' organism that does not use oxygen but tolerates its presence
  
* '''[[amantadine]]''' antiviral drug that targets the influenza
+
* '''[[affinity maturation]]''' function of the immune system by which B cells, upon re-exposure to antigen, are selected to produce higher affinity antibodies
  
virus by preventing viral escape from endosomes
+
* '''[[affinity]]''' measure of how tightly an antibody-binding site binds to its epitope
  
* '''[[adenosine diphosphate (ADP)]]''' nucleotide derivative
+
* '''[[aflatoxin]]''' chemical produced by the fungus Aspergillus flavus; both a toxin and the most potent known natural carcinogen
  
upon host cell uptake, thus preventing viral RNA
+
* '''[[African sleeping sickness]]''' see human African trypanosomiasis
  
and relative of ATP containing only one high-energy
+
* '''[[agarose gel electrophoresis]]''' a method for separating populations of DNA molecules of varying sizes by differential migration rates caused by a voltage gradient through a horizontal gel matrix
  
* '''[[A]]'''
+
* '''[[agglutination]]''' binding of different pathogen cells by Fab regions of the same antibody to aggregate and enhance elimination from body
  
release and subsequent viral replication
+
* '''[[agranulocytes]]''' leukocytes that lack granules in the cytoplasm
  
phosphate bond
+
* '''[[alarmone]]''' small intracellular derivative of a nucleotide that signals a global bacterial response (i.e., activating a regulon of operons) to an environmental stress
  
* '''[[α-helix]]''' secondary structure consisting of a helix
+
* '''[[albendazole]]''' antihelminthic drug of the benzimidazole class that binds to helminthic β-tubulin, preventing microtubule formation
  
* '''[[amensalism]]''' type of symbiosis in which one
+
* '''[[algae]]''' (singular: alga) any of various unicellular and multicellular photosynthetic eukaryotic organisms; distinguished from plants by their lack of vascular tissues and organs
  
stabilized by hydrogen bonds between nearby amino
+
* '''[[alkaliphile]]''' organism that grows optimally at pH above 9.0
  
* '''[[adenosine monophosphate (AMP)]]''' adenine
+
* '''[[alkylating agent]]''' type of strong disinfecting chemical that acts by replacing a hydrogen atom within a molecule with an alkyl group, thereby inactivating enzymes and nucleic acids
  
population harms the other but remains unaffected
+
* '''[[allergen]]''' antigen capable of inducing type I hypersensitivity reaction
  
acid residues in a polypeptide
+
* '''[[allergy]]''' hypersensitivity response to an allergen
  
molecule bonded to a ribose molecule and to a single
+
* '''[[allograft]]''' transplanted tissue from an individual of the same species that is genetically different from the recipient
  
itself
+
* '''[[allosteric activator]]''' molecule that binds to an enzyme’s allosteric site, increasing the affinity of the enzyme’s active site for the substrate(s)
  
phosphate group, having no high-energy phosphate
+
* '''[[allosteric site]]''' location within an enzyme, other than the active site, to which molecules can bind, regulating enzyme activity
  
* '''[[A (aminoacyl) site]]''' functional site of an intact
+
* '''[[allylamines]]''' class of antifungal drugs that inhibit ergosterol biosynthesis at an early point in the pathway
  
bonds
+
* '''[[Alphaproteobacteria]]''' class of Proteobacteria that are all oligotrophs
  
* '''[[Ames test]]''' method that uses auxotrophic bacteria to
+
* '''[[alveoli]]''' cul-de-sacs or small air pockets within the lung that facilitate gas exchange
  
ribosome that binds incoming charged aminoacyl
+
* '''[[amantadine]]''' antiviral drug that targets the influenza virus by preventing viral escape from endosomes upon host cell uptake, thus preventing viral RNA release and subsequent viral replication
  
detect mutations resulting from exposure to
+
* '''[[amensalism]]''' type of symbiosis in which one population harms the other but remains unaffected itself
  
tRNAs
+
* '''[[Ames test]]''' method that uses auxotrophic bacteria to detect mutations resulting from exposure to potentially mutagenic chemical compounds
  
* '''[[adenosine triphosphate (ATP)]]''' energy currency of
+
* '''[[amino acid]]''' a molecule consisting of a hydrogen atom, a carboxyl group, and an amine group bonded to the same carbon. The group bonded to the carbon varies and is represented by an R in the structural formula
  
potentially mutagenic chemical compounds
+
* '''[[aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase]]''' enzyme that binds to a tRNA molecule and catalyzes the addition of the correct amino acid to the tRNA
  
the cell; a nucleotide derivative that safely stores
+
* '''[[aminoglycosides]]''' protein synthesis inhibitors that bind to the 30S subunit and interfere with the ribosome’s proofreading ability, leading to the generation of faulty proteins that insert into and disrupt the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane
  
* '''[[A-B exotoxin]]''' class of exotoxin that contains A
+
* '''[[amoebiasis]]''' intestinal infection caused by Entamoeba histolytica
  
chemical energy in its two high-energy phosphate
+
* '''[[amoebic dysentery]]''' severe form of intestinal infection caused by Entamoeba histolytica, characterized by severe diarrhea with blood and mucus
  
* '''[[amino acid]]''' a molecule consisting of a hydrogen
+
* '''[[amphipathic]]''' a molecule containing both polar and nonpolar parts
  
subunits, which enter the cell and disrupt cellular
+
* '''[[amphitrichous]]''' having two flagella or tufts of multiple flagella, with one flagellum or tuft located at each end of the bacterial cell
  
bonds
+
* '''[[amphotericin B]]''' antifungal drug of the polyene class that is used to treat several systemic fungal infections
  
atom, a carboxyl group, and an amine group bonded
+
* '''[[amplitude]]''' the height of a wave
  
activities, and B subunits, which bind to host cell
+
* '''[[anabolism]]''' chemical reactions that convert simpler molecules into more complex ones
  
to the same carbon. The group bonded to the carbon
+
* '''[[anaerobe chamber]]''' closed compartment used to handle and grow obligate anaerobic cultures
  
receptors
+
* '''[[anaerobe jar]]''' container devoid of oxygen used to grow obligate anaerobes
  
* '''[[adhesins]]''' molecules on the surface of pathogens that
+
* '''[[anaerobic respiration]]''' use of a non-oxygen inorganic molecule, like CO2, nitrate, nitrite, oxidized iron, or sulfate, as the final electron acceptor at the end of the electron transport system
  
varies and is represented by an R in the structural
+
* '''[[analytical epidemiology]]''' study of disease outbreaks to establish associations between an agent and a disease state through observational studies comparing groups of individuals
  
promote colonization of host tissue
+
* '''[[anaphylactic shock]]''' another term for anaphylaxis
  
* '''[[ABO blood group system]]''' set of glycoprotein
+
* '''[[anaphylaxis]]''' systemic and potentially life-threatening type I hypersensitivity reaction
  
formula
+
* '''[[anergy]]''' peripheral tolerance mechanism that prevents self-reactive T cells from being activated by self-antigens through lack of co-stimulation
  
antigens found on the surface of red blood cells; the
+
* '''[[annealing]]''' formation of hydrogen bonds between the nucleotide base pairs of two single-stranded complementary nucleic acid sequences
  
* '''[[adhesion]]''' the capability of microbes to attach to host
+
* '''[[anoxygenic photosynthesis]]''' type of photosynthesis found in many photosynthetic bacteria, including the purple and green bacteria, where an electron donor other than H2O is used to replace an electron lost by a reaction center pigment, resulting no oxygen production
  
* '''[[aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase]]''' enzyme that binds to a
+
* '''[[anthrax]]''' a disease caused by Bacillus anthracis; the cutaneous form causes a skin lesion to develop; gastrointestinal and inhalation anthrax have high mortality rates
  
presence or absence of specific carbohydrates
+
* '''[[antibiogram]]''' compilation of the antimicrobial susceptibilities recorded for local bacterial strains, which is useful for monitoring local trends in antimicrobial resistance and aiding the prescription of appropriate empiric antibacterial therapy
  
cells
+
* '''[[antibiotic-associated diarrhea]]''' diarrhea that develops after antibiotic treatment as a result of disruption to the normal microbiota; C. difficile is a particularly serious example
  
tRNA molecule and catalyzes the addition of the
+
* '''[[antibody screen]]''' test to make sure that a potential blood recipient has not produced antibodies to antigens other than the ABO and Rh antigens
  
determining blood type
+
* '''[[antibody]]''' Y-shaped glycoprotein molecule produced by B cells that binds to specific epitopes on an antigen
  
* '''[[aerobic respiration]]''' use of an oxygen molecule as
+
* '''[[antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC)]]''' mechanism by which large pathogens are marked for destruction by specific antibodies and then killed by secretion of cytotoxins by natural killer cells, macrophages, or eosinophils
  
correct amino acid to the tRNA
+
* '''[[anticodon]]''' three-nucleotide sequence of a mature tRNA that interacts with an mRNA codon through complementary base pairing
  
* '''[[absorbance]]''' when a molecule captures energy from
+
* '''[[antigen (also, immunogen)]]''' a molecule that stimulates an adaptive immune response
  
the final electron acceptor of the electron transport
+
* '''[[antigenic]]''' able to stimulate an adaptive immune response
  
* '''[[aminoglycosides]]''' protein synthesis inhibitors that
+
* '''[[antigenic drift]]''' form of slight antigenic variation that occurs because of point mutations in the genes that encode surface proteins
  
a photon and vibrates or stretches, using the energy
+
* '''[[antigenic shift]]''' form of major antigenic variation that occurs because of gene reassortment
  
system
+
* '''[[antigenic variation]]''' changing of surface antigens (carbohydrates or proteins) such that they are no longer recognized by the host’s immune system
  
bind to the 30S subunit and interfere with the
+
* '''[[antigen-presenting cells (APC)]]''' macrophages, dendritic cells, and B cells that process and present foreign pathogen antigens for the purpose of activating T cells and adaptive immune defenses
  
* '''[[Acanthamoeba]]''' keratitis]]''' a condition characterized
+
* '''[[antimetabolites]]''' compounds that are competitive inhibitors for bacterial metabolic enzymes
  
* '''[[aerotolerant anaerobe]]''' organism that does not use
+
* '''[[antimicrobial drugs]]''' chemical compounds, including naturally produced drugs, semisynthetic derivatives, and synthetic compounds, that target specific microbial structures and enzymes, killing specific microbes or inhibiting their growth
  
ribosome’s proofreading ability, leading to the
+
* '''[[antimicrobial peptides (AMPs)]]''' class of nonspecific, cell-derived chemical mediators with broad-spectrum antimicrobial properties
  
by damage to the cornea and possible blindness
+
* '''[[antiparallel]]''' two strands of DNA helix oriented in opposite directions; one strand is oriented in the 5’ to 3’ direction, while the other is oriented in the 3’ to 5’ direction
  
oxygen but tolerates its presence
+
* '''[[antisense RNA]]''' small noncoding RNA molecules that inhibit gene expression by binding to mRNA transcripts via complementary base pairing
  
generation of faulty proteins that insert into and
+
* '''[[antisense strand]]''' transcription template strand of DNA; the strand that is transcribed for gene expression
  
caused by parasitic infection of the protozoan
+
* '''[[antisepsis]]''' protocol that removes potential pathogens from living tissue
  
disrupt the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane
+
* '''[[antiseptic]]''' antimicrobial chemical that can be used safely on living tissue
  
* '''[[affinity maturation]]''' function of the immune system
+
* '''[[antiserum]]''' serum obtained from an animal containing antibodies against a particular antigen that was artificially introduced to the animal
  
Acanthamoeba
+
* '''[[apoenzyme]]''' enzyme without its cofactor or coenzyme
  
by which B cells, upon re-exposure to antigen, are
+
* '''[[apoptosis]]''' programmed and organized cell death without lysis of the cell
  
* '''[[amoebiasis]]''' intestinal infection caused by
+
* '''[[arachnoid mater]]''' middle membrane surrounding the brain that produces cerebrospinal fluid
  
selected to produce higher affinity antibodies
+
* '''[[arboviral encephalitis]]''' infection by an arthropod-borne virus that results in an inflammation of the brain
  
Entamoeba histolytica
+
* '''[[arbovirus]]''' any of a variety of viruses that are transmitted by arthropod vectors
  
* '''[[acellular]]''' not made of cells
+
* '''[[archaea]]''' any of various unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms, typically having cell walls containing pseudopeptidoglycan
  
* '''[[affinity]]''' measure of how tightly an antibody-binding
+
* '''[[Archaea]]''' domain of life separate from the domains Bacteria and Eukarya
  
* '''[[amoebic dysentery]]''' severe form of intestinal
+
* '''[[artemisinin]]''' antiprotozoan and antifungal drug effective against malaria that is thought to increase intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species in target microbes
  
* '''[[acid-fast stain]]''' a stain that differentiates cells that
+
* '''[[artery]]''' large, thick-walled vessel that carries blood from the heart to the body tissues
  
site binds to its epitope
+
* '''[[Arthus reaction]]''' localized type III hypersensitivity
  
infection caused by Entamoeba histolytica,
+
* '''[[artificial active immunity]]''' immunity acquired through exposure to pathogens and pathogen antigens through a method other than natural infection
  
have waxy mycolic acids in their gram-positive cell
+
* '''[[artificial passive immunity]]''' transfer of antibodies produced by a donor to another individual for the purpose of preventing or treating disease
  
characterized by severe diarrhea with blood and
+
* '''[[ascariasis]]''' soil-transmitted intestinal infection caused by the large nematode roundworm Ascaris lumbricoides
  
walls
+
* '''[[ascocarps]]''' cup-shaped fruiting bodies of an ascomycete fungus
  
* '''[[aflatoxin]]''' chemical produced by the fungus
+
* '''[[ascospore]]''' asexual spore produced by ascomycete fungi
  
mucus
+
* '''[[ascus]]''' structure of ascomycete fungi containing spores
  
Aspergillus flavus; both a toxin and the most potent
+
* '''[[asepsis]]''' sterile state resulting from proper use of microbial control protocols
  
* '''[[acidic dye]]''' a chromophore with a negative charge
+
* '''[[aseptic technique]]''' method or protocol designed to prevent microbial contamination of sterile objects, locations, or tissues
  
known natural carcinogen
+
* '''[[aspergillosis]]''' fungal infection caused by the mold Aspergillus; immunocompromised patients are primarily at risk
  
* '''[[amphipathic]]''' a molecule containing both polar and
+
* '''[[asymptomatic carrier]]''' an infected individual who exhibits no signs or symptoms of disease yet is capable of transmitting the pathogen to others
  
that attaches to positively charged structures
+
* '''[[asymptomatic]]''' not exhibiting any symptoms of disease
  
nonpolar parts
+
* '''[[atomic force microscope]]''' a scanning probe microscope that uses a thin probe that is passed just above the specimen to measure forces between the atoms and the probe
  
* '''[[African sleeping sickness]]''' see human African
+
* '''[[ATP synthase]]''' integral membrane protein that harnesses the energy of the proton motive force by allowing hydrogen ions to diffuse down their electrochemical gradient, causing components of this protein to spin, making ATP from ADP and Pi
  
* '''[[acidophile]]''' organism that grows optimally at a pH
+
* '''[[attachment]]''' binding of phage or virus to host cell receptors
  
trypanosomiasis
+
* '''[[attenuation]]''' regulatory system of prokaryotes whereby secondary stem-loop structures formed within the 5’ end of an mRNA being transcribed determine both if transcription to complete the synthesis of this mRNA will occur and if this mRNA will be used for translation
  
* '''[[amphitrichous]]''' having two flagella or tufts of
+
* '''[[autoclave]]''' specialized device for the moist-heat sterilization of materials through the application of pressure to steam, allowing the steam to reach temperatures above the boiling point of water
  
near 3.0
+
* '''[[autocrine function]]''' refers to a cytokine signal released from a cell to a receptor on its own surface
  
multiple flagella, with one flagellum or tuft located
+
* '''[[autograft]]''' tissue transplanted from a location on an individual to a different location on the same individual
  
* '''[[agarose gel electrophoresis]]''' a method for separating
+
* '''[[autoimmune disease]]''' loss of tolerance to self, resulting in immune-mediated destruction of self cells and tissues
  
* '''[[acne]]''' a skin disease in which hair follicles or pores
+
* '''[[autoinducer]]''' signaling molecule produced by a bacterial cell that can modify the activity of surrounding cells; associated with quorum sensing
  
populations of DNA molecules of varying sizes by
+
* '''[[autoradiography]]''' the method of producing a photographic image from radioactive decay; in molecular genetics the method allows the visualization of radioactively-labeled DNA probes that have hybridized to a nucleic acid sample
  
at each end of the bacterial cell
+
* '''[[autotroph]]''' organism that converts inorganic carbon dioxide into organic carbon
  
become clogged, leading to the formation of
+
* '''[[auxotroph]]''' nutritional mutant with a loss-of-function mutation in a gene encoding the biosynthesis of a specific nutrient such as an amino acid
  
differential migration rates caused by a voltage
+
* '''[[avidity]]''' strength of the sum of the interactions between an antibody and antigen
  
* '''[[amphotericin B]]''' antifungal drug of the polyene class
+
* '''[[axon]]''' long projection of a neuron along which an electrochemical signal is transmitted
  
comedones and infected lesions
+
* '''[[azithromycin]]''' semisynthetic macrolide with increased spectrum of activity, decreased toxicity, and increased half-life compared with erythromycin
  
gradient through a horizontal gel matrix
+
==B==
  
that is used to treat several systemic fungal
+
* '''[[β-lactamases]]''' bacterially produced enzymes that cleave the β-lactam ring of susceptible β-lactam antimicrobials, rendering them inactive and conferring resistance
  
* '''[[acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)]]'''
+
* '''[[β-lactams]]''' group of antimicrobials that inhibit cell wall synthesis; includes the penicillins, cephalosporins, carbapenems, and monobactams; inhibits the transpeptidase cross-linking activity of penicillin-binding proteins
  
infections
+
* '''[[β-oxidation]]''' process of fatty acid degradation that sequentially removes two-carbon acetyl groups, producing NADH and FADH2, on entry into the Krebs cycle
  
* '''[[agglutination]]''' binding of different pathogen cells by
+
* '''[[β-pleated sheet]]''' secondary structure consisting of pleats formed by hydrogen bonds between localized segments of amino acid residues on the backbone of the polypeptide chain
  
disease caused by HIV, characterized by
+
* '''[[B-cell receptors (BCRs)]]''' membrane-bound IgD and IgM antibody that bind specific antigen epitopes with Fab antigen-binding region
  
Fab regions of the same antibody to aggregate and
+
* '''[[B lymphocyte]]''' antibody-producing cells of humoral immunity; B cell
  
opportunistic infections and rare cancers
+
* '''[[babesiosis]]''' tickborne protozoan infection caused by Babesia spp. and characterized by malaise, fatigue, fever, headache, myalgia, and joint pain
  
enhance elimination from body
+
* '''[[bacillary dysentery]]''' gastrointestinal illness caused by Shigella bacteria, also called shigellosis
  
* '''[[amplitude]]''' the height of a wave
+
* '''[[bacillus]]''' (bacilli) rod-shaped prokaryotic cell
  
* '''[[actin]]''' a protein that polymerizes to form
+
* '''[[bacitracin]]''' group of structurally similar peptides that block the movement of peptidoglycan precursors across the cell membrane, inhibiting peptidoglycan synthesis
  
* '''[[anabolism]]''' chemical reactions that convert simpler
+
* '''[[bacteremia]]''' condition marked by the presence of bacteria in the blood
  
* '''[[agranulocytes]]''' leukocytes that lack granules in the
+
* '''[[bacteria]]''' (singular: bacterium) any of various unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms typically (but not always) having cell wells that contain peptidoglycan
  
microfilaments
+
* '''[[bacterial lawn]]''' layer of confluent bacterial growth on an agar plate
  
cytoplasm
+
* '''[[bacterial meningitis]]''' bacterial infection that results in an inflammation of the meninges
  
molecules into more complex ones
+
* '''[[bacterial vaginosis]]''' a condition caused by an overgrowth of bacteria in the vagina that may or may not cause symptoms
  
* '''[[activation energy]]''' energy needed to form or break
+
* '''[[bactericidal]]''' irreversible inhibition of a microbe’s ability to divide
  
* '''[[alarmone]]''' small intracellular derivative of a
+
* '''[[bactericide]]''' chemical or physical treatment that kills bacteria
  
* '''[[anaerobe chamber]]''' closed compartment used to
+
* '''[[bacteriochlorophylls]]''' green, purple, or blue pigments of bacteria; they are similar to chlorophyll of plants
  
chemical bonds and convert a reactant or reactants to
+
* '''[[bacteriology]]''' the study of bacteria
  
handle and grow obligate anaerobic cultures
+
* '''[[bacteriophage]]''' virus that infects bacteria
  
nucleotide that signals a global bacterial response
+
* '''[[bacteriostatic]]''' having the ability to inhibit bacterial growth, generally by means of chemical or physical treatment; reversible inhibition of a microbe’s ability to divide
  
a product or products
+
* '''[[barophile]]''' organism that grows under high atmospheric pressure
  
(i.e., activating a regulon of operons) to an
+
* '''[[basal body]]''' component of eukaryotic flagellum or cilium composed of nine microtubule triplets and attaches the flagellum or cilium to the cell
  
* '''[[anaerobe jar]]''' container devoid of oxygen used to
+
* '''[[base sequence]]''' identity of the specific nucleotides present in a nucleic acid strand and their order within the strand
  
* '''[[activator]]''' protein that increases the transcription of a
+
* '''[[basic dye]]''' a chromophore with a positive charge that attaches to negatively charged structures
  
environmental stress
+
* '''[[basidia (basidium, sing.)]]''' small club-shaped structures of basidiomycete fungi where basidiospores are produced
  
grow obligate anaerobes
+
* '''[[basidiocarps]]''' fruiting bodies of basidiomycete fungi
  
gene in response to an external stimulus
+
* '''[[basidiospores]]''' spores produced sexually via budding in basidiomycete fungi
  
* '''[[albendazole]]''' antihelminthic drug of the
+
* '''[[basophils]]''' leukocytes with granules containing histamine and other chemicals that facilitate allergic responses and inflammation when released
  
* '''[[anaerobic respiration]]''' use of a non-oxygen
+
* '''[[benzimidazoles]]''' class of antihelminthic drugs that bind to helminthic β-tubulin, preventing microtubule formation
  
* '''[[active carrier]]''' an infected individual who can
+
* '''[[Betaproteobacteria]]''' class of Proteobacteria that are all eutrophs
  
benzimidazole class that binds to helminthic β-
+
* '''[[binary fission]]''' predominant form of bacterial reproduction in which one cell divides into two daughter cells of equal size, which separate, each offspring receiving a complete copy of the parental genome
  
inorganic molecule, like CO2, nitrate, nitrite,
+
* '''[[binocular]]''' having two eyepieces
  
transmit the pathogen to others regardless of whether
+
* '''[[binomial nomenclature]]''' a universal convention for the scientific naming of organisms using Latinized names for genus and species
  
tubulin, preventing microtubule formation
+
* '''[[biofilm]]''' complex ecosystem of bacteria embedded in a matrix
  
oxidized iron, or sulfate, as the final electron
+
* '''[[biogeochemical cycle]]''' recycling of inorganic matter between living organisms and their nonliving environment
  
symptoms are currently present
+
* '''[[bioinformatics]]''' the analysis of large amounts of information required for interpretation of these data
  
* '''[[algae]]''' (singular: alga) any of various unicellular and
+
* '''[[biological transmission]]''' movement of a pathogen between hosts facilitated by a biological vector in which the pathogen grows and reproduces
  
acceptor at the end of the electron transport system
+
* '''[[biological vector]]''' an animal (typically an arthropod) that is infected with a pathogen and is capable of transmitting the pathogen from one host to another
  
* '''[[active immunity]]''' stimulation of one’s own adaptive
+
* '''[[biomarker]]''' a protein expressed by a cell or tissue that is indicative of disease
  
multicellular photosynthetic eukaryotic organisms;
+
* '''[[biomolecule]]''' a molecule that is part of living matter
  
* '''[[analytical epidemiology]]''' study of disease outbreaks
+
* '''[[bioremediation]]''' use of microbes to remove xenobiotics or environmental pollutants from a contaminated site
  
immune responses
+
* '''[[biosynthesis]]''' replication of viral genome and other protein components
  
distinguished from plants by their lack of vascular
+
* '''[[biotechnology]]''' the science of using living systems to benefit humankind
  
to establish associations between an agent and a
+
* '''[[bisbiguanide]]''' type of chemical compound with antiseptic properties; disrupts cell membranes at low concentrations and causes congealing of intracellular contents at high concentrations
  
tissues and organs
+
* '''[[blastomycosis]]''' fungal disease associated with infections by Blastomyces dermatitidis; can cause disfiguring scarring of the hands and other extremities
  
disease state through observational studies
+
* '''[[blepharitis]]''' inflammation of the eyelids
  
* '''[[active site]]''' location within an enzyme where
+
* '''[[blocking antibodies]]''' antigen-specific antibodies (usually of the IgG type) produced via desensitization therapy
  
comparing groups of individuals
+
* '''[[blood-brain barrier]]''' tight cell junctions of the endothelia lining the blood vessels that serve the central nervous system, preventing passage of microbes from the bloodstream into the brain and cerebrospinal fluid
  
substrate(s) bind
+
* '''[[blue-white screening]]''' a technique commonly used for identifying transformed bacterial cells containing recombinant plasmids using lacZ-encoding plasmid vectors
  
* '''[[alkaliphile]]''' organism that grows optimally at pH
+
* '''[[blunt ends]]''' ends of DNA molecules lacking single-stranded complementary overhangs that are produced when some restriction enzymes cut DNA
  
above 9.0
+
* '''[[botulism]]''' form of flaccid paraylsis caused by the ingestion of a neurotoxin produced by Clostridium botulinum
  
* '''[[acute disease]]''' disease of a relatively short duration
+
* '''[[bradykinin]]''' activated form of a proinflammatory molecule induced in the presence of invader microbes; opens gaps between cells in blood vessels, allowing fluid and cells to leak into surrounding tissue
  
* '''[[anaphylactic shock]]''' another term for anaphylaxis
+
* '''[[bridge reaction]]''' reaction linking glycolysis to the Krebs cycle during which each pyruvate is decarboxylated and oxidized (forming NADH), and the resulting two-carbon acetyl group is attached to a large carrier called coenzyme A, resulting in the formation of acetyl-CoA and CO; also called the transition reaction
  
that develops and progresses in a predictable pattern
+
* '''[[brightfield microscope]]''' a compound light microscope with two lenses; it produces a dark image on a bright background
  
* '''[[alkylating agent]]''' type of strong disinfecting
+
* '''[[broad-spectrum antimicrobial]]''' drug that targets many different types of microbes
  
* '''[[anaphylaxis]]''' systemic and potentially life-
+
* '''[[bronchi]]''' major air passages leading to the lungs after bifurcating at the windpipe
  
chemical that acts by replacing a hydrogen atom
+
* '''[[bronchioles]]''' smaller air passages within the lung that are formed as the bronchi become further subdivided
  
* '''[[acute glomerulonephritis]]''' inflammation of the
+
* '''[[bronchitis]]''' inflammation of the bronchi
  
threatening type I hypersensitivity reaction
+
* '''[[brucellosis]]''' zoonotic disease caused by bacteria of the genus Brucella that results in undulant fever
  
within a molecule with an alkyl group, thereby
+
* '''[[bubo]]''' swollen, inflamed lymph node that forms as a result of a microbial infection
  
glomeruli of the kidney, probably resulting from
+
* '''[[bubonic plague]]''' most common form of plague in humans, marked by the presence of swollen lymph nodes (buboes)
  
inactivating enzymes and nucleic acids
+
* '''[[budding]]''' unequal reproductive division in which a smaller cell detaches from the parent cell
  
* '''[[anergy]]''' peripheral tolerance mechanism that
+
* '''[[budding yeasts]]''' yeasts that divide by budding off of daughter cells
  
deposition of immune complexes and an
+
* '''[[Burkitt lymphoma]]''' disease characterized by rapidly growing solid tumor; caused by Epstein-Barr virus (HHV-4)
  
prevents self-reactive T cells from being activated by
+
* '''[[burst]]''' release of new virions by a lysed host cell infected by a virus
  
autoimmune response caused by self-antigen
+
* '''[[burst size]]''' the number of virions released from a host cell when it is lysed because of a viral infection
  
* '''[[allergen]]''' antigen capable of inducing type I
+
==C==
  
self-antigens through lack of co-stimulation
+
* '''[[Calvin-Benson cycle]]''' most common CO2 fixation pathway in most photoautotrophs; involves light-independent reactions of photosynthesis that occur in the cytoplasm of photosynthetic bacteria and in the stroma of eukaryotic chloroplasts
  
mimicry by a pathogen
+
* '''[[Campylobacter jejuni gastroenteritis]]''' gastroenteritis caused by C. jejuni; generally mild but sometimes with serious complications
  
hypersensitivity reaction
+
* '''[[candidiasis]]''' fungal infection caused by Candida spp., especially C. albicans; can affect various regions of the body, e.g., skin (cutaneous candidiasis), oral cavity (oral thrush), or vagina (yeast infection)
  
* '''[[annealing]]''' formation of hydrogen bonds between the
+
* '''[[candle jar]]''' container with a tight-fitting lid in which a burning candle consumes oxygen and releases carbon dioxide, thereby creating an environment suitable for capnophiles
  
* '''[[acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis]]''' a severe
+
* '''[[capillary]]''' small blood vessel found in the interstitial space of tissue; delivers nutrients and oxygen, and removes waste products
  
* '''[[allergy]]''' hypersensitivity response to an allergen
+
* '''[[capnophile]]''' organism that requires carbon dioxide levels higher than atmospheric concentration
  
nucleotide base pairs of two single-stranded
+
* '''[[capsid]]''' protein coat surrounding the genome of the virus
  
form of gingivitis, also called trench mouth
+
* '''[[capsomere]]''' individual protein subunits that make up the capsid
  
complementary nucleic acid sequences
+
* '''[[capsule staining]]''' a negative staining technique that stains around a bacterial capsule while leaving the capsule clear
  
* '''[[allograft]]''' transplanted tissue from an individual of
+
* '''[[capsule]]''' type of glycocalyx with organized layers of polysaccharides that aid in bacterial adherence to surfaces and in evading destruction by immune cells
  
* '''[[acute otitis media]]''' inflammatory disease of the
+
* '''[[carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE)]]''' group of bacteria that have developed resistance to all β-lactams, including carbapenems, and many other drug classes
  
the same species that is genetically different from the
+
* '''[[carbohydrate]]''' the most abundant type of biomolecule, consisting of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
  
middle ear resulting from a microbial infection
+
* '''[[carbon skeleton]]''' chain of carbon atoms to which one or more functional groups are bound
  
recipient
+
* '''[[carboxysome]]''' an inclusion composed of an outer shell of thousands of protein subunits. Its interior is filled with ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO) and carbonic anhydrase, which are both used for carbon metabolism
  
1252
+
* '''[[carbuncle]]''' abscess containing a large, deep, purulent skin lesion
  
Appendix E
+
* '''[[carcinogen]]''' agent that causes cancer
  
* '''[[anoxygenic photosynthesis]]''' type of photosynthesis
+
* '''[[case-control study]]''' a type of observational study in which a group of affected individuals are compared, usually retrospectively, to a similar group of unaffected individuals
  
* '''[[arbovirus]]''' any of a variety of viruses that are
+
* '''[[catabolic activator protein (CAP)/cAMP receptor protein (CRP)]]''' protein that, when bound to cAMP in the presence of low levels of glucose, binds to the promoters of operons that control the processing of alternative sugars
  
* '''[[avidity]]''' strength of the sum of the interactions
+
* '''[[catabolism]]''' chemical reactions that break down complex molecules into simpler ones
  
found in many photosynthetic bacteria, including the
+
* '''[[catabolite repression]]''' repression of the transcription of operons encoding enzymes for the use of substrates other than glucose when glucose levels are high
  
transmitted by arthropod vectors
+
* '''[[catalase]]''' enzyme that breaks down hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen
  
between an antibody and antigen
+
* '''[[catalyst]]''' molecule that increases the rate of a chemical reaction but is not used or changed during the chemical reaction and, thus, is reusable
  
purple and green bacteria, where an electron donor
+
* '''[[catarrhal stage]]''' in pertussis, a disease stage marked by inflammation of the mucous membranes combined with excessive secretions
  
* '''[[archaea]]''' any of various unicellular prokaryotic
+
* '''[[cat-scratch disease]]''' bacterial infection of the lymph nodes caused by Bartonella henselae; frequently transmitted via a cat scratch
  
* '''[[axon]]''' long projection of a neuron along which an
+
* '''[[causative agent]]''' the pathogen or substance responsible for causing a particular disease; etiologic agent
  
other than H2O is used to replace an electron lost by
+
* '''[[CCA amino acid binding end]]''' region of a mature tRNA that binds to an amino acid
  
microorganisms, typically having cell walls
+
* '''[[celiac disease]]''' disease largely of the small intestine caused by an immune response to gluten that results in the production of autoantibodies and an inflammatory response
  
electrochemical signal is transmitted
+
* '''[[cell envelope]]''' the combination of external cellular structures (e.g., plasma membrane, cell wall, outer membrane, glycocalyces) that collectively contain the cytoplasm and internal structures of a cell
  
a reaction center pigment, resulting no oxygen
+
* '''[[cell membrane]]''' lipid bilayer with embedded proteins and carbohydrates that defines the boundary of the cell (also called the cytoplasmic membrane or plasma membrane)
  
containing pseudopeptidoglycan
+
* '''[[cell morphology]]''' cell shape, structure, and arrangement, as viewed microscopically
  
production
+
* '''[[cell theory]]''' the theory that all organisms are composed of cells and that the cell is the fundamental unit of life
  
* '''[[azithromycin]]''' semisynthetic macrolide with
+
* '''[[cell wall]]''' a structure in the cell envelope of some cells that helps the cell maintain its shape and withstand changes in osmotic pressure
  
* '''[[Archaea]]''' domain of life separate from the domains
+
* '''[[cellular immunity]]''' adaptive immunity involving T cells and the destruction of pathogens and infected cells
  
increased spectrum of activity, decreased toxicity,
+
* '''[[cellulitis]]''' a subcutaneous skin infection that develops in the dermis or hypodermis, resulting in a red, painful inflammation
  
* '''[[anthrax]]''' a disease caused by Bacillus anthracis; the
+
* '''[[cellulose]]''' a structural polysaccharide composed of glucose monomers linked together in a linear chain by glycosidic bonds
  
Bacteria and Eukarya
+
* '''[[Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)]]''' the national public health agency in the United States
  
and increased half-life compared with erythromycin
+
* '''[[central dogma]]''' scientific principle explaining the flow of genetic information from DNA to RNA to protein
  
cutaneous form causes a skin lesion to develop;
+
* '''[[central nervous system (CNS)]]''' portion of the nervous system made up of the brain and spinal cord
  
gastrointestinal and inhalation anthrax have high
+
* '''[[central tolerance]]''' negative selection of self-reactive T cells in thymus
  
* '''[[artemisinin]]''' antiprotozoan and antifungal drug
+
* '''[[centriole]]''' a component of a centrosome with the structural array of nine parallel microtubules arranged in triplets; involved in eukaryotic cell division
  
mortality rates
+
* '''[[centrosome]]''' a microtubule-organizing center for the mitotic spindle found in animal cells; it separates chromosomes during cell division and is composed of a pair of centrioles positioned at right angles to each other
  
effective against malaria that is thought to increase
+
* '''[[cephalosporins]]''' a group of cell wall synthesis inhibitors within the class of β-lactams
  
intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species in
+
* '''[[cercarial dermatitis]]''' inflammation of the skin caused by a reaction to cercaria of Schistosoma spp., which can penetrate the skin and blood vessels; also called swimmer’s itch or clam digger’s itch
  
* '''[[antibiogram]]''' compilation of the antimicrobial
+
* '''[[cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)]]''' sterile liquid produced in the brain that fills the subarachnoid space of the brain and spinal column
  
target microbes
+
* '''[[cervix]]''' the part of the uterus that connects to the vagina
  
susceptibilities recorded for local bacterial strains,
+
* '''[[CFB group]]''' phylum consisting of the gram-negative, rod-shaped nonproteobacteria genera Cytophaga, Fusobacterium, and Bacteroides
  
* '''[[B]]'''
+
* '''[[Chagas disease]]''' potentially fatal protozoan infection caused by Trypanosoma cruzi and endemic to Central and South America; transmitted by the triatomine bug (kissing bug)
  
which is useful for monitoring local trends in
+
* '''[[chancroid]]''' an STI caused by Haemophilus ducreyi that produces soft chancres on genitals
  
* '''[[artery]]''' large, thick-walled vessel that carries blood
+
* '''[[charged tRNA]]''' activated tRNA molecule carrying its cognate amino acid
  
* '''[[β-lactamases]]''' bacterially produced enzymes that
+
* '''[[chemical mediators]]''' chemicals or enzymes produced by a variety of cells; provide nonspecific antimicrobial defense mechanisms
  
antimicrobial resistance and aiding the prescription
+
* '''[[chemically defined media]]''' media in which all components are chemically defined
  
from the heart to the body tissues
+
* '''[[chemiosmosis]]''' flow of hydrogen ions across the membrane through ATP synthase
  
cleave the β-lactam ring of susceptible β-lactam
+
* '''[[chemokines]]''' chemotactic cytokines that recruit specific subsets of leukocytes to infections, damaged tissue, and sites of inflammation
  
of appropriate empiric antibacterial therapy
+
* '''[[chemotaxis]]''' directional movement of a cell in response to a chemical attractant
  
antimicrobials, rendering them inactive and
+
* '''[[chemotroph]]''' organism that gets its energy from the transfer of electrons originating from chemical compounds
  
* '''[[Arthus reaction]]''' localized type III hypersensitivity
+
* '''[[chickenpox]]''' common childhood disease caused by the varicella-zoster virus and marked by the formation of pustular lesions on the trunk
  
conferring resistance
+
* '''[[chikungunya fever]]''' mosquito-borne viral disease caused by the chikungunya virus and characterized by high fever, joint pain, rash, and blisters
  
* '''[[antibiotic-associated diarrhea]]''' diarrhea that
+
* '''[[chirality]]''' property of stereoisomer molecules by which their structures are nonsuperimposable mirror-images
  
develops after antibiotic treatment as a result of
+
* '''[[chitin]]''' polysaccharide that is an important component of fungal cell walls
  
* '''[[artificial active immunity]]''' immunity acquired
+
* '''[[chlamydia]]''' a common STI caused by Chlamydia trachomatis
  
* '''[[β-lactams]]''' group of antimicrobials that inhibit cell
+
* '''[[chloramphenicol]]''' protein synthesis inhibitor with broad-spectrum activity that binds to the 50S subunit, inhibiting peptide bond formation
  
disruption to the normal microbiota; C. difficile is a
+
* '''[[chlorophyll]]''' a type of photosynthetic pigment found in some prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells
  
through exposure to pathogens and pathogen
+
* '''[[chloroplast]]''' organelle found in plant and algal cells in which photosynthesis occurs
  
wall synthesis; includes the penicillins,
+
* '''[[cholera]]''' gastrointestinal illness caused by Vibrio cholera characterized by severe diarrhea
  
particularly serious example
+
* '''[[chromatin]]''' combination of DNA with DNA binding proteins
  
antigens through a method other than natural
+
* '''[[chromogenic substrate]]''' colorless substrate (chromogen) that is converted into a colored end product by the enzyme
  
cephalosporins, carbapenems, and monobactams;
+
* '''[[chromophores]]''' pigments that absorb and reflect particular wavelengths of light (giving them a color)
  
infection
+
* '''[[chromosome]]''' discrete DNA structure within a cell that controls cellular activities
  
inhibits the transpeptidase cross-linking activity of
+
* '''[[chronic disease]]''' any disease that progresses and persists over a long time
  
* '''[[antibody screen]]''' test to make sure that a potential
+
* '''[[chronic granulomatous disease]]''' primary immunodeficiency caused by an impaired ability of phagocytic cells to kill ingested bacteria in the phagolysosome
  
blood recipient has not produced antibodies to
+
* '''[[chronic wasting disease]]''' prion disease of deer and elk in the United States and Canada
  
* '''[[artificial passive immunity]]''' transfer of antibodies
+
* '''[[cilia (singular: cilium)]]''' short filamentous structures found on some eukaryotic cells; each is composed of microtubules in a 9+2 array, and may be used for locomotion, feeding, and/or movement of extracellular particles that come in contact with the cell
  
penicillin-binding proteins
+
* '''[[ciliated epithelial cells]]''' hair-like cells in the respiratory tract that beat, pushing mucus secretions and trapped debris away from the sensitive tissues of the lungs
  
antigens other than the ABO and Rh antigens
+
* '''[[ciliates]]''' protists with cilia (Ciliophora), including Paramecium and Stentor, classified within the Chromalveolata
  
produced by a donor to another individual for the
+
* '''[[cisternae]]''' the sacs of the endoplasmic reticulum
  
* '''[[β-oxidation]]''' process of fatty acid degradation that
+
* '''[[citric acid cycle]]''' see Krebs cycle
  
purpose of preventing or treating disease
+
* '''[[class switching]]''' genetic rearrangement of constant region gene segments in plasma cells to switch antibody production from IgM to IgG, IgA, or IgE
  
sequentially removes two-carbon acetyl groups,
+
* '''[[clindamycin]]''' semisynthetic protein synthesis inhibitor of the lincosamide class that binds to the 50S subunit, inhibiting peptide bond formation
  
* '''[[antibody]]''' Y-shaped glycoprotein molecule produced
+
* '''[[clone]]''' a genetically identical cell or individual
  
by B cells that binds to specific epitopes on an
+
* '''[[Clostridium perfringens gastroenteritis]]''' relatively mild gastrointestinal illness caused by C. perfringens
  
* '''[[ascariasis]]''' soil-transmitted intestinal infection caused
+
* '''[[clusters of differentiation (CD)]]''' cell-surface glycoproteins that serve to identify and distinguish white blood cells
  
producing NADH and FADH2, on entry into the
+
* '''[[coagulase]]''' enzyme that causes the activation of fibrinogen to form fibrin, promoting clotting of the blood
  
antigen
+
* '''[[coarse focusing knob]]''' a knob on a microscope that produces relatively large movements to adjust focus
  
by the large nematode roundworm Ascaris
+
* '''[[coccidioidomycosis]]''' disease caused by the highly infectious fungal pathogen Coccidioides immitis and related species
  
Krebs cycle
+
* '''[[codon]]''' three-nucleotide sequence within mRNA that specifies a particular amino acid to be incorporated into the polypeptide being synthesized
  
lumbricoides
+
* '''[[coenocyte]]''' multinucleated eukaryotic cell that forms as a result of multiple rounds of nuclear division without the accompanying division of the plasma membrane
  
* '''[[β-pleated sheet]]''' secondary structure consisting of
+
* '''[[coenocytic hyphae]]''' nonseptate hyphae that are multinucleate and lack cell walls or membranes between cells; characteristic of some fungi
  
* '''[[antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity]]'''
+
* '''[[coenzyme]]''' organic molecule required for proper enzyme function that is not consumed and is reusable
  
* '''[[(ADCC)]]''' mechanism by which large pathogens are
+
* '''[[cofactor]]''' inorganic ion that helps stabilize enzyme conformation and function
  
* '''[[ascocarps]]''' cup-shaped fruiting bodies of an
+
* '''[[cognate amino acid]]''' amino acid added to a specific tRNA molecule that correctly corresponds to the tRNA’s anticodon and, hence, the mRNA’s codon, reflecting the genetic code
  
pleats formed by hydrogen bonds between localized
+
* '''[[cohort method]]''' a method used in observational studies in which a group of individuals is followed over time and factors potentially important in the development of disease are evaluated
  
marked for destruction by specific antibodies and
+
* '''[[colistin]]''' membrane-active polymyxin that was historically used for bowel decontamination but now used for systemic infections with drug-resistant pathogens
  
ascomycete fungus
+
* '''[[colitis]]''' inflammation of the large intestine
  
segments of amino acid residues on the backbone of
+
* '''[[collagenase]]''' enzyme that digests collagen, the dominant protein in connective tissue
  
then killed by secretion of cytotoxins by natural
+
* '''[[colony-forming unit (CFU)]]''' a counting quantity represented by a colony formed on solid medium from a single cell or a few cells
  
the polypeptide chain
+
* '''[[commensalism]]''' type of symbiosis in which one population benefits and the other is not affected
  
* '''[[ascospore]]''' asexual spore produced by ascomycete
+
* '''[[commercial sterilization]]''' type of sterilization protocol used in food production; uses conditions that are less harsh (lower temperatures) to preserve food quality but still effectively destroy vegetative cells and endospores of common foodborne pathogens such as Clostridium botulinum
  
killer cells, macrophages, or eosinophils
+
* '''[[common cold]]''' most common cause of rhinitis in humans; associated with a variety of adenoviruses, coronaviruses, and rhinoviruses
  
* '''[[B-cell receptors (BCRs)]]''' membrane-bound IgD and
+
* '''[[common source spread]]''' a mode of disease transmission in which every infection originates from the same source
  
fungi
+
* '''[[communicable]]''' able to be transmitted directly or indirectly from one person to another
  
* '''[[anticodon]]''' three-nucleotide sequence of a mature
+
* '''[[community]]''' group of interacting populations of organisms
  
IgM antibody that bind specific antigen epitopes
+
* '''[[competitive inhibitor]]''' molecule that binds to an enzyme’s active site, preventing substrate binding
  
* '''[[ascus]]''' structure of ascomycete fungi containing
+
* '''[[competitive interactions]]''' interactions between populations in which one of them competes with another for resources
  
with Fab antigen-binding region
+
* '''[[complement activation]]''' cascading activation of the complement proteins in the blood, resulting in opsonization, inflammation, and lysis of pathogens
  
tRNA that interacts with an mRNA codon through
+
* '''[[complement fixation test]]''' test for antibodies against a specific pathogen using complement-mediated hemolysis
  
spores
+
* '''[[complement system]]''' series of proteins that can become activated in the presence of invading microbes, resulting in opsonization, inflammation, and lysis of pathogens
  
complementary base pairing
+
* '''[[complementary base pairs]]''' base pairing due to hydrogen bonding that occurs between a specific purine and a specific pyrimidine; A bonds with T (in DNA), and C bonds with G
  
* '''[[B lymphocyte]]''' antibody-producing cells of humoral
+
* '''[[complementary DNA (cDNA)]]''' a DNA molecule complementary to mRNA that is made through the activity of reverse transcriptase
  
* '''[[asepsis]]''' sterile state resulting from proper use of
+
* '''[[complex media]]''' media that contain extracts of animals and plants that are not chemically defined
  
immunity; B cell
+
* '''[[complex virus]]''' virus shape that often includes intricate characteristics not seen in the other categories of capsid
  
* '''[[antigen (also, immunogen)]]''' a molecule that
+
* '''[[compound microscope]]''' a microscope that uses multiple lenses to focus light from the specimen
  
microbial control protocols
+
* '''[[condenser lens]]''' a lens on a microscope that focuses light from the light source onto the specimen
  
stimulates an adaptive immune response
+
* '''[[conditional mutation]]''' mutant form of a gene whose mutant phenotype is expressed only under certain environmental conditions
  
* '''[[babesiosis]]''' tickborne protozoan infection caused by
+
* '''[[confocal microscope]]''' a scanning laser microscope that uses fluorescent dyes and excitation lasers to create three-dimensional images
  
* '''[[antigenic]]''' able to stimulate an adaptive immune
+
* '''[[conidia]]''' asexual fungal spores not enclosed in a sac; produced in a chain at the end of specialized hyphae called conidiophores
  
* '''[[aseptic technique]]''' method or protocol designed to
+
* '''[[conjugate vaccine]]''' a vaccine consisting of a polysaccharide antigen conjugated to a protein to enhance immune response to the polysaccharide; conjugate vaccines are important for young children who do not respond well to polysaccharide antigens
  
Babesia spp. and characterized by malaise, fatigue,
+
* '''[[conjugated protein]]''' protein carrying a nonpolypeptidic portion
  
prevent microbial contamination of sterile objects,
+
* '''[[conjugation]]''' mechanism of horizontal gene transfer in bacteria in which DNA is directly transferred from one bacterial cell to another by a conjugation pilus
  
fever, headache, myalgia, and joint pain
+
* '''[[conjugation pilus (sex pilus)]]''' hollow tube composed of protein encoded by the conjugation plasmid that brings two bacterial cells into contact with each other for the process of conjugation
  
response
+
* '''[[conjunctiva]]''' the mucous membranes covering the eyeball and inner eyelid
  
locations, or tissues
+
* '''[[conjunctivitis]]''' inflammation of the conjunctiva, the mucous membrane covering the eye and inside of the eyelid
  
* '''[[antigenic drift]]''' form of slight antigenic variation that
+
* '''[[constitutively expressed]]''' describes genes that are transcribed and translated continuously to provide the cell with constant intermediate levels of the protein products
  
* '''[[bacillary dysentery]]''' gastrointestinal illness caused
+
* '''[[contact dermatitis]]''' inflammation of the skin resulting from a type IV hypersensitivity to an allergen or irritant
  
* '''[[aspergillosis]]''' fungal infection caused by the mold
+
* '''[[contact]]''' see exposure
  
by Shigella bacteria, also called shigellosis
+
* '''[[contact transmission]]''' movement of a pathogen between hosts due to contact between the two; may be direct or indirect
  
occurs because of point mutations in the genes that
+
* '''[[contagious]]''' easily spread from person to person
  
Aspergillus; immunocompromised patients are
+
* '''[[continuous cell line]]''' derived from transformed cells or tumors, these cells are often able to be subcultured many times, or, in the case of immortal cell lines, grown indefinitely
  
encode surface proteins
+
* '''[[continuous common source spread]]''' a mode of disease transmission in which every infection originates from the same source and that source produces infections for longer than one incubation period
  
primarily at risk
+
* '''[[contractile vacuoles]]''' organelles found in some cells, especially in some protists, that take up water and then move the water out of the cell for osmoregulatory purposes (i.e., to maintain an appropriate salt and water balance)
  
* '''[[bacillus]]''' (bacilli) rod-shaped prokaryotic cell
+
* '''[[contrast]]''' visible differences between parts of a microscopic specimen
  
* '''[[antigenic shift]]''' form of major antigenic variation
+
* '''[[convalescence stage]]''' the final stage of a whooping cough infection, marked by a chronic cough
  
* '''[[asymptomatic carrier]]''' an infected individual who
+
* '''[[Coombs’ reagent]]''' antiserum containing antihuman immunoglobulins used to facilitate hemagglutination by cross-linking the human antibodies attached to red blood cells
  
* '''[[bacitracin]]''' group of structurally similar peptides that
+
* '''[[cooperative interactions]]''' interactions between populations in which both benefit
  
that occurs because of gene reassortment
+
* '''[[cortex]]''' tightly packed layer of fungal filaments at the outer surface of a lichen; foliose lichens have a second cortex layer beneath the medulla
  
exhibits no signs or symptoms of disease yet is
+
* '''[[counterstain]]''' a secondary stain that adds contrasting color to cells from which the primary stain has been washed out by a decolorizing agent
  
block the movement of peptidoglycan precursors
+
* '''[[crenation]]''' shriveling of a cell
  
* '''[[antigenic variation]]''' changing of surface antigens
+
* '''[[Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease]]''' form of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy found in humans; typically a fatal disease
  
capable of transmitting the pathogen to others
+
* '''[[crisis phase]]''' point at which a fever breaks, reaching a peak before the hypothalamus resets back to normal body temperature
  
across the cell membrane, inhibiting peptidoglycan
+
* '''[[critical item]]''' object that must be sterile because it will be used inside the body, often penetrating sterile tissues or the bloodstream
  
(carbohydrates or proteins) such that they are no
+
* '''[[cross-match]]''' in the major cross-match, donor red blood cells are checked for agglutination using recipient serum; in the minor cross-match, donor serum is checked for agglutinizing antibodies against recipient red blood cells
  
synthesis
+
* '''[[cross-presentation]]''' a mechanism by which dendritic cells process antigens for MHC I presentation to CD8 T cells through phagocytosis of the pathogen (which would normally lead to MHC II presentation)
  
* '''[[asymptomatic]]''' not exhibiting any symptoms of
+
* '''[[cross-resistance]]''' when a single resistance mechanism confers resistance to multiple antimicrobial drugs
  
longer recognized by the host’s immune system
+
* '''[[cross-sectional study]]''' a type of observational study in which measurements are made on cases, both affected and unaffected, at one point in time and the measurements analyzed to uncover associations with the disease state
  
disease
+
* '''[[crustose lichens]]''' lichens that are tightly attached to the substrate, giving them a crusty appearance
  
* '''[[bacteremia]]''' condition marked by the presence of
+
* '''[[cryptococcosis]]''' fungal pneumonia caused by the encapsulated yeast Cryptococcus neoformans commonly found in bird droppings
  
* '''[[antigen-presenting cells (APC)]]''' macrophages,
+
* '''[[cryptosporidiosis]]''' intestinal infection caused by Cryptosporidium parvum or C. hominis
  
bacteria in the blood
+
* '''[[culture density]]''' the number of cells per volume of broth
  
* '''[[atomic force microscope]]''' a scanning probe
+
* '''[[culture medium]]''' combination of compounds in solution that supports growth
  
dendritic cells, and B cells that process and present
+
* '''[[cutaneous mycosis]]''' any fungal infection that affects the surface of the skin, hair, or nails
  
microscope that uses a thin probe that is passed just
+
* '''[[cyanobacteria]]''' phototrophic, chlorophyll-containing bacteria that produce large amounts of gaseous oxygen
  
* '''[[bacteria]]''' (singular: bacterium) any of various
+
* '''[[cyclic AMP (cAMP)]]''' intracellular signaling molecule made through the action of adenylyl cyclase from ATP when glucose levels are low, with the ability to bind to a catabolite activator protein to allow it to bind to regulatory regions and activate the transcription of operons encoding enzymes for metabolism of alternative substrates
  
foreign pathogen antigens for the purpose of
+
* '''[[cyclic photophosphorylation]]''' pathway used in photosynthetic organisms when the cell’s need for ATP outweighs that for NADPH, thus bypassing NADPH production
  
above the specimen to measure forces between the
+
* '''[[cyclosporiasis]]''' intestinal infection caused by Cyclospora cayetanensis
  
unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms typically
+
* '''[[cystic echinococcosis]]''' hydatid disease, an infection caused by the tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus that can cause cyst formation
  
activating T cells and adaptive immune defenses
+
* '''[[cysticerci]]''' larval form of a tapeworm
  
atoms and the probe
+
* '''[[cystitis]]''' inflammation of the bladder
  
(but not always) having cell wells that contain
+
* '''[[cysts]]''' microbial cells surrounded by a protective outer covering; some microbial cysts are formed to help the microbe survive harsh conditions, whereas others are a normal part of the life cycle
  
* '''[[antimetabolites]]''' compounds that are competitive
+
* '''[[cytochrome oxidase]]''' final ETS complex used in aerobic respiration that transfers energy-depleted electrons to oxygen to form H2O
  
peptidoglycan
+
* '''[[cytokine storm]]''' an excessive release of cytokines, typically triggered by a superantigen, that results in unregulated activation of T cells
  
* '''[[ATP synthase]]''' integral membrane protein that
+
* '''[[cytokines]]''' protein molecules that act as a chemical signals; produced by cells in response to a stimulation event
  
inhibitors for bacterial metabolic enzymes
+
* '''[[cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection]]''' human herpesvirus 5 infection that is typically asymptomatic but can become serious in immunocompromised patients, transplant recipients, and developing fetuses
  
harnesses the energy of the proton motive force by
+
* '''[[cytopathic effect]]''' cell abnormality resulting from a viral infection
  
* '''[[bacterial lawn]]''' layer of confluent bacterial growth
+
* '''[[cytoplasm]]''' the gel-like material composed of water and dissolved or suspended chemicals contained within the plasma membrane of a cell
  
* '''[[antimicrobial drugs]]''' chemical compounds,
+
* '''[[cytoplasmic membrane]]''' see cell membrane
  
allowing hydrogen ions to diffuse down their
+
* '''[[cytoproct]]''' a protozoan cell structure that is specialized for excretion
  
on an agar plate
+
* '''[[cytosine]]''' pyrimidine nitrogenous base found in nucleotides
  
including naturally produced drugs, semisynthetic
+
* '''[[cytoskeleton]]''' a network of filaments or tubules in the eukaryotic cell that provides shape and structural support for cells; aids movement of materials throughout the cell
  
electrochemical gradient, causing components of this
+
* '''[[cytostome]]''' a protozoan cell structure that is specialized for phagocytosis (i.e., to take in food)
  
derivatives, and synthetic compounds, that target
+
* '''[[cytotoxic T cells]]''' effector cells of cellular immunity that target and eliminate cells infected with intracellular pathogens through induction of apoptosis
  
protein to spin, making ATP from ADP and Pi
+
* '''[[cytotoxicity]]''' harmful effects to host cell
  
* '''[[bacterial meningitis]]''' bacterial infection that results
+
{{catz}}
  
specific microbial structures and enzymes, killing
+
==D==
  
in an inflammation of the meninges
+
* '''[[dacryocystitis]]''' inflammation of the lacrimal sac often associated with a plugged nasolacrimal duct
  
* '''[[attachment]]''' binding of phage or virus to host cell
+
* '''[[daptomycin]]''' cyclic lipopetide that disrupts the bacterial cell membrane
  
specific microbes or inhibiting their growth
+
* '''[[darkfield microscope]]''' a compound light microscope that produces a bright image on a dark background; typically a modified brightfield microscope
  
* '''[[bacterial vaginosis]]''' a condition caused by an
+
* '''[[death phase (decline phase)]]''' phase of the growth curve at which the number of dying cells exceeds the number of new cells formed
  
receptors
+
* '''[[decimal reduction time (DRT)]]''' or * '''[[D-value]]''' amount of time it takes for a specific protocol to produce a one order of magnitude decrease in the number of organisms; that is, death of 90% of the population
  
* '''[[antimicrobial peptides (AMPs)]]''' class of
+
* '''[[decolorizing agent]]''' a substance that removes a stain, usually from some parts of the specimen
  
overgrowth of bacteria in the vagina that may or may
+
* '''[[deeply branching bacteria]]''' bacteria that occupy the lowest branches of the phylogenetic tree of life
  
* '''[[attenuation]]''' regulatory system of prokaryotes
+
* '''[[definitive host]]''' the preferred host organism for a parasite, in which the parasite reaches maturity and may reproduce sexually
  
not cause symptoms
+
* '''[[degeneracy]]''' redundancy in the genetic code because a given amino acid is encoded by more than one nucleotide triplet codon
  
nonspecific, cell-derived chemical mediators with
+
* '''[[degerming]]''' protocol that significantly reduces microbial numbers by using mild chemicals (e.g., soap) and gentle scrubbing of a small area of skin or tissue to avoid the transmission of pathogenic microbes
  
whereby secondary stem-loop structures formed
+
* '''[[degranulation]]''' release of the contents of mast cell granules in response to the cross-linking of IgE molecules on the cell surface with allergen molecules
  
broad-spectrum antimicrobial properties
+
* '''[[dehydration synthesis]]''' chemical reaction in which monomer molecules bind end to end in a process that results in the formation of water molecules as a byproduct
  
* '''[[bactericidal]]''' irreversible inhibition of a microbe’s
+
* '''[[deletion]]''' type of mutation involving the removal of one or more bases from a DNA sequence
  
within the 5’ end of an mRNA being transcribed
+
* '''[[Deltaproteobacteria]]''' class of Proteobacteria that includes sulfate-reducing bacteria
  
* '''[[antiparallel]]''' two strands of DNA helix oriented in
+
* '''[[denatured protein]]''' protein that has lost its secondary and tertiary structures (and quaternary structure, if applicable) without the loss of its primary structure
  
determine both if transcription to complete the
+
* '''[[dendrites]]''' branched extensions of the soma of a neuron that interact with other cells
  
ability to divide
+
* '''[[dengue fever]]''' mosquito-borne viral hemorrhagic disease; also known as breakbone fever
  
opposite directions; one strand is oriented in the 5’ to
+
* '''[[dental calculus]]''' calcified heavy plaque on teeth, also called tartar
  
synthesis of this mRNA will occur and if this mRNA
+
* '''[[dental caries]]''' cavities formed in the teeth as a result of tooth decay caused by microbial activity
  
* '''[[bactericide]]''' chemical or physical treatment that kills
+
* '''[[deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)]]''' double-stranded nucleic acid composed of deoxyribonucleotides that serves as the genetic material of the cell
  
3’ direction, while the other is oriented in the 3’ to 5’
+
* '''[[deoxyribonucleotides]]''' DNA nucleotides containing deoxyribose as the pentose sugar component
  
will be used for translation
+
* '''[[dermatophyte]]''' any fungus of the genera Microsporum, Epidermophyton, or Trichophyton, which feed on keratin (a protein found in skin, hair, and nails) and can cause cutaneous infections
  
bacteria
+
* '''[[dermis]]''' the second layer of human skin, found between the epidermis and the hypodermis
  
direction
+
* '''[[descriptive epidemiology]]''' a method of studying a disease outbreak using case histories, contact interviews, medical information, and other sources of information
  
* '''[[autoclave]]''' specialized device for the moist-heat
+
* '''[[desensitization]]''' injections of antigen that lead to production of antigen-specific IgG molecules, effectively outcompeting IgE molecules on the surface of sensitized mast cells for antigen
  
* '''[[bacteriochlorophylls]]''' green, purple, or blue
+
* '''[[desiccation]]''' method of microbial control involving the removal of water from cells through drying or dehydration
  
* '''[[antisense RNA]]''' small noncoding RNA molecules
+
* '''[[desquamation]]''' peeling and shedding of outermost skin
  
sterilization of materials through the application of
+
* '''[[diapedesis]]''' process by which leukocytes pass through capillary walls to reach infected tissue; also called extravasation
  
pigments of bacteria; they are similar to chlorophyll
+
* '''[[diaphragm]]''' a component of a microscope; typically consists of a disk under the stage with holes of various sizes; can be adjusted to allow more or less light from the light source to reach the specimen
  
that inhibit gene expression by binding to mRNA
+
* '''[[differential interference-contrast microscope]]''' a microscope that uses polarized light to increase contrast
  
pressure to steam, allowing the steam to reach
+
* '''[[differential media]]''' media that contain additives that make it possible to distinguish bacterial colonies based on metabolic activities of the organisms
  
of plants
+
* '''[[differential staining]]''' staining that uses multiple dyes to differentiate between structures or organisms
  
transcripts via complementary base pairing
+
* '''[[diffraction]]''' the changing of direction (bending or spreading) that occurs when a light wave interacts with an opening or barrier
  
temperatures above the boiling point of water
+
* '''[[dikaryotic]]''' having two separate nuclei within one cell
  
* '''[[antisense strand]]''' transcription template strand of
+
* '''[[dimorphic fungus]]''' a fungus that can take the form of a yeast or a mold, depending on environmental conditions
  
* '''[[autocrine function]]''' refers to a cytokine signal
+
* '''[[dioecious]]''' refers to sexually reproducing organisms in which individuals have either male or female reproductive organs (not both)
  
* '''[[bacteriology]]''' the study of bacteria
+
* '''[[diphtheria]]''' serious infection of the larynx, caused by the toxigenic bacterium Corynebacterium diphtheriae
  
DNA; the strand that is transcribed for gene
+
* '''[[diploid]]''' having two copies of each chromosome
  
released from a cell to a receptor on its own surface
+
* '''[[direct agglutination assay]]''' assay that can be used to detect the agglutination of bacteria by the action of antibodies in patient serum
  
expression
+
* '''[[direct antihuman globulin test (DAT)]]''' another name for a direct Coombs’ test
  
* '''[[bacteriophage]]''' virus that infects bacteria
+
* '''[[direct contact transmission]]''' movement of a pathogen between hosts by physical contact or transfer in droplets at a distance less than one meter
  
* '''[[autograft]]''' tissue transplanted from a location on an
+
* '''[[direct Coombs’ test]]''' assay that looks for antibodies in vivo against red blood cells caused by various types of infections, drug reactions, and autoimmune disorders
  
* '''[[antisepsis]]''' protocol that removes potential pathogens
+
* '''[[direct ELISA]]''' enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay in which the antigens are immobilized in the well of a microtiter plate; only a single antibody is used in the test
  
individual to a different location on the same
+
* '''[[direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) test]]''' FA technique in which the labeled antibody binds to the target antigen
  
* '''[[bacteriostatic]]''' having the ability to inhibit bacterial
+
* '''[[direct hemagglutination assay]]''' test that determines the titer of certain bacteria and viruses that causes clumping of red blood cells
  
from living tissue
+
* '''[[direct microscopic cell count]]''' counting of cells using a calibrated slide under a light microscope
  
individual
+
* '''[[direct repair (light repair or photoreactivation)]]''' light-dependent mechanism for repairing pyrimidine dimers involving the enzyme photolyase
  
growth, generally by means of chemical or physical
+
* '''[[disaccharide]]''' one of two monosaccharides linked together by a glycosidic bond
  
treatment; reversible inhibition of a microbe’s ability
+
* '''[[disease]]''' any condition in which the normal structure or function of the body is damaged or impaired
  
* '''[[antiseptic]]''' antimicrobial chemical that can be used
+
* '''[[disinfectant]]''' antimicrobial chemical applied to a fomite during disinfection that may be toxic to tissues
  
* '''[[autoimmune disease]]''' loss of tolerance to self,
+
* '''[[disinfection]]''' protocol that removes potential pathogens from a fomite
  
to divide
+
* '''[[disk-diffusion method]]''' a technique for measuring of the effectiveness of one or more antimicrobial agents against a known bacterium; involves measuring the zone(s) of inhibition around the chemical agent(s) in a culture of the bacterium
  
safely on living tissue
+
* '''[[dispersion]]''' the separation of light of different frequencies due to different degrees of refraction
  
resulting in immune-mediated destruction of self
+
* '''[[disulfide bridge]]''' covalent bond between the sulfur atoms of two sulfhydryl side chains
  
cells and tissues
+
* '''[[DNA gyrase (topoisomerase II)]]''' bacterial topoisomerase that relaxes the supercoiled chromosome to make DNA more accessible for the initiation of replication
  
* '''[[barophile]]''' organism that grows under high
+
* '''[[DNA ligase]]''' enzyme that catalyzes the formation of a covalent phosphodiester linkage between the 3’-OH end of one DNA fragment and the 5’ phosphate end of another DNA fragment
  
* '''[[antiserum]]''' serum obtained from an animal
+
* '''[[DNA packaging]]''' process in which histones or other DNA binding proteins perform various levels of DNA wrapping and attachment to scaffolding proteins to allow the DNA to fit inside a cell
  
atmospheric pressure
+
* '''[[DNA polymerase]]''' class of enzymes that adds nucleotides to the free 3’-OH group of a growing DNA chain that are complementary to the template strand
  
containing antibodies against a particular antigen
+
* '''[[DNA primers]]''' short, synthetic, single-stranded DNA fragments of known sequence that bind to specific target sequences within a sample due to complementarity between the target DNA sequence and the primer; commonly used in PCR but may be used in other hybridization techniques
  
* '''[[autoinducer]]''' signaling molecule produced by a
+
* '''[[DNA probe]]''' a single-stranded DNA fragment that is complementary to part of the gene (DNA or RNA) of interest
  
that was artificially introduced to the animal
+
* '''[[DNAse]]''' pathogen-produced nuclease that degrades extracellular DNA
  
bacterial cell that can modify the activity of
+
* '''[[dosage]]''' amount of medication given during a certain time interval
  
* '''[[basal body]]''' component of eukaryotic flagellum or
+
* '''[[double immunodiffusion]]''' see Ouchterlony assay
  
surrounding cells; associated with quorum sensing
+
* '''[[doubling time]]''' the time it takes for the population to double; also referred to as generation time
  
cilium composed of nine microtubule triplets and
+
* '''[[droplet transmission]]''' direct contact transmission of a pathogen transferred in sneezed or coughed droplets of mucus that land on the new host within a radius of one meter
  
* '''[[apoenzyme]]''' enzyme without its cofactor or
+
* '''[[drug resistance]]''' ability of a microbe to persist and grow in the presence of an antimicrobial drug
  
attaches the flagellum or cilium to the cell
+
* '''[[dry-heat sterilization]]''' protocol that involves the direct application of high heat
  
coenzyme
+
* '''[[dura mater]]''' tough, outermost membrane that surrounds the brain
  
* '''[[autoradiography]]''' the method of producing a
+
* '''[[dynein]]''' motor proteins that interact with microtubules in eukaryotic flagella and cilia
  
photographic image from radioactive decay; in
+
* '''[[dysentery]]''' intestinal inflammation that causes diarrhea with blood and mucus
  
* '''[[base sequence]]''' identity of the specific nucleotides
+
* '''[[dysuria]]''' urination accompanied by burning, discomfort, or pain
  
* '''[[apoptosis]]''' programmed and organized cell death
+
==E==
  
present in a nucleic acid strand and their order within
+
* '''[[E (exit) site]]''' functional site of an intact ribosome that releases dissociated uncharged tRNAs so that they can be recharged with free amino acids
  
molecular genetics the method allows the
+
* '''[[East African trypanosomiasis]]''' acute form of African trypanosomiasis caused by Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense
  
without lysis of the cell
+
* '''[[eastern equine encephalitis]]''' serious, but rare, mosquito-borne viral infection of the brain that is found primarily on the Atlantic and Gulf coast states of the United States
  
visualization of radioactively-labeled DNA probes
+
* '''[[Ebola virus disease (EVD)]]''' potentially fatal viral hemorrhagic fever found primarily in western Africa and transmitted through contact with body fluids
  
the strand
+
* '''[[eclipse phase]]''' period after viral infection during which the infective virus is not detected, either intracellularly or extracellularly, and biosynthesis is occurring
  
* '''[[arachnoid mater]]''' middle membrane surrounding the
+
* '''[[ectoplasm]]''' outer, more gelatinous layer of cytoplasm under a protist cell membrane
  
that have hybridized to a nucleic acid sample
+
* '''[[edema]]''' swelling due to accumulation of fluid and protein in tissue as a result of increased permeability of capillary walls during an inflammatory response; chronic edema can also result from blockage of lymphatic vessels, as in the case of elephantiasis
  
* '''[[basic dye]]''' a chromophore with a positive charge that
+
* '''[[effector cells]]''' activated cells of cellular immunity that are involved in the immediate immune response, primarily to defend the body against pathogens
  
brain that produces cerebrospinal fluid
+
* '''[[electron carrier]]''' cellular molecule that accepts high-energy electrons from reduced molecules like foods and later serves as an electron donor in subsequent redox reactions
  
* '''[[autotroph]]''' organism that converts inorganic carbon
+
* '''[[electron microscope]]''' a type of microscope that uses short-wavelength electron beams rather than light to increase magnification and resolution
  
attaches to negatively charged structures
+
* '''[[electron transport system (ETS)]]''' series of membrane-associated protein complexes and associated mobile accessory electron carriers important in the generation of the proton motive force required for ATP production by chemiosmosis; the last component involved in the cellular respiration of glucose
  
* '''[[arboviral encephalitis]]''' infection by an arthropod-
+
* '''[[electroporation]]''' a genetic engineering technique in which cells are exposed to a short electric pulse, inducing them to take up DNA molecules from their environment
  
dioxide into organic carbon
+
* '''[[elementary bodies]]''' metabolically and reproductively inactive, endospore-like form of intracellular bacteria that spreads infection outside of cells
  
* '''[[basidia (basidium, sing.)]]''' small club-shaped
+
* '''[[elongation in DNA replication]]''' stage of DNA replication during which DNA polymerase adds nucleotides, complementary to the parental strand, to the 3’ end of a growing DNA strand
  
borne virus that results in an inflammation of the
+
* '''[[elongation in transcription]]''' stage of transcription during which RNA polymerase extends the RNA molecule by adding RNA nucleotides, complementary to the template DNA strand
  
structures of basidiomycete fungi where
+
* '''[[elongation of translation]]''' stage of translation during which amino acids are added one by one to the C-terminus of the growing polypeptide
  
* '''[[auxotroph]]''' nutritional mutant with a loss-of-function
+
* '''[[Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas (EMP) pathway]]''' type of glycolysis found in animals and the most common in microbes
  
brain
+
* '''[[emerging infectious disease]]''' a disease that is new to the human population or has increased in prevalence over the previous 20 years
  
basidiospores are produced
+
* '''[[enantiomers]]''' stereoisomers that are mirror images of each other and nonsuperimposable
  
mutation in a gene encoding the biosynthesis of a
+
* '''[[encephalitis]]''' inflammation of the tissues of the brain
  
specific nutrient such as an amino acid
+
* '''[[encystment]]''' the process of forming a cyst
  
This OpenStax book is available for free at http://cnx.org/content/col12087/1.5
+
* '''[[endemic disease]]''' an illness that is constantly present (often at low levels) in a population
  
Appendix E
+
* '''[[endergonic reaction]]''' chemical reaction that requires energy beyond activation energy to occur
  
1253
+
* '''[[endocarditis]]''' inflammation of the endocardium, especially the heart valves
  
* '''[[brightfield microscope]]''' a compound light
+
* '''[[endocrine function]]''' refers to a cytokine signal released from a cell and carried by the bloodstream to a distant recipient cell
  
* '''[[case-control study]]''' a type of observational study in
+
* '''[[endocytosis]]''' the uptake of molecules through plasma membrane invagination and vacuole/vesicle formation
  
* '''[[basidiocarps]]''' fruiting bodies of basidiomycete fungi
+
* '''[[endomembrane system]]''' a series of organelles (endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatuses, lysosomes, and transport vesicles) arranged as membranous tubules, sacs, and disks that synthesize many cell components
  
microscope with two lenses; it produces a dark
+
* '''[[endoplasm]]''' inner, more fluid layer of cytoplasm under a protist cell membrane (inside of the ectoplasm)
  
which a group of affected individuals are compared,
+
* '''[[endoplasmic reticulum]]''' part of the endomembrane system that is an interconnected array of tubules and flattened sacs with a single lipid bilayer that may be either rough or smooth; important in synthesizing proteins and lipids
  
* '''[[basidiospores]]''' spores produced sexually via budding
+
* '''[[endospore]]''' a cellular structure formed by some bacteria in response to adverse conditions; preserves DNA of the cell in a dormant state until conditions are favorable again
  
image on a bright background
+
* '''[[endospore staining]]''' a differential staining technique that uses two stains to make bacterial endospores appear distinct from the rest of the cell
  
usually retrospectively, to a similar group of
+
* '''[[endosymbiotic theory]]''' the theory that mitochondria and chloroplasts arose as a result of prokaryotic cells establishing a symbiotic relationship within a eukaryotic host
  
in basidiomycete fungi
+
* '''[[endothelia]]''' layer of epithelial cells lining blood vessels, lymphatics, the blood-brain barrier, and some other tissues
  
unaffected individuals
+
* '''[[endotoxin]]''' lipid A component of lipopolysaccharides in the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria
  
* '''[[broad-spectrum antimicrobial]]''' drug that targets
+
* '''[[enriched media]]''' media that contain additional essential nutrients to support growth
  
* '''[[basophils]]''' leukocytes with granules containing
+
* '''[[enrichment culture]]''' media providing growth conditions that favor the expansion of an organism present in low numbers
  
many different types of microbes
+
* '''[[enteric]]''' bacteria of the family Enterobacteriaceae, which live in the human intestinal tract
  
* '''[[catabolic activator protein (CAP)/cAMP receptor]]'''
+
* '''[[enteritis]]''' inflammation of the lining of the intestine
  
histamine and other chemicals that facilitate allergic
+
* '''[[enterobiasis]]''' intestinal infection caused by the pinworm Enterobius vermicularis
  
* '''[[protein (CRP)]]''' protein that, when bound to cAMP in
+
* '''[[enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC)]]''' E. coli bacteria that cause severe gastrointestinal illness with potential serious complications such as hemolytic uremic syndrome
  
* '''[[bronchi]]''' major air passages leading to the lungs after
+
* '''[[enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC)]]''' E. coli bacteria that cause relatively mild gastrointestinal illness
  
responses and inflammation when released
+
* '''[[enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC)]]''' E. coli bacteria that cause serious gastrointestinal illness
  
the presence of low levels of glucose, binds to the
+
* '''[[enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC)]]''' E. coli bacteria that cause a relatively mild illness commonly called traveler’s diarrhea
  
bifurcating at the windpipe
+
* '''[[enterotoxin]]''' toxin that affects the intestines
  
promoters of operons that control the processing of
+
* '''[[Entner-Doudoroff (ED) pathway]]''' alternative glycolytic pathway used by some bacteria
  
* '''[[benzimidazoles]]''' class of antihelminthic drugs that
+
* '''[[enveloped virus]]''' a virus formed with a nucleic-acid packed capsid surrounded by a lipid layer
  
* '''[[bronchioles]]''' smaller air passages within the lung that
+
* '''[[enzyme]]''' catalyst for biochemical reactions inside cells
  
alternative sugars
+
* '''[[enzyme immunoassay (EIA)]]''' type of assay wherein an enzyme is coupled to an antibody; addition of a chromogenic substrate for the antibody allows quantification or identification of the antigen bound by the antibody
  
bind to helminthic β-tubulin, preventing microtubule
+
* '''[[enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)]]''' specialized form of EIA in which either the primary antibody or the antigen is first attached to a solid surface such as the well of a microtiter plate
  
are formed as the bronchi become further subdivided
+
* '''[[eosinophils]]''' leukocytes with granules containing histamine and major basic protein; facilitate allergic responses and protection against parasitic protozoa and helminths
  
formation
+
* '''[[epidemic disease]]''' an illness with a higher-than-expected incidence in a given period within a given population
  
* '''[[catabolism]]''' chemical reactions that break down
+
* '''[[epidemic typhus]]''' severe and sometimes fatal infection caused by Rickettsia prowazekii and transmitted by body lice
  
complex molecules into simpler ones
+
* '''[[epidemiology]]''' the study of where and when infectious diseases occur in a population and how they are transmitted and maintained in nature
  
* '''[[Betaproteobacteria]]''' class of Proteobacteria that are
+
* '''[[epidermis]]''' the outermost layer of human skin
  
* '''[[bronchitis]]''' inflammation of the bronchi
+
* '''[[epididymis]]''' coiled tube that collects sperm from the testes and passes it on to the vas deferens
  
all eutrophs
+
* '''[[epididymitis]]''' inflammation of the epididymis caused by a bacterial infection
  
* '''[[catabolite repression]]''' repression of the transcription
+
* '''[[epigenetic regulation]]''' chemical modification of DNA or associated histones to influence transcription
  
* '''[[brucellosis]]''' zoonotic disease caused by bacteria of
+
* '''[[epiglottis]]''' flap of cartilage that covers the larynx during swallowing; diverts food to the esophagus and prevents it from entering the respiratory tract
  
of operons encoding enzymes for the use of
+
* '''[[epiglottitis]]''' inflammation of the epiglottis
  
* '''[[binary fission]]''' predominant form of bacterial
+
* '''[[epiphyte]]''' a plant that grows on another plant
  
the genus Brucella that results in undulant fever
+
* '''[[epitope]]''' smaller exposed region on an antigen that is recognized by B-cell and T-cell receptors and antibodies
  
substrates other than glucose when glucose levels are
+
* '''[[Epsilonproteobacteria]]''' class of Proteobacteria that are microaerophilic
  
reproduction in which one cell divides into two
+
* '''[[equivalence zone]]''' region where the antibody–antigen ratio produces the greatest amount of precipitin in a precipitin reaction
  
* '''[[bubo]]''' swollen, inflamed lymph node that forms as a
+
* '''[[erysipelas]]''' a skin infection, typically caused by Streptococcus pyogenes, that presents as a red, large, intensely inflamed patch of skin involving the dermis, usually with clear borders, typically on the legs or face
  
high
+
* '''[[erythema nodosum]]''' a condition that causes inflammation in the subcutaneous fat cells of the hypodermis resulting in red nodules
  
daughter cells of equal size, which separate, each
+
* '''[[erythema]]''' redness at the site of inflammation, usually due to dilation of blood vessels in the area to help bring in white blood cells
  
result of a microbial infection
+
* '''[[erythrocyte]]''' red blood cell
  
offspring receiving a complete copy of the parental
+
* '''[[erythrogenic toxin]]''' exotoxin produced by some strains of Streptococcus pyogenes; activity of the toxin can produce the characteristic rash of scarlet fever
  
* '''[[catalase]]''' enzyme that breaks down hydrogen
+
* '''[[erythromycin]]''' protein synthesis inhibitor of the macrolide class that is often used as an alternative to penicillin
  
genome
+
* '''[[eschar]]''' a localized mass of dead skin tissue
  
* '''[[bubonic plague]]''' most common form of plague in
+
* '''[[Etest]]''' simple, rapid method for determining MIC, involving commercially available plastic strips that contain a gradient of an antimicrobial and are placed on an agar plate inoculated with a bacterial lawn
  
peroxide to water and oxygen
+
* '''[[etiologic agent]]''' the pathogen or substance responsible for causing a particular disease; causative agent
  
humans, marked by the presence of swollen lymph
+
* '''[[etiology]]''' the science of the causes of disease
  
* '''[[catalyst]]''' molecule that increases the rate of a
+
* '''[[Eukarya]]''' the domain of life that includes all unicellular and multicellular organisms with cells that contain membrane-bound nuclei and organelles
  
* '''[[binocular]]''' having two eyepieces
+
* '''[[eukaryote]]''' an organism made up of one or more cells that contain a membrane-bound nucleus and organelles
  
nodes (buboes)
+
* '''[[eukaryotic cell]]''' has a nucleus surrounded by a complex nuclear membrane that contains multiple, rod-shaped chromosomes
  
chemical reaction but is not used or changed during
+
* '''[[eustachian tube]]''' small passage between the nasopharynx and the middle ear that allows pressure to equalize across the tympanic membrane
  
* '''[[binomial nomenclature]]''' a universal convention for
+
* '''[[eutrophs]]''' microorganisms that require a copious amount of organic nutrients; also called copiotrophs
  
* '''[[budding]]''' unequal reproductive division in which a
+
* '''[[excystment]]''' the process of emerging from a cyst
  
the chemical reaction and, thus, is reusable
+
* '''[[exergonic reaction]]''' chemical reaction that does not require energy beyond activation energy to proceed; releases energy when the reaction occurs
  
the scientific naming of organisms using Latinized
+
* '''[[exocytosis]]''' the release of the contents of transport vesicles to the cell’s exterior by fusion of the transport vesicle’s membrane with the plasma membrane
  
smaller cell detaches from the parent cell
+
* '''[[exoenzyme]]''' secreted enzyme that enhances the ability of microorganisms to invade host cells
  
* '''[[catarrhal stage]]''' in pertussis, a disease stage marked
+
* '''[[exon]]''' protein-coding sequence of a eukaryotic gene that is transcribed into RNA and spliced together to code for a polypeptide
  
names for genus and species
+
* '''[[exonuclease]]''' enzymatic activity that removes RNA primers in DNA introduced by primase
  
* '''[[budding yeasts]]''' yeasts that divide by budding off of
+
* '''[[exotoxin]]''' biologically active product that causes adverse changes in the host cells
  
by inflammation of the mucous membranes
+
* '''[[experimental epidemiology]]''' the use of laboratory and clinical studies to directly study disease in a population
  
* '''[[biofilm]]''' complex ecosystem of bacteria embedded in
+
* '''[[experimental study]]''' a type of scientific study that involves manipulation of the study subjects by the researcher through application of specific treatments hypothesized to affect the outcome while maintaining rigorously controlled conditions
  
daughter cells
+
* '''[[exposure]]''' contact between potential pathogen and host; also called contamination or contact
  
combined with excessive secretions
+
* '''[[extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs)]]''' β-lactamases carried by some gram-negative bacteria that provide resistance to all penicillins, cephalosporins, monobactams, and β-lactamase-inhibitor combinations, but not carbapenems
  
a matrix
+
* '''[[extensively drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (XDR-TB)]]''' strains of M. tuberculosis that are resistant to rifampin and isoniazid, and also are resistant to any fluoroquinolone and at least one of three other drugs (amikacin, kanamycin, or capreomycin)
  
* '''[[Burkitt lymphoma]]''' disease characterized by rapidly
+
* '''[[extracellular matrix]]''' material composed of proteoglycans and fibrous proteins secreted by some eukaryotic cells that lack cell walls; helps multicellular structures withstand physical stresses and coordinates signaling from the external surface of the cell to the interior of the cell
  
* '''[[cat-scratch disease]]''' bacterial infection of the lymph
+
* '''[[extracellular polymeric substances (EPS)]]''' hydrated gel secreted by bacteria in a biofilm containing polysaccharides, proteins, nucleic acids, and some lipids
  
* '''[[biogeochemical cycle]]''' recycling of inorganic matter
+
* '''[[extrachromosomal DNA]]''' additional molecules of DNA distinct from the chromosomes that are also part of the cell’s genome
  
growing solid tumor; caused by Epstein-Barr virus
+
* '''[[extravasation]]''' process by which leukocytes pass through capillary walls to reach infected tissue; also called diapedesis
  
nodes caused by Bartonella henselae; frequently
+
==F==
  
between living organisms and their nonliving
+
* '''[[F– (recipient) cell]]''' E. coli cell lacking the F plasmid and thus incapable of forming a conjugation pilus but capable of receiving the F plasmid during conjugation
  
(HHV-4)
+
* '''[[F pilus (F pili)]]''' specialized type of pilus that aids in DNA transfer between cells; conjugation pilus of E. coli
  
transmitted via a cat scratch
+
* '''[[F plasmid (fertility factor)]]''' bacterial plasmid in E. coli containing genes encoding the ability to conjugate, including genes encoding the formation of the conjugation pilus
  
environment
+
* '''[[F’ plasmid]]''' integrated F plasmid imprecisely excised from the chromosome; carries with it some chromosomal DNA adjacent to the integration site
  
* '''[[burst]]''' release of new virions by a lysed host cell
+
* '''[[F+ (donor) cell]]''' E. coli cell containing the F plasmid, capable of forming a conjugation pilus
  
* '''[[causative agent]]''' the pathogen or substance
+
* '''[[Fab region]]''' arm of an antibody molecule that includes an antigen-binding site
  
* '''[[bioinformatics]]''' the analysis of large amounts of
+
* '''[[facultative anaerobe]]''' organism that grows better in the presence of oxygen but can proliferate in its absence
  
infected by a virus
+
* '''[[false negative]]''' negative result to a test for an infection or condition (e.g., presence of antigen, antibody, or nucleic acid) when the infection or condition is actually present
  
responsible for causing a particular disease; etiologic
+
* '''[[false positive]]''' positive result to a test for an infection or condition (e.g., presence of antigen, antibody, or nucleic acid) when the infection or condition is actually absent
  
information required for interpretation of these data
+
* '''[[fastidious organism]]''' organism that has extensive growth requirements
  
agent
+
* '''[[fatty acid]]''' lipid that contains long-chain hydrocarbons terminated with a carboxylic acid functional group
  
* '''[[burst size]]''' the number of virions released from a host
+
* '''[[fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analysis]]''' technique in which the microbe’s fatty acids are extracted, converted to volatile methyl esters, and analyzed by gas chromatography, yielding chromatograms that may be compared to reference data for identification purposes
  
* '''[[biological transmission]]''' movement of a pathogen
+
* '''[[Fc region]]''' region on the trunk of an antibody molecule involved in complement activation and opsonization
  
cell when it is lysed because of a viral infection
+
* '''[[feedback inhibition]]''' mechanism of regulating metabolic pathway whereby the product of a metabolic pathway noncompetitively binds to an enzyme early on in the pathway, temporarily preventing the synthesis of the product
  
* '''[[CCA amino acid binding end]]''' region of a mature
+
* '''[[fermentation]]''' process that uses an organic molecule as a final electron acceptor to regenerate NAD+ from NADH such that glycolysis can continue
  
between hosts facilitated by a biological vector in
+
* '''[[fever]]''' system-wide sign of inflammation that raises the body temperature and stimulates the immune response
  
tRNA that binds to an amino acid
+
* '''[[fifth disease]]''' a highly contagious illness, more commonly affecting children, marked by a distinctive “slapped-cheek” rash and caused by parvovirus B19
  
which the pathogen grows and reproduces
+
* '''[[fimbriae]]''' filamentous appendages found by the hundreds on some bacterial cells; they aid adherence to host cells
  
* '''[[celiac disease]]''' disease largely of the small intestine
+
* '''[[fine focusing knob]]''' a knob on a microscope that produces relatively small movements to adjust focus
  
* '''[[biological vector]]''' an animal (typically an arthropod)
+
* '''[[fixation]]''' the process by which cells are killed and attached to a slide
  
caused by an immune response to gluten that results
+
* '''[[flagella]]''' long, rigid, spiral structures used by prokaryotic cells for motility in aqueous environments; composed of a filament made of flagellin, a hook, and motor (basal body) that are attached to the cell envelope
  
that is infected with a pathogen and is capable of
+
* '''[[flagella staining]]''' a staining protocol that uses a mordant to coat the flagella with stain until they are thick enough to be seen
  
in the production of autoantibodies and an
+
* '''[[flagellum (eukaryotic) (plural: flagella)]]''' long, whip-like, filamentous external structure found on some eukaryotic cells; composed of microtubules in a 9+2 arrangement; used for locomotion
  
* '''[[C]]'''
+
* '''[[flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD/FADH2)]]''' oxidized/reduced forms of an electron carrier in cells
  
transmitting the pathogen from one host to another
+
* '''[[flocculant]]''' visible aggregation that forms between a substance in suspension (e.g., lipid in water) and antibodies against the substance
  
inflammatory response
+
* '''[[flow cytometry]]''' technique analyzing cells for fluorescence intensity; specific subsets of cells are usually labeled in some way prior to the analysis
  
* '''[[Calvin-Benson cycle]]''' most common CO2 fixation
+
* '''[[fluconazole]]''' antifungal drug of the imidazole class that is administered orally or intravenously for the treatment of several types of systemic yeast infections
  
* '''[[biomarker]]''' a protein expressed by a cell or tissue
+
* '''[[fluid mosaic model]]''' refers to the ability of membrane components to move fluidly within the plane of the membrane, as well as the mosaic-like composition of the components
  
pathway in most photoautotrophs; involves light-
+
* '''[[flukes]]''' any of the parasitic nonsegmented flatworms (trematodes) that have an oral sucker and sometimes a second ventral sucker; they attach to the inner walls of intestines, lungs, large blood vessels, or the liver in human hosts
  
* '''[[cell envelope]]''' the combination of external cellular
+
* '''[[fluorescence microscope]]''' a microscope that uses natural fluorochromes or fluorescent stains to increase contrast
  
that is indicative of disease
+
* '''[[fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS)]]''' technique for using a flow cytometer to physically separate cells into two populations based on fluorescence intensity
  
independent reactions of photosynthesis that occur in
+
* '''[[fluorescent antibody (FA) techniques]]''' suite of assays that use a fluorescently labeled antibody to bind to and so make an antigen easy to visualize
  
structures (e.g., plasma membrane, cell wall, outer
+
* '''[[fluorescent enzyme immunoassay (FEIA)]]''' EIA in which the substrate is a fluorogen that becomes fluorescent following reaction with the enzyme
  
the cytoplasm of photosynthetic bacteria and in the
+
* '''[[fluorescent]]''' the ability of certain materials to absorb energy and then immediately release that energy in the form of light
  
membrane, glycocalyces) that collectively contain
+
* '''[[fluorochromes]]''' chromophores that fluoresce (absorb and then emit light)
  
* '''[[biomolecule]]''' a molecule that is part of living matter
+
* '''[[fluorogen]]''' nonfluorescent molecule that becomes fluorescent on enzyme or laser activation
  
stroma of eukaryotic chloroplasts
+
* '''[[fluorophore]]''' molecule that fluoresces when excited by light
  
the cytoplasm and internal structures of a cell
+
* '''[[fluoroquinolones]]''' class of synthetic antimicrobials that inhibit the activity of DNA gyrase, preventing DNA replication
  
* '''[[bioremediation]]''' use of microbes to remove
+
* '''[[focal infection]]''' infection in which the pathogen causes infection in one location that then spreads to a secondary location
  
* '''[[Campylobacter jejuni]]''' gastroenteritis]]''' gastroenteritis
+
* '''[[focal length]]''' the distance from the lens to the image point when the object is at a definite distance from the lens (this is also the distance to the focal point)
  
* '''[[cell membrane]]''' lipid bilayer with embedded proteins
+
* '''[[focal point]]''' a property of the lens; the image point when light entering the lens is parallel (i.e., the object is an infinite distance from the lens)
  
xenobiotics or environmental pollutants from a
+
* '''[[foliose lichens]]''' lichens that have lobes that may appear to resemble leaves
  
caused by C. jejuni; generally mild but sometimes
+
* '''[[folliculitis]]''' a skin infection characterized by localized inflammation of hair follicles, typically producing an itchy red rash
  
and carbohydrates that defines the boundary of the
+
* '''[[fomite]]''' inanimate item that may harbor microbes and aid in disease transmission
  
contaminated site
+
* '''[[foodborne disease]]''' disease that is transmitted through contaminated food
  
with serious complications
+
* '''[[fragmentation]]''' newly formed cells split away from the parent filament in actinomycetes and cyanobacteria
  
cell (also called the cytoplasmic membrane or
+
* '''[[frameshift mutation]]''' mutation resulting from either an insertion or a deletion in a number of nucleotides that, if not a multiple of three, changes every amino acid after the mutation
  
plasma membrane)
+
* '''[[free ribosome]]''' eukaryotic 80S ribosome found in the cytoplasm; synthesizes water-soluble proteins
  
* '''[[biosynthesis]]''' replication of viral genome and other
+
* '''[[frequency]]''' the rate of vibration for a light wave or other electromagnetic wave
  
* '''[[candidiasis]]''' fungal infection caused by Candida
+
* '''[[fruticose lichens]]''' lichens that are generally branched with a rounded appearance
  
protein components
+
* '''[[functional groups]]''' specific groups of atoms that may occur within a molecule, conferring specific chemical properties
  
spp., especially C. albicans; can affect various
+
* '''[[fungi]]''' (singular: fungus) any of various unicellular or multicellular eukaryotic organisms, typically having cell walls made out of chitin and lacking photosynthetic pigments, vascular tissues, and organs
  
* '''[[cell morphology]]''' cell shape, structure, and
+
* '''[[fungicide]]''' chemical or physical treatment that kills fungi
  
regions of the body, e.g., skin (cutaneous
+
* '''[[fungistatic]]''' having the ability to inhibit fungal growth, generally by means of chemical or physical treatment
  
arrangement, as viewed microscopically
+
* '''[[furuncle]]''' a small, purulent skin lesion; sometimes called a boil
  
* '''[[biotechnology]]''' the science of using living systems to
+
* '''[[fusion inhibitor]]''' antiviral drug that blocks the fusion of HIV receptors to the coreceptors required for virus entry into the cell, specifically, chemokine receptor type 5
  
benefit humankind
+
{{catz}}
  
candidiasis), oral cavity (oral thrush), or vagina
+
==G==
  
* '''[[cell theory]]''' the theory that all organisms are
+
* '''[[Gammaproteobacteria]]''' class of Proteobacteria that is very diverse and includes a number of human pathogens
  
(yeast infection)
+
* '''[[gas gangrene]]''' rapidly spreading infection of necrotic tissues caused by the gram-positive anaerobe Clostridium perfringensand other Clostridium spp.
  
composed of cells and that the cell is the
+
* '''[[gastritis]]''' inflammation of the lining of the stomach
  
* '''[[bisbiguanide]]''' type of chemical compound with
+
* '''[[gastroenteritis]]''' inflammation of the lining of the stomach and intestine
  
* '''[[candle jar]]''' container with a tight-fitting lid in which
+
* '''[[gene expression]]''' production of proteins from the information contained in DNA through the processes of transcription and translation
  
fundamental unit of life
+
* '''[[gene gun]]''' an apparatus that shoots gold or tungsten particles coated with recombinant DNA molecules at high speeds into plant protoplasts
  
antiseptic properties; disrupts cell membranes at low
+
* '''[[gene silencing]]''' a genetic engineering technique in which researchers prevent the expression of a particular gene by using small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) or microRNAs (miRNAs) to interfere with translation
  
concentrations and causes congealing of intracellular
+
* '''[[gene therapy]]''' a form of treatment for diseases that result from genetic mutations; involves the introduction of nonmutated, functional genes into the genome of the patient, often by way of a viral vector
  
a burning candle consumes oxygen and releases
+
* '''[[generalized transduction]]''' transfer of a random piece of bacterial chromosome DNA by the phage
  
* '''[[cell wall]]''' a structure in the cell envelope of some
+
* '''[[generation time]]''' see doubling time
  
contents at high concentrations
+
* '''[[genes]]''' segments of DNA molecules that code for proteins or stable RNA molecules
  
carbon dioxide, thereby creating an environment
+
* '''[[genetic code]]''' correspondence between mRNA nucleotide codons and the translated amino acids
  
cells that helps the cell maintain its shape and
+
* '''[[genetic engineering]]''' the direct alteration of an organism’s genetics to achieve desirable traits
  
suitable for capnophiles
+
* '''[[genital herpes]]''' an STI caused by the herpes simplex virus
  
withstand changes in osmotic pressure
+
* '''[[genital warts]]''' soft, pink, irregular growths that develop in the external genitalia or anus as a result of human papillomavirus infection
  
* '''[[blastomycosis]]''' fungal disease associated with
+
* '''[[genome]]''' entire genetic content of a cell
  
infections by Blastomyces dermatitidis; can cause
+
* '''[[genomic library]]''' a repository of an organism’s entire genome maintained as cloned fragments in the genomes of strains of a host organism
  
* '''[[capillary]]''' small blood vessel found in the interstitial
+
* '''[[genomics]]''' the study and comparison of entire genomes, including the complete set of genes, their nucleotide sequence and organization, and their interactions within a species and with other species
  
* '''[[cellular immunity]]''' adaptive immunity involving T
+
* '''[[genotype]]''' full collection of genes that a cell contains within its genome
  
disfiguring scarring of the hands and other
+
* '''[[germ theory of disease]]''' the theory that many diseases are the result of microbial infection
  
space of tissue; delivers nutrients and oxygen, and
+
* '''[[germination]]''' process of an endospore returning to the vegetative state
  
cells and the destruction of pathogens and infected
+
* '''[[Ghon complex]]''' calcified lesion containing Mycobacterium tuberculosis; forms in the lungs of patients with tuberculosis
  
extremities
+
* '''[[giardiasis]]''' intestinal infection caused by Giardia lamblia
  
removes waste products
+
* '''[[gingivitis]]''' inflammation of the gums that can cause bleeding
  
cells
+
* '''[[glial cell]]''' assists in the organization of neurons, provides a scaffold for some aspects of neuron function, and aids in recovery from neural injury
  
* '''[[capnophile]]''' organism that requires carbon dioxide
+
* '''[[glomerulonephritis]]''' a type of kidney infection involving the glomeruli of the nephrons
  
* '''[[cellulitis]]''' a subcutaneous skin infection that develops
+
* '''[[glomerulus]]''' capillary bed in the nephron of the kidney that filters blood to form urine
  
* '''[[blepharitis]]''' inflammation of the eyelids
+
* '''[[glycocalyx]]''' cell envelope structure (either capsules or slime layer) outside the cell wall in some bacteria; allows bacteria to adhere to surfaces, aids in biofilm formation, and provides protection from predation
  
levels higher than atmospheric concentration
+
* '''[[glycogen]]''' highly branched storage polysaccharide in animal cells and bacteria
  
in the dermis or hypodermis, resulting in a red,
+
* '''[[glycolipid]]''' complex lipid that contains a carbohydrate moiety
  
* '''[[blocking antibodies]]''' antigen-specific antibodies
+
* '''[[glycolysis]]''' first step in the breakdown of glucose, the most common example of which is the Embden-Meyerhoff-Parnas pathway, producing two pyruvates, two NADH molecules, and two (net yield) ATP per starting glucose molecule
  
* '''[[capsid]]''' protein coat surrounding the genome of the
+
* '''[[glycopeptides]]''' class of antibacterials that inhibit cell wall synthesis by binding to peptidoglycan subunits and blocking their insertion into the cell wall backbone, as well as blocking transpeptidation
  
painful inflammation
+
* '''[[glycoprotein]]''' conjugated protein with a carbohydrate attached
  
(usually of the IgG type) produced via
+
* '''[[glycosidic bond]]''' forms between the hydroxyl groups of two sugar molecules
  
virus
+
* '''[[Golgi apparatus]]''' an organelle of the endomembrane system that is composed of a series of flattened membranous disks, called dictyosomes, each having a single lipid bilayer, that are stacked together; important in the processing of lipids and proteins
  
* '''[[cellulose]]''' a structural polysaccharide composed of
+
* '''[[gonorrhea]]''' a common STI of the reproductive system caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae
  
desensitization therapy
+
* '''[[graft-versus-host disease]]''' specific type of transplantation reaction in which a transplanted immune system (e.g., a bone marrow transplant) contains APCs and T cells that are activated and attack the recipient’s tissue
  
* '''[[capsomere]]''' individual protein subunits that make up
+
* '''[[Gram stain procedure]]''' a differential staining technique that distinguishes bacteria based upon their cell wall structure
  
glucose monomers linked together in a linear chain
+
* '''[[granulocytes]]''' leukocytes found in the peripheral blood that are characterized by numerous granules in the cytoplasm; granulocytes include neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils
  
* '''[[blood-brain barrier]]''' tight cell junctions of the
+
* '''[[granuloma]]''' walled-off area of chronically inflamed tissue containing microbial pathogens, macrophages, and cellular materials unable to be eliminated
  
the capsid
+
* '''[[granulomatous amoebic encephalitis (GAE)]]''' serious brain infection of immunocompromised individuals caused by Acanthamoeba or Balamuthia mandrillaris
  
by glycosidic bonds
+
* '''[[granzymes]]''' proteases released from a natural killer cell that enter the cytoplasm of a target cell, inducing apoptosis
  
endothelia lining the blood vessels that serve the
+
* '''[[Graves disease]]''' hyperthyroidism caused by an autoimmune disease affecting thyroid function
  
central nervous system, preventing passage of
+
* '''[[green nonsulfur bacteria]]''' similar to green sulfur bacteria but use substrates other than sulfides for oxidation
  
* '''[[capsule staining]]''' a negative staining technique that
+
* '''[[green sulfur bacteria]]''' phototrophic, anaerobic bacteria that use sulfide for oxidation and produce large amounts of green bacteriochlorophyll
  
* '''[[Centers for Disease Control and Prevention]]'''
+
* '''[[growth curve]]''' a graph modeling the number of cells in a culture over time
  
stains around a bacterial capsule while leaving the
+
* '''[[guanine]]''' purine nitrogenous base found in nucleotides
  
* '''[[(CDC)]]''' the national public health agency in the
+
* '''[[Guillain-Barré syndrome]]''' an autoimmune disease, often triggered by bacterial and viral infections, characterized by the destruction of myelin sheaths around neurons, resulting in flaccid paralysis
  
microbes from the bloodstream into the brain and
+
* '''[[gummas]]''' granulomatous lesions that develop in tertiary syphilis
  
capsule clear
+
==H==
  
United States
+
* '''[[hair follicle]]''' a structure embedded in the dermis from which hair grows
  
cerebrospinal fluid
+
* '''[[halophile]]''' organism that depends on high concentrations of salt in the environment to grow
  
* '''[[capsule]]''' type of glycocalyx with organized layers of
+
* '''[[halotolerant]]''' organism that grows in the presence of high salt concentration but does not require it
  
* '''[[central dogma]]''' scientific principle explaining the
+
* '''[[Hansen’s Disease]]''' chronic bacterial infection of peripheral nervous tissues caused by the acid-fast bacterium, Mycobacterium leprae; also known as leprosy
  
* '''[[blue-white screening]]''' a technique commonly used
+
* '''[[hantavirus pulmonary syndrome]]''' acute lung infection by a hantavirus following inhalation of aerosols from the urine or feces of infected rodents
  
for identifying transformed bacterial cells containing
+
* '''[[haploid]]''' having one copy of each chromosome
  
polysaccharides that aid in bacterial adherence to
+
* '''[[hapten]]''' a molecule that is too small to be antigenic alone but becomes antigenic when conjugated to a larger protein molecule
  
flow of genetic information from DNA to RNA to
+
* '''[[hard chancre]]''' a generally painless ulcer that develops at the site of infection in primary syphilis
  
recombinant plasmids using lacZ-encoding plasmid
+
* '''[[Hashimoto thyroiditis]]''' hypothyroidism caused by an autoimmune disease affecting thyroid function
  
surfaces and in evading destruction by immune cells
+
* '''[[healthcare-associated infection (HAI)]]''' an infection acquired in a hospital or other health-care facility unrelated to the reason for which the patient was initially admitted; nosocomial infection
  
protein
+
* '''[[heavy chains]]''' longest identical peptide chains in antibody molecules (two per antibody monomer), composed of variable and constant region segments
  
vectors
+
* '''[[helical virus]]''' cylindrical or rod shaped
  
* '''[[carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE)]]'''
+
* '''[[helicase]]''' enzyme that unwinds DNA by breaking the hydrogen bonds between the nitrogenous base pairs, using ATP
  
* '''[[central nervous system (CNS)]]''' portion of the
+
* '''[[helminth]]''' a multicellular parasitic worm
  
* '''[[blunt ends]]''' ends of DNA molecules lacking single-
+
* '''[[helper T cells]]''' class of T cells that is the central orchestrator of the cellular and humoral defenses of adaptive immunity and the cellular defenses of innate immunity
  
group of bacteria that have developed resistance to
+
* '''[[hemagglutination]]''' visible clumping of red blood cells that can be caused by some viruses, bacteria, and certain diseases in which antibodies are produced that bind to self-red blood cells
  
nervous system made up of the brain and spinal cord
+
* '''[[hematopoiesis]]''' formation, development, and differentiation of blood cells from pluripotent hematopoietic stem cells
  
stranded complementary overhangs that are
+
* '''[[hematuria]]''' condition in which there is blood in the urine
  
all β-lactams, including carbapenems, and many
+
* '''[[hemolysin]]''' class of exotoxin that targets and lyses red blood cells, as well as other cells
  
* '''[[central tolerance]]''' negative selection of self-reactive
+
* '''[[hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN)]]''' type II hypersensitivity reaction that occurs when maternal anti-Rh antibodies cross the placenta and target fetal Rh+ red blood cells for lysis
  
produced when some restriction enzymes cut DNA
+
* '''[[hemolytic transfusion reaction (HTR)]]''' condition resulting after an incompatible blood transfusion; caused by type II hypersensitivity reaction and destruction of red blood cells
  
other drug classes
+
* '''[[hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome]]''' serious hemorrhagic fever caused by hantavirus infection
  
T cells in thymus
+
* '''[[HEPA filter]]''' high-efficiency particulate air filter with an effective pore size that captures bacterial cells, endospores, and viruses as air passes through, removing them from the air
  
* '''[[botulism]]''' form of flaccid paraylsis caused by the
+
* '''[[hepatitis]]''' inflammation of the liver
  
* '''[[carbohydrate]]''' the most abundant type of
+
* '''[[herd immunity]]''' a reduction in disease prevalence brought about when few individuals in a population are susceptible to an infectious agent
  
* '''[[centriole]]''' a component of a centrosome with the
+
* '''[[herpes keratitis]]''' eye infection caused by herpes simplex virus
  
ingestion of a neurotoxin produced by Clostridium
+
* '''[[herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2)]]''' the type of herpesvirus most commonly associated with genital herpes
  
biomolecule, consisting of carbon, hydrogen, and
+
* '''[[herpetic gingivostomatitis]]''' inflammation of the mouth and gums often caused by the HSV-1 virus
  
structural array of nine parallel microtubules
+
* '''[[heterolactic fermentation]]''' process producing a mixture of lactic acid, ethanol and/or acetic acid, and CO2 as fermentation products; the microbes that do this use pentose phosphate pathway glycolysis, which is why they generate multiple fermentation products
  
botulinum
+
* '''[[heterotroph]]''' organism that uses fixed organic carbon compounds as its carbon source
  
oxygen
+
* '''[[hexose monophosphate shunt]]''' see pentose phosphate pathway
  
arranged in triplets; involved in eukaryotic cell
+
* '''[[Hfr cell]]''' E. coli cell in which an F plasmid has integrated into the host cell’s chromosome
  
* '''[[bradykinin]]''' activated form of a proinflammatory
+
* '''[[high G+C gram-positive bacteria]]''' bacteria that have more than 50% guanine and cytosine nucleotides in their DNA
  
* '''[[carbon skeleton]]''' chain of carbon atoms to which one
+
* '''[[high-energy phosphate bond]]''' bond between the negatively charged phosphate groups that holds a lot of potential energy
  
division
+
* '''[[histamine]]''' proinflammatory molecule released by basophils and mast cells in response to stimulation by other cytokines and chemical mediators
  
molecule induced in the presence of invader
+
* '''[[histones]]''' DNA-binding proteins found in eukaryotes and archaea that aid in orderly packaging of chromosomal DNA
  
or more functional groups are bound
+
* '''[[histoplasmosis]]''' fungal disease caused by the dimorphic fungus Histoplasma capsulatum
  
* '''[[centrosome]]''' a microtubule-organizing center for the
+
* '''[[holoenzyme]]''' enzyme with a bound cofactor or coenzyme
  
microbes; opens gaps between cells in blood vessels,
+
* '''[[holozoic]]''' refers to protozoans that consume food particles through phagoctytosis
  
* '''[[carboxysome]]''' an inclusion composed of an outer
+
* '''[[homolactic fermentation]]''' process producing only lactic acid as a fermentation product; the microbes that do this use Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas glycolysis
  
mitotic spindle found in animal cells; it separates
+
* '''[[hookworm infection]]''' soil-transmitted intestinal infection caused by the nematodes Necator americanus and Ancylostoma doudenale
  
allowing fluid and cells to leak into surrounding
+
* '''[[horizontal direct transmission]]''' movement of a pathogen from one host to another (excluding mother to embryo, fetus, or infant) in a population through physical contact or through droplet transmission
  
shell of thousands of protein subunits. Its interior is
+
* '''[[horizontal gene transfer]]''' introduction of genetic material from one organism to another organism within the same generation
  
chromosomes during cell division and is composed
+
* '''[[host range]]''' the types of host cells that a particular virus is able to infect
  
tissue
+
* '''[[HTST]]''' high-temperature short-time pasteurization is a method of pasteurization commonly used for milk in which the milk is exposed to a temperature of 72 °C for 15 seconds
  
filled with ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/
+
* '''[[human African trypanosomiasis]]''' serious infection caused by Trypanosoma brucei and spread by the bite of the tsetse fly
  
of a pair of centrioles positioned at right angles to
+
* '''[[human granulocytic anaplasmosis]]''' zoonotic tickborne disease caused by the obligate intracellular pathogen Anaplasma phagocytophilum
  
* '''[[bridge reaction]]''' reaction linking glycolysis to the
+
* '''[[human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)]]''' retrovirus responsible for acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) in humans
  
oxygenase (RuBisCO) and carbonic anhydrase,
+
* '''[[human papillomavirus (HPV)]]''' a group of common sexually transmitted viruses that may be associated with genital warts or with cervical cancer
  
each other
+
* '''[[humanized monoclonal antibodies]]''' chimeric antibodies with mouse variable regions and human constant regions
  
Krebs cycle during which each pyruvate is
+
* '''[[humoral immunity]]''' adaptive immunity mediated by antibodies produced by B cells
  
which are both used for carbon metabolism
+
* '''[[hyaluronidase]]''' enzyme produced by pathogens that degrades hyaluronic acid between adjacent cells in connective tissue
  
* '''[[cephalosporins]]''' a group of cell wall synthesis
+
* '''[[hybridization]]''' the joining of two complementary single-stranded DNA molecules
  
decarboxylated and oxidized (forming NADH), and
+
* '''[[hybridoma]]''' clones of cell produced by fusing a normal B cell with a myeloma cell that is capable of producing monoclonal antibodies indefinitely
  
* '''[[carbuncle]]''' abscess containing a large, deep, purulent
+
* '''[[hydatid disease]]''' cystic echinococcosis, an infection caused by the tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus
  
inhibitors within the class of β-lactams
+
* '''[[hydrophilic]]''' “water loving”; refers to a polar molecule or portion of a molecule capable of strong attraction to water molecules
  
the resulting two-carbon acetyl group is attached to a
+
* '''[[hydrophobic]]''' “water fearing”; refers to a nonpolar molecule or portion of a molecule not capable of strong attraction to water molecules
  
skin lesion
+
* '''[[hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP)]]''' type III and IV hypersensitivities in the lungs that are caused by environmental or occupational exposure to allergens such as mold and dust
  
* '''[[cercarial dermatitis]]''' inflammation of the skin
+
* '''[[hypersensitivity]]''' potentially damaging immune response against an antigen
  
large carrier called coenzyme A, resulting in the
+
* '''[[hyperthermophile]]''' a microorganism that has an optimum growth temperature close to the temperature of boiling water
  
caused by a reaction to cercaria of Schistosoma spp.,
+
* '''[[hypertonic medium]]''' an environment in which the solute concentration outside a cell exceeds that inside the cell, causing water molecules to move out of the cell, resulting in crenation (shriveling) or plasmolysis.
  
formation of acetyl-CoA and CO; also called the
+
* '''[[hyphae]]''' tubular, filamentous structures that makes up most fungi
  
* '''[[carcinogen]]''' agent that causes cancer
+
* '''[[hypodermis]]''' the layer of tissue under the dermis, consisting primarily of fibrous and adipose connective tissue
  
which can penetrate the skin and blood vessels; also
+
* '''[[hypotonic medium]]''' an environment in which the solute concentration inside a cell exceeds that outside the cell, causing water molecules to move into the cell, possibly leading to swelling and possibly lysis
  
transition reaction
+
{{catz}}
  
called swimmer’s itch or clam digger’s itch
+
==I==
  
1254
+
* '''[[iatrogenic disease]]''' disease caused by or acquired during a medical procedure
  
Appendix E
+
* '''[[icosahedral]]''' three-dimensional, 20-sided structure with 12 vertices
  
* '''[[cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)]]''' sterile liquid produced in
+
* '''[[IgA]]''' antibody dimer primarily found in breast milk, mucus, saliva, and tears
  
* '''[[complement fixation test]]''' test for antibodies against
+
* '''[[IgD]]''' membrane-body antibody monomer functioning as receptor on the surface of B cells
  
* '''[[cisternae]]''' the sacs of the endoplasmic reticulum
+
* '''[[IgE]]''' antibody monomer involved in defense against parasites and allergic reactions
  
the brain that fills the subarachnoid space of the
+
* '''[[IgG]]''' antibody monomer most abundant in serum; able to cross placenta; most versatile class of antibody in terms of function
  
a specific pathogen using complement-mediated
+
* '''[[IgM]]''' antibody that is a monomer when functioning as a receptor on surface of B cells but a pentamer when secreted in response to specific pathogens; first antibody to respond during primary and secondary responses
  
brain and spinal column
+
* '''[[illuminator]]''' the light source on a microscope
  
hemolysis
+
* '''[[image point (focus)]]''' a property of the lens and the distance of the object to the lens; the point at which an image is in focus (the image point is often called the focus)
  
* '''[[citric acid cycle]]''' see Krebs cycle
+
* '''[[imidazoles]]''' class of antifungal drugs that inhibit ergosterol biosynthesis
  
* '''[[cervix]]''' the part of the uterus that connects to the
+
* '''[[immune complex]]''' large group of antigens bound by antibodies; large enough to settle out of fluid suspension
  
* '''[[complement system]]''' series of proteins that can
+
* '''[[immunochromatographic assay]]''' assay in which fluids are pulled through test strips by capillary action and antigen captured by mobile antibody-colored bead conjugates; a second, fixed antibody localizes the colored bead, allowing visualization
  
* '''[[class switching]]''' genetic rearrangement of constant
+
* '''[[immunocytochemistry (ICC)]]''' staining technique in which cells are fixed and holes dissolved in the membrane to allow passage of labeled antibodies to bind specific intracellular targets
  
vagina
+
* '''[[immunoelectrophoresis (IEP)]]''' assay following protein electrophoresis (PAGE) of serum, in which antisera against specific serum proteins are added to troughs cut parallel to the electrophoresis track, causing the formation of precipitin arcs
  
become activated in the presence of invading
+
* '''[[immunofiltration]]''' technique in which antibody or antigen can be concentrated by passing fluids through porous membranes, and target molecules are captured as they pass
  
region gene segments in plasma cells to switch
+
* '''[[immunofluorescence]]''' a technique that uses a fluorescence microscope and antibody-specific fluorochromes to determine the presence of specific pathogens in a specimen
  
microbes, resulting in opsonization, inflammation,
+
* '''[[immunoglobulin]]''' antibody
  
* '''[[CFB group]]''' phylum consisting of the gram-negative,
+
* '''[[immunohistochemistry (IHC)]]''' staining technique in which labeled antibodies are bound to specific cells in a tissue section
  
antibody production from IgM to IgG, IgA, or IgE
+
* '''[[immunology]]''' the study of the immune system
  
and lysis of pathogens
+
* '''[[immunostain]]''' use of EIA technology to deliver stain to particular cells in a tissue (immunohistochemistry) or specific targets within a cell (immunocytochemistry)
  
rod-shaped nonproteobacteria genera Cytophaga,
+
* '''[[impetigo]]''' a skin infection that may result in vesicles, blisters, or bullae especially around the mouth, commonly caused by Staphylococcus aureus, S. pyogenes, or a combination of both S. aureus and S. pyogenes
  
* '''[[clindamycin]]''' semisynthetic protein synthesis
+
* '''[[in vitro]]''' outside the organism in a test tube or artificial environment
  
Fusobacterium, and Bacteroides
+
* '''[[in vivo]]''' inside the organism
  
* '''[[complementary base pairs]]''' base pairing due to
+
* '''[[inactivated vaccine]]''' vaccine composed of whole pathogen cells or viruses that have been killed or inactivated through treatment with heat, radiation, or chemicals
  
inhibitor of the lincosamide class that binds to the
+
* '''[[incidence]]''' the number of individuals with new infections of a particular disease in a given period of time
  
hydrogen bonding that occurs between a specific
+
* '''[[inclusion conjunctivitis]]''' inflammation of the conjunctiva in newborns caused by Chlamydia trachomatis transmitted during childbirth
  
* '''[[Chagas disease]]''' potentially fatal protozoan infection
+
* '''[[inclusions]]''' prokaryotic cell cytoplasmic structures for storing specific nutrients and other resources needed by cells
  
50S subunit, inhibiting peptide bond formation
+
* '''[[incubation period]]''' the first stage of acute disease, during which the pathogen begins multiplying in the host and signs and symptoms are not observable
  
purine and a specific pyrimidine; A bonds with T (in
+
* '''[[indirect agglutination assay]]''' assay that can be used to detect the agglutination of small latex beads; beads may be coated with antigen when looking for the presence of specific antibodies, or with antibody when looking for the presence of antigen
  
caused by Trypanosoma cruzi and endemic to
+
* '''[[indirect antiglobulin test (IAT)]]''' see indirect Coombs’ test
  
DNA), and C bonds with G
+
* '''[[indirect contact transmission]]''' transfer of an infectious agent between hosts through contact with a fomite
  
Central and South America; transmitted by the
+
* '''[[indirect Coombs’ test]]''' assay, performed in vitro prior to blood transfusions, that looks for antibodies against red blood cell antigens (other than the A and B antigens) that are unbound in a patient’s serum
  
* '''[[clone]]''' a genetically identical cell or individual
+
* '''[[indirect ELISA]]''' EIA in which an antigen from a pathogen is first attached to the wells of a microtiter plate; the antigen then captures antibodies from patient serum to determine whether the patient currently has or previosly had the disease
  
triatomine bug (kissing bug)
+
* '''[[indirect fluorescent antibody test]]''' assay for antigen-specific antibodies wherein the antigen captures the antibody, which is subsequently detected using a labeled anti-immunoglobulin mAb
  
* '''[[complementary DNA (cDNA)]]''' a DNA molecule
+
* '''[[induced mutation]]''' mutation caused by a mutagen
  
* '''[[Clostridium perfringens]]''' gastroenteritis]]''' relatively
+
* '''[[inducer]]''' small molecule that either activates or represses transcription
  
complementary to mRNA that is made through the
+
* '''[[inducible operon]]''' bacterial operon, typically containing genes encoding enzymes in a degradative pathway, whose expression is induced by the substrate to be degraded when the substrate is available for the cell to use, but that is otherwise repressed in the absence of the substrate
  
* '''[[chancroid]]''' an STI caused by Haemophilus ducreyi
+
* '''[[induction]]''' prophage DNA is excised from the bacterial genome
  
mild gastrointestinal illness caused by C. perfringens
+
* '''[[infection]]''' the successful colonization of a microorganism within a host
  
activity of reverse transcriptase
+
* '''[[infectious arthritis (septic arthritis)]]''' inflammation of joint tissues in response to a microbial infection
  
that produces soft chancres on genitals
+
* '''[[infectious disease]]''' disease caused by a pathogen
  
* '''[[clusters of differentiation (CD)]]''' cell-surface
+
* '''[[infectious mononucleosis]]''' common and mild infection caused by Epstein-Barr virus (HHV-4) or cytomegalovirus (HHV-5); transmitted by direct contact with body fluids such as saliva
  
* '''[[complex media]]''' media that contain extracts of
+
* '''[[inflammation]]''' innate nonspecific immune response characterized by erythema, edema, heat, pain, and altered function, typically at the site of injury or infection but sometimes becoming systemic.
  
* '''[[charged tRNA]]''' activated tRNA molecule carrying
+
* '''[[influenza]]''' highly contagious and acute viral disease of the respiratory tract caused by the influenza virus
  
glycoproteins that serve to identify and distinguish
+
* '''[[initiation factors]]''' proteins that participate in ribosome assembly during initiation
  
animals and plants that are not chemically defined
+
* '''[[initiation of DNA replication]]''' stage of replication during which various proteins bind to the origin of replication to begin the replication process
  
its cognate amino acid
+
* '''[[initiation of transcription]]''' stage of transcription during which RNA polymerase binds to a promoter and transcription begins
  
white blood cells
+
* '''[[initiation of translation]]''' stage of translation during which an initiation complex composed of the small ribosomal subunit, the mRNA template, initiation factors, GTP, and a special initiator tRNA forms, and the large ribosomal subunit then binds to the initiation complex
  
* '''[[complex virus]]''' virus shape that often includes
+
* '''[[inoculum]]''' small number of cells added to medium to start a culture
  
* '''[[chemical mediators]]''' chemicals or enzymes
+
* '''[[inorganic phosphate (Pi)]]''' single phosphate group in solution
  
* '''[[coagulase]]''' enzyme that causes the activation of
+
* '''[[insertion]]''' type of mutation involving the addition of one or more bases into a DNA sequence
  
intricate characteristics not seen in the other
+
* '''[[integrase inhibitors]]''' antiviral drugs that block the activity of the HIV integrase responsible for recombination of a DNA copy of the viral genome into the host cell chromosome
  
produced by a variety of cells; provide nonspecific
+
* '''[[intercalating agent]]''' molecule that slides between the stacked nitrogenous bases of the DNA double helix, potentially resulting in a frameshift mutation
  
fibrinogen to form fibrin, promoting clotting of the
+
* '''[[interference]]''' distortion of a light wave due to interaction with another wave
  
categories of capsid
+
* '''[[interferons]]''' cytokines released by cells that have been infected with a virus; stimulate antiviral responses in nearby cells as well as the cells secreting the interferons
  
antimicrobial defense mechanisms
+
* '''[[interleukins]]''' cytokines largely produced by immune system cells that help coordinate efforts against invading pathogens
  
blood
+
* '''[[intermediate filament]]''' one of a diverse group of cytoskeletal fibers that act as cables within the cell and anchor the nucleus, comprise the nuclear lamina, or contribute to the formation of desmosomes
  
* '''[[compound microscope]]''' a microscope that uses
+
* '''[[intermediate host]]''' a host in which a parasite goes through some stages of its life cycle before migrating to the definitive host
  
* '''[[chemically defined media]]''' media in which all
+
* '''[[intermittent common source spread]]''' a mode of disease transmission in which every infection originates from the same source and that source produces infections for a period before stopping and then starting again
  
* '''[[coarse focusing knob]]''' a knob on a microscope that
+
* '''[[intertrigo]]''' a rash that occurs in a skin fold
  
multiple lenses to focus light from the specimen
+
* '''[[intestinal fluke]]''' a trematode worm that infects the intestine, often caused by Fasciolopsis buski
  
components are chemically defined
+
* '''[[intracellular targeting toxin]]''' see A-B exotoxin
  
produces relatively large movements to adjust focus
+
* '''[[intrinsic growth rate]]''' genetically determined generation time under specific conditions for a bacterial strain
  
* '''[[condenser lens]]''' a lens on a microscope that focuses
+
* '''[[intron]]''' intervening sequence of a eukaryotic gene that does not code for protein and whose corresponding RNA sequences are removed from the primary transcript during splicing
  
* '''[[chemiosmosis]]''' flow of hydrogen ions across the
+
* '''[[intubation]]''' placement of a tube into the trachea, generally to open the airway or to administer drugs or oxygen
  
* '''[[coccidioidomycosis]]''' disease caused by the highly
+
* '''[[in-use test]]''' a technique for monitoring the correct use of disinfectants in a clinical setting; involves placing used, diluted disinfectant onto an agar plate to see if microbial colonies will grow
  
light from the light source onto the specimen
+
* '''[[invasion]]''' dissemination of a pathogen through local tissues or throughout the body
  
membrane through ATP synthase
+
* '''[[iodophor]]''' compound in which iodine is complexed to an organic molecule, increasing the stability and efficacy of iodine as a disinfectant
  
infectious fungal pathogen Coccidioides immitis and
+
* '''[[ionizing radiation]]''' high-energy form of radiation that is able to penetrate surfaces and sterilize materials by damaging microbial cell components and DNA
  
related species
+
* '''[[ischemia]]''' condition marked by the inadequate flow of blood to the tissues
  
* '''[[conditional mutation]]''' mutant form of a gene whose
+
* '''[[isograft]]''' tissue grafted from one monozygotic twin to another
  
* '''[[chemokines]]''' chemotactic cytokines that recruit
+
* '''[[isohemagglutinins]]''' IgM class antibodies produced against A or B red blood cell antigens
  
mutant phenotype is expressed only under certain
+
* '''[[isomers]]''' molecules that have the same atomic makeup but differ in the structural arrangement of the atoms
  
specific subsets of leukocytes to infections, damaged
+
* '''[[isoniazid]]''' antimetabolite that inhibits biosynthesis of mycolic acid; used for the treatment of mycobacterial infections
  
* '''[[codon]]''' three-nucleotide sequence within mRNA that
+
* '''[[isoprenoid]]''' branched lipid derived from five-carbon isoprene molecules
  
environmental conditions
+
* '''[[isotonic medium]]''' a solution in which the solute concentrations inside and outside the cell are approximately equal, thereby creating no net movement of water molecules across the cell membrane
  
tissue, and sites of inflammation
+
* '''[[ivermectin]]''' antihelminthic drug of the avermectin class that binds to invertebrate glutamate-gated chloride channels to block neuronal transmission in helminths
  
specifies a particular amino acid to be incorporated
+
==J==
  
into the polypeptide being synthesized
+
* '''[[Japanese encephalitis]]''' arboviral disease caused by the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) and endemic to Asia
  
* '''[[confocal microscope]]''' a scanning laser microscope
+
* '''[[jaundice]]''' yellowish color of the skin and mucous membranes caused by excessive bilirubin caused by a failure of the liver to effectively process the breakdown of hemoglobin
  
* '''[[chemotaxis]]''' directional movement of a cell in
+
==K==
  
that uses fluorescent dyes and excitation lasers to
+
* '''[[keratin]]''' a fibrous protein found in hair, nails, and skin
  
response to a chemical attractant
+
* '''[[keratitis]]''' inflammation of the cornea
  
* '''[[coenocyte]]''' multinucleated eukaryotic cell that forms
+
* '''[[keratoconjunctivitis]]''' inflammation of both the cornea and the conjunctiva
  
create three-dimensional images
+
* '''[[kidney]]''' organ that filters the blood, producing urine
  
as a result of multiple rounds of nuclear division
+
* '''[[Kinyoun technique]]''' a method of acid-fast staining that does not use heat to infuse the primary stain, carbolfuchsin, into acid-fast cells
  
* '''[[chemotroph]]''' organism that gets its energy from the
+
* '''[[Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion test]]''' simple, rapid method for determining susceptibility and resistance of a bacterial pathogen to antibacterial drugs. The test involves drug-impregnated disks placed on an agar plate inoculated with a bacterial lawn.
  
without the accompanying division of the plasma
+
* '''[[Koplik’s spots]]''' white spots that form on the inner lining of the cheek of patients with measles
  
* '''[[conidia]]''' asexual fungal spores not enclosed in a sac;
+
* '''[[Krebs cycle]]''' cyclic pathway during which each two-carbon unit entering the cycle is further oxidized, producing three NADH, one FADH2, and one ATP by substrate-level phosphorylation, releasing two CO2 molecules and regenerating the molecule used in the first step; also called the citric acid cycle or the tricarboxylic acid cycle
  
transfer of electrons originating from chemical
+
* '''[[kuru]]''' rare form of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy endemic to Papua New Guinea
  
membrane
+
{{catz}}
  
produced in a chain at the end of specialized hyphae
+
==L==
  
compounds
+
* '''[[lacrimal duct]]''' connects the lacrimal gland to the lacrimal sac
  
called conidiophores
+
* '''[[lacrimal gland]]''' a gland situated above the eye that secretes tears
  
* '''[[coenocytic hyphae]]''' nonseptate hyphae that are
+
* '''[[lacrimal punctum]]''' opening in each upper and lower eyelid
  
* '''[[chickenpox]]''' common childhood disease caused by
+
* '''[[lacrimal sac]]''' a to a reservoir for tears; also known as the dacrocyst or tear sac
  
multinucleate and lack cell walls or membranes
+
* '''[[lag period]]''' the time between antigen exposure and production of antibodies
  
* '''[[conjugate vaccine]]''' a vaccine consisting of a
+
* '''[[lag phase]]''' interval before exponential growth of a microbial population during which cells adjust to a new environment
  
the varicella-zoster virus and marked by the
+
* '''[[lagging strand]]''' strand of DNA made discontinuously by DNA polymerase
  
between cells; characteristic of some fungi
+
* '''[[laryngitis]]''' inflammation of the larynx
  
polysaccharide antigen conjugated to a protein to
+
* '''[[laryngopharynx]]''' lower portion of the pharynx that connects to the larynx
  
formation of pustular lesions on the trunk
+
* '''[[larynx]]''' region of the respiratory tract containing the vocal cords; also referred to as the voice box
  
enhance immune response to the polysaccharide;
+
* '''[[latent disease]]''' disease that goes into a dormant nonreplicative state after the acute disease and can persist in this state for years, with the risk of reactivation back into acute disease
  
* '''[[coenzyme]]''' organic molecule required for proper
+
* '''[[latent virus]]''' virus that remains dormant in the host genome
  
* '''[[chikungunya fever]]''' mosquito-borne viral disease
+
* '''[[lateral flow test]]''' see immunochromatographic assays
  
conjugate vaccines are important for young children
+
* '''[[leading strand]]''' strand of DNA made continuously in the 5’ to 3’ direction by DNA polymerase
  
enzyme function that is not consumed and is
+
* '''[[Legionnaires disease]]''' atypical pneumonia occurring in older individuals; caused by the inhalation of Legionella pneumophilaaerosolized in water
  
caused by the chikungunya virus and characterized
+
* '''[[leishmaniasis]]''' protozoan infection caused by Leishmania spp. and transmitted by sand flies
  
who do not respond well to polysaccharide antigens
+
* '''[[leprosy]]''' see Hansen’s disease
  
reusable
+
* '''[[leptospirosis]]''' bacterial infection of the kidney caused by Leptospira spp.; may spread to the liver, lungs, brain, and other organs
  
by high fever, joint pain, rash, and blisters
+
* '''[[leukocidin]]''' class of exotoxin that targets and lyses leukocytes
  
* '''[[conjugated protein]]''' protein carrying a
+
* '''[[leukocytes]]''' white blood cells of various types, including granulocytes, lymphocytes, and monocytes
  
* '''[[cofactor]]''' inorganic ion that helps stabilize enzyme
+
* '''[[leukotrienes]]''' lipid-based chemical mediators produced by leukocytes and other tissue cells; promote inflammation and allergic responses
  
* '''[[chirality]]''' property of stereoisomer molecules by
+
* '''[[lichen]]''' symbiotic association of a fungus with an algae or cyanobacterium
  
nonpolypeptidic portion
+
* '''[[ligation]]''' repair of the sugar-phosphate backbone of the DNA, making the DNA molecule continuous
  
conformation and function
+
* '''[[light chains]]''' the shorter identical peptide chains of an antibody molecule (two per antibody monomer), composed of variable and constant region segments
  
which their structures are nonsuperimposable mirror-
+
* '''[[light-dependent reaction]]''' process by which energy from sunlight is absorbed by pigment molecules in photosynthetic membranes and converted into stored chemical energy in the forms of ATP and NADPH
  
* '''[[conjugation]]''' mechanism of horizontal gene transfer
+
* '''[[light-harvesting complex]]''' group of multiple proteins and associated pigments that each may absorb light energy to become excited, and transfer this energy from one pigment molecule to another until the energy is delivered to a reaction center pigment
  
images
+
* '''[[light-independent reaction]]''' process by which chemical energy, in the form of ATP and NADPH produced by the light-dependent reactions, is used to fix inorganic CO2 into organic sugar; usually referred to as the Calvin-Benson cycle
  
* '''[[cognate amino acid]]''' amino acid added to a specific
+
* '''[[lincomycin]]''' naturally produced protein synthesis inhibitor of the lincosamide class that binds to the 50S subunit, inhibiting peptide bond formation
  
in bacteria in which DNA is directly transferred from
+
* '''[[lincosamides]]''' class of protein synthesis inhibitors that are similar to macrolides
  
tRNA molecule that correctly corresponds to the
+
* '''[[linked recognition]]''' a mechanism whereby a B cell and the helper T cell with which it interacts recognize the same antigen
  
* '''[[chitin]]''' polysaccharide that is an important
+
* '''[[lipase]]''' extracellular enzyme that degrades triglycerides
  
one bacterial cell to another by a conjugation pilus
+
* '''[[lipid bilayer]]''' biological membranes composed of two layers of phospholipid molecules with the nonpolar tails associating to form a hydrophobic barrier between the polar heads; also called unit membrane
  
tRNA’s anticodon and, hence, the mRNA’s codon,
+
* '''[[lipid]]''' macromolecule composed primarily of carbon and hydrogen; source of nutrients for organisms, a storage form for carbon and energy, a part of the structure of membranes, and may function as hormones, pharmaceuticals, fragrances, and pigments
  
component of fungal cell walls
+
* '''[[lipopolysaccharide (LPS)]]''' lipid molecules with attached sugars that are found as components of gram-negative outer membranes
  
reflecting the genetic code
+
* '''[[lipoprotein]]''' conjugated protein attached to a lipid
  
* '''[[conjugation pilus (sex pilus)]]''' hollow tube composed
+
* '''[[listeriosis]]''' bacterial disease caused from the ingestion of the microbe Listeria monocytogenes
  
* '''[[chlamydia]]''' a common STI caused by Chlamydia
+
* '''[[lithotroph]]''' chemotroph that uses inorganic chemicals as its electron source; also known as chemoautotroph
  
of protein encoded by the conjugation plasmid that
+
* '''[[live attenuated vaccine]]''' vaccine with live pathogen that has been attenuated to become less virulent in order to produce an active but subclinical infection
  
* '''[[cohort method]]''' a method used in observational
+
* '''[[liver fluke]]''' a trematode worm that affects the bile duct of the liver, including Fasciola hepatica and F. gigantica
  
trachomatis
+
* '''[[local infection]]''' infection in one limited area
  
brings two bacterial cells into contact with each
+
* '''[[log phase]]''' interval of growth when cells divide exponentially; also known as the exponential growth phase
  
studies in which a group of individuals is followed
+
* '''[[loiasis]]''' a disease caused by the parasitic Loa loa worm, which is transmitted by deerflies; adult worms live in the subcutaneous tissue and cause inflammation, swelling, and eye pain as they migrate through the skin and the conjunctiva of the eye
  
other for the process of conjugation
+
* '''[[lophotrichous]]''' having a single tuft of flagella located at one end of a bacterial cell
  
* '''[[chloramphenicol]]''' protein synthesis inhibitor with
+
* '''[[low G+C gram-positive bacteria]]''' bacteria that have less than 50% of guanine and cytosine nucleotides in their DNA
  
over time and factors potentially important in the
+
* '''[[lumen]]''' space inside the cisternae of the endoplasmic reticulum in eukaryotic cells
  
broad-spectrum activity that binds to the 50S
+
* '''[[Lyme disease]]''' tickborne disease caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi
  
development of disease are evaluated
+
* '''[[lymph nodes]]''' bean-shaped organs situated throughout the body that contain areas called germinal centers, which are rich in B and T lymphocytes; also contain macrophages and dendritic cells for antigen presentation
  
* '''[[conjunctiva]]''' the mucous membranes covering the
+
* '''[[lymphadenitis]]''' inflammation of the lymph nodes
  
subunit, inhibiting peptide bond formation
+
* '''[[lymphangitis]]''' inflammation of the lymphatic vessels
  
eyeball and inner eyelid
+
* '''[[lymphogranuloma venereum]]''' infection caused by Chlamydia trachomatis in tropical regions
  
* '''[[colistin]]''' membrane-active polymyxin that was
+
* '''[[lyophilization]]''' rapid freezing, followed by placement under a vacuum, of a material so that water is lost by sublimation, thereby inhibiting microbial growth
  
* '''[[chlorophyll]]''' a type of photosynthetic pigment found
+
* '''[[lysis]]''' destruction of the host cell
  
historically used for bowel decontamination but now
+
* '''[[lysogen]]''' bacterium carrying the prophage
  
* '''[[conjunctivitis]]''' inflammation of the conjunctiva, the
+
* '''[[lysogenic conversion (phage conversion)]]''' alteration of host characteristics or phenotypes due to the presence of phage
  
in some prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells
+
* '''[[lysogenic cycle]]''' life cycle of some phages in which the genome of the infecting phage is integrated into the bacterial chromosome and replicated during bacterial reproduction until it excises and enters a lytic phase of the life cycle
  
used for systemic infections with drug-resistant
+
* '''[[lysogeny]]''' process of integrating the phage into the host genome
  
mucous membrane covering the eye and inside of the
+
* '''[[lysosome]]''' an organelle of the endomembrane system that contains digestive enzymes that break down engulfed material such as foodstuffs, infectious particles, or damaged cellular components
  
pathogens
+
* '''[[lytic cycle]]''' infection process that leads to the lysis of host cells
  
eyelid
+
==M==
  
* '''[[chloroplast]]''' organelle found in plant and algal cells
+
* '''[[M protein]]''' a streptococcal cell wall protein that protects the bacteria from being phagocytized. It is associated with virulence and stimulates a strong immune response
  
in which photosynthesis occurs
+
* '''[[macrolides]]''' class of protein synthesis inhibitors containing a large, complex ring structure that binds to the 50S subunit, inhibiting peptide bond formation
  
* '''[[constitutively expressed]]''' describes genes that are
+
* '''[[macromolecule]]''' polymer assembled from of individual units, monomers, that bind together like building blocks
  
* '''[[colitis]]''' inflammation of the large intestine
+
* '''[[macronucleus]]''' larger nucleus in ciliate protists that have two nuclei; polyploid with a reduced genome of metabolic genes and derived from the micronucleus
  
transcribed and translated continuously to provide
+
* '''[[macronutrient]]''' element required in abundance in cells; account for approximately 99% of the cell’s dry weight
  
* '''[[cholera]]''' gastrointestinal illness caused by Vibrio
+
* '''[[macrophages]]''' monocytes that have left the bloodstream and differentiated into tissue-specific phagocytes
  
* '''[[collagenase]]''' enzyme that digests collagen, the
+
* '''[[mad cow disease]]''' form of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy primarily affecting cattle; can be transmitted to humans by consumption of contaminated cattle products
  
the cell with constant intermediate levels of the
+
* '''[[magnetosomes]]''' inclusions in certain bacterial cells containing magnetic iron oxide or iron sulfide, which allows bacteria to align along a magnetic field by magnetotaxis
  
cholera characterized by severe diarrhea
+
* '''[[magnetotaxis]]''' directional movement of bacterial cells using flagella in response to a magnetic field
  
dominant protein in connective tissue
+
* '''[[magnification]]''' the power of a microscope (or lens) to produce an image that appears larger than the actual specimen, expressed as a factor of the actual size
  
protein products
+
* '''[[major histocompatibility complex (MHC)]]''' collection of genes that code for MHC glycoproteins expressed on the surface of all nucleated cells
  
* '''[[chromatin]]''' combination of DNA with DNA binding
+
* '''[[malaise]]''' a general feeling of being unwell
  
* '''[[colony-forming unit (CFU)]]''' a counting quantity
+
* '''[[malaria]]''' potentially fatal, mosquito-borne protozoan infection caused by several species of Plasmodium and characterized by a relapsing fever, nausea, vomiting, and fatigue
  
* '''[[contact dermatitis]]''' inflammation of the skin
+
* '''[[mast cells]]''' granulocytes similar in origin and function to basophils, but residing in tissues
  
proteins
+
* '''[[matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF)]]''' technique in which the sample (e.g., a microbe colony) is mixed with a special matrix and irradiated with a high-energy laser to generate characteristic gaseous ions that are subjected to mass spectral analysis, yielding mass spectra that may be compared to reference data for identification purposes
  
represented by a colony formed on solid medium
+
* '''[[maturation]]''' assembly of viral components to produce a functional virus
  
resulting from a type IV hypersensitivity to an
+
* '''[[mature naïve T cell]]''' a T cell that has exited the thymus after thymic selection but has not yet been activated
  
* '''[[chromogenic substrate]]''' colorless substrate
+
* '''[[maximum growth pH]]''' highest pH value that an organism can tolerate for growth
  
from a single cell or a few cells
+
* '''[[maximum growth temperature]]''' highest temperature at which a microorganism will divide or survive
  
allergen or irritant
+
* '''[[maximum permissible oxygen concentration]]''' highest concentration of oxygen at which an organism will grow
  
(chromogen) that is converted into a colored end
+
* '''[[measles]]''' highly contagious respiratory disease caused by the measles virus (MeV); marked by an intense macular rash and high fever; also known as rubeola
  
* '''[[commensalism]]''' type of symbiosis in which one
+
* '''[[mebendazole]]''' antihelminthic drug of the benzimidazole class that binds to helminthic β-tubulin, preventing microtubule formation
  
product by the enzyme
+
* '''[[mechanical transmission]]''' transfer of a pathogen between hosts by a mechanical vector
  
* '''[[contact]]''' see exposure
+
* '''[[mechanical vector]]''' an animal that transfers a pathogen from one host to another or from a reservoir to a host without being infected by the pathogen itself
  
population benefits and the other is not affected
+
* '''[[median infectious dose (ID50)]]''' concentration of pathogen that will produce active infection in 50% of test animals inoculated
  
* '''[[chromophores]]''' pigments that absorb and reflect
+
* '''[[median lethal dose (LD50)]]''' concentration of pathogen that kills 50% of infected test animals
  
* '''[[contact transmission]]''' movement of a pathogen
+
* '''[[medulla]]''' loosely packed layer of fungal filaments located underneath the cortex of a lichen
  
* '''[[commercial sterilization]]''' type of sterilization
+
* '''[[membrane attack complex (MAC)]]''' ring structure formed from complement proteins C6 through C9 that penetrates the membranes of a targeted cell, causing cell lysis and death
  
particular wavelengths of light (giving them a color)
+
* '''[[membrane filtration]]''' method to remove bacteria from liquid, typically heat-sensitive solutions, using filters with an effective pore size of 0.2 µm or smaller, depending on need
  
between hosts due to contact between the two; may
+
* '''[[membrane filtration technique]]''' known volumes are vacuum filtered aseptically through a membrane with a pore size small enough to trap microorganisms, which are counted after growth on plates
  
protocol used in food production; uses conditions
+
* '''[[membrane-bound ribosome]]''' 80S eukaryotic ribosome attached to rough endoplasmic reticulum
  
be direct or indirect
+
* '''[[membrane-disrupting toxin]]''' toxin that affects cell membrane function by either forming pores or disrupting the phospholipid bilayer
  
* '''[[chromosome]]''' discrete DNA structure within a cell
+
* '''[[memory B cell]]''' an activated and differentiated B cell that is programmed to respond to secondary exposures to a specific antigen
  
that are less harsh (lower temperatures) to preserve
+
* '''[[memory helper T cell]]''' a long-lived T cell programmed to recognize and quickly mount a secondary response to a specific pathogen upon re-exposure
  
that controls cellular activities
+
* '''[[memory]]''' the ability of the specific adaptive immune system to quickly respond to pathogens to which it has previously been exposed
  
food quality but still effectively destroy vegetative
+
* '''[[meninges]]''' membranes that surround the brain
  
* '''[[contagious]]''' easily spread from person to person
+
* '''[[meningitis]]''' inflammation of the meningeal membranes that surround the brain
  
cells and endospores of common foodborne
+
* '''[[meningococcal meningitis]]''' bacterial infection caused by Neisseria meningitidis that results in an inflammation of the meninges
  
* '''[[chronic disease]]''' any disease that progresses and
+
* '''[[meningoencephalitis]]''' inflammatory response that involves both the brain and the membranes that surround it
  
pathogens such as Clostridium botulinum
+
* '''[[MERS]]''' Middle East respiratory syndrome; first described in Saudi Arabia in 2013; caused by a zoonotic coronavirus that results in flu-like symptoms
  
* '''[[continuous cell line]]''' derived from transformed cells
+
* '''[[mesophile]]''' a microorganism that grows best at moderate temperatures, typically between about 20 °C and 45 °C
  
persists over a long time
+
* '''[[metabolism]]''' all of the chemical reactions inside of cells
  
or tumors, these cells are often able to be subcultured
+
* '''[[metachromatic granule]]''' a type of inclusion containing volutin, a polymerized inorganic phosphate that appears red when stained with methylene blue
  
* '''[[common cold]]''' most common cause of rhinitis in
+
* '''[[metagenomics]]''' the sequencing of genomic fragments from microbial communities, allowing researchers to study genes from a collection of multiple species
  
* '''[[chronic granulomatous disease]]''' primary
+
* '''[[metatranscriptomics]]''' the science of studying a collection of mRNA molecules produced from microbial communities; involves studying gene expression patterns from a collection of multiple species
  
many times, or, in the case of immortal cell lines,
+
* '''[[methanogen]]''' microorganism that produces gaseous methane
  
humans; associated with a variety of adenoviruses,
+
* '''[[methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)]]''' pathogen resistant to all β-lactams through acquisition of a new low-affinity penicillin-binding protein, and often resistant to many other drug classes
  
immunodeficiency caused by an impaired ability of
+
* '''[[metronidazole]]''' antibacterial and antiprotozoan drug of the nitroimidazole class that is activated in anaerobic target cell and introduces DNA strand breakage, thus interfering with DNA replication in target cells
  
grown indefinitely
+
* '''[[MHC I molecule]]''' glycoprotein expressed on the surface of all nucleated cells and involved in the presentation of normal “self” antigens and foreign antigens from intracellular pathogens
  
coronaviruses, and rhinoviruses
+
* '''[[MHC II molecule]]''' glycoprotein expressed only on the surface of antigen-presenting cells and involved in the presentation of foreign antigens from pathogens ingested by phagocytosis
  
phagocytic cells to kill ingested bacteria in the
+
* '''[[micelle]]''' simple spherical arrangement of amphipathic lipid molecules with nonpolar tails aggregated within the interior and polar heads forming the outer surface
  
* '''[[continuous common source spread]]''' a mode of
+
* '''[[microaerophile]]''' organism that requires oxygen at levels lower than atmospheric concentration
  
phagolysosome
+
* '''[[microarray analysis]]''' a technique used to compare two samples of genomic DNA or cDNA; the DNA or cDNA fragments are immobilized on a chip and labeled with different fluorescent dyes, allowing for comparison of sequences or gene-expression patterns
  
* '''[[common source spread]]''' a mode of disease
+
* '''[[microbe]]''' generally, an organism that is too small to be seen without a microscope; also known as a microorganism
  
disease transmission in which every infection
+
* '''[[microbial death curve]]''' graphical representation of the progress of a particular microbial control protocol
  
transmission in which every infection originates
+
* '''[[microbial ecology]]''' study of the interactions between microbial populations microbiology the study of microorganisms
  
* '''[[chronic wasting disease]]''' prion disease of deer and
+
* '''[[microbiome]]''' all prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms that are associated with a certain organism
  
originates from the same source and that source
+
* '''[[microfilament]]''' cytoskeletal fiber composed of actin filaments
  
from the same source
+
* '''[[microinjection]]''' the direct injection of DNA into the cytoplasm of a eukaryotic cell using a glass micropipette
  
elk in the United States and Canada
+
* '''[[micronucleus]]''' smaller nucleus in ciliate protists that have two nuclei; diploid, somatic, and used for sexual reproduction through conjugation
  
produces infections for longer than one incubation
+
* '''[[micronutrient]]''' indispensable element present in cells in lower amounts than macronutrients; also called trace element
  
* '''[[communicable]]''' able to be transmitted directly or
+
* '''[[microorganism]]''' generally, an organism that is too small to be seen without a microscope; also known as a microbe
  
period
+
* '''[[microsporidia]]''' fungi that lack mitochondria, centrioles, and peroxisomes; some can be human pathogens
  
* '''[[cilia (singular: cilium)]]''' short filamentous structures
+
* '''[[microtiter plates]]''' plastic dishes with multiple small wells
  
indirectly from one person to another
+
* '''[[microtubule]]''' hollow tube composed of tubulin dimers (α and β tubulin); the structural component of the cytoskeleton, centrioles, flagella, and cilia
  
found on some eukaryotic cells; each is composed of
+
* '''[[miliary tuberculosis]]''' hematogenous dissemination and spread of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from tubercles
  
* '''[[contractile vacuoles]]''' organelles found in some cells,
+
* '''[[minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC)]]''' lowest antibacterial drug concentration that kills ≥99.9% of a starting inoculum of bacteria
  
microtubules in a 9+2 array, and may be used for
+
* '''[[minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC)]]''' lowest concentration of an antibacterial drug that inhibits visible growth of a bacterial strain
  
* '''[[community]]''' group of interacting populations of
+
* '''[[minimum growth pH]]''' lowest pH value that an organism can tolerate for growth
  
especially in some protists, that take up water and
+
* '''[[minimum growth temperature]]''' lowest temperature at which a microorganism will divide or survive
  
locomotion, feeding, and/or movement of
+
* '''[[minimum permissible oxygen concentration]]''' lowest concentration of oxygen at which an organism will grow
  
organisms
+
* '''[[missense mutation]]''' point mutation that results in a different amino acid being incorporated into the resulting polypeptide
  
then move the water out of the cell for
+
* '''[[mitochondrial matrix]]''' the innermost space of the mitochondrion enclosed by two membranes; the location of many metabolic enzymes as well as the mitochondrial DNA and 70S ribosomes
  
extracellular particles that come in contact with the
+
* '''[[mitochondrion (plural: mitochondria)]]''' large, complex organelle that is the site of cellular respiration in eukaryotic cells
  
osmoregulatory purposes (i.e., to maintain an
+
* '''[[mode of action]]''' way in which a drug affects a microbe at the cellular level
  
* '''[[competitive inhibitor]]''' molecule that binds to an
+
* '''[[moist-heat sterilization]]''' protocol that involves steam under pressure in an autoclave, allowing the steam to reach temperatures higher than the boiling point of water
  
cell
+
* '''[[mold]]''' a multicellular fungus, typically made up of long filaments
  
appropriate salt and water balance)
+
* '''[[molecular cloning]]''' the purposeful fragmentation of DNA followed by attachment to another piece of DNA to produce a recombinant molecule, followed by introduction of this recombinant molecule into an easily manipulated host to allow for the creation of multiple copies of a gene of interest
  
enzyme’s active site, preventing substrate binding
+
* '''[[monoclonal antibodies (mAbs)]]''' antibodies produced in vitro that only bind to a single epitope
  
* '''[[ciliated epithelial cells]]''' hair-like cells in the
+
* '''[[monocular]]''' having a single eyepiece
  
* '''[[contrast]]''' visible differences between parts of a
+
* '''[[monocytes]]''' large, agranular, mononuclear leukocytes found in the peripheral blood; responsible for phagocytosis of pathogens and damaged cells
  
* '''[[competitive interactions]]''' interactions between
+
* '''[[monoecious]]''' refers to sexually reproducing organisms in which individuals have both male and female reproductive organs
  
respiratory tract that beat, pushing mucus secretions
+
* '''[[monomer]]''' small organic molecule that binds with like molecules, forming a polymer or macromolecule
  
microscopic specimen
+
* '''[[monosaccharide]]''' monomer for the synthesis of carbohydrate polymers; the simplest carbohydrate, called a simple sugar
  
populations in which one of them competes with
+
* '''[[monotrichous]]''' having one flagellum, typically located on one end of the bacterial cell
  
and trapped debris away from the sensitive tissues of
+
* '''[[morbidity]]''' a state of illness
  
another for resources
+
* '''[[Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR)]]''' the trade/industry publication for epidemiologists, reporting US public health data compiled by the CDC
  
* '''[[convalescence stage]]''' the final stage of a whooping
+
* '''[[morbidity rate]]''' the number of cases of a disease expressed as a percentage of the population or number per standard part of the population, such as 100,000
  
the lungs
+
* '''[[mordant]]''' a chemical added to a specimen that sets a stain
  
cough infection, marked by a chronic cough
+
* '''[[mortality]]''' death
  
* '''[[complement activation]]''' cascading activation of the
+
* '''[[mortality rate]]''' the number of deaths from a disease expressed as a percentage of the population or number per standard part of the population, such as 100,000
  
* '''[[ciliates]]''' protists with cilia (Ciliophora), including
+
* '''[[most probable number (MPN)]]''' statistical value representing the viable bacterial population in a sample obtained after a series of dilutions and multiple tube inoculations
  
complement proteins in the blood, resulting in
+
* '''[[mRNA]]''' short-lived type of RNA that serves as the intermediary between DNA and the synthesis of protein products
  
* '''[[Coombs’ reagent]]''' antiserum containing antihuman
+
* '''[[mucociliary escalator]]''' system by which mucus and debris are propelled up and out of the respiratory tract by the beating of respiratory cilia and the mechanical actions of coughing or swallowing
  
Paramecium and Stentor, classified within the
+
* '''[[mucormycosis]]''' rare form of pneumonia that can be caused by an invasive infection of different fungi in the order Mucorales, such as Rhizopus or Mucor
  
opsonization, inflammation, and lysis of pathogens
+
* '''[[mucous membrane]]''' moist layer of epithelial cells and interspersed goblet cells that lines the inner surfaces of the body, usually bathed in antimicrobial secretions from the cells of the membrane
  
immunoglobulins used to facilitate hemagglutination
+
* '''[[mucus]]''' viscous secretion produced by cells and glands in various mucous membranes throughout the body; helps trap and remove microbes and debris from the body
  
Chromalveolata
+
* '''[[multidrug-resistant microbes (MDR)]]''' group of pathogens that carry one or more resistance mechanisms, making them resistant to multiple antimicrobials; also called superbugs
  
by cross-linking the human antibodies attached to
+
* '''[[multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MDR-TB)]]''' strains of M. tuberculosis that are resistant to both rifampin and isoniazid, the drug combination typically prescribed for the treatment of tuberculosis
  
red blood cells
+
* '''[[multiple sclerosis]]''' autoimmune attack on the myelin sheaths and nerve cells in the central nervous system
  
This OpenStax book is available for free at http://cnx.org/content/col12087/1.5
+
* '''[[mumps]]''' a viral illness that causes swelling of the parotid glands; rare in the United States because of effective vaccination
  
Appendix E
+
* '''[[murine typhus]]''' fleaborne infection caused by Rickettsia typhi and characterized by fever, rash, and pneumonia
  
1255
+
* '''[[mutagen]]''' type of chemical agent or radiation that can induce mutations
  
* '''[[cooperative interactions]]''' interactions between
+
* '''[[mutant]]''' organism harboring a mutation that often has a recognizable change in phenotype compared to the wild type
  
* '''[[cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection]]''' human
+
* '''[[mutation]]''' heritable change in the DNA sequence of an organism
  
* '''[[deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)]]''' double-stranded
+
* '''[[mutualism]]''' type of symbiosis in which two populations benefit from, and depend on, each other
  
populations in which both benefit
+
* '''[[myasthenia gravis]]''' autoimmune disease affecting the acetylcholine receptors in the neuromuscular junction, resulting in weakened muscle contraction capability
  
herpesvirus 5 infection that is typically
+
* '''[[mycelium]]''' vegetative network of branched, tubular hyphae
  
nucleic acid composed of deoxyribonucleotides that
+
* '''[[mycolic acids]]''' waxy molecules associated with peptidoglycan in some gram-positive, acid-fast bacteria, chiefly mycobacteria
  
asymptomatic but can become serious in
+
* '''[[mycology]]''' the study of fungi
  
serves as the genetic material of the cell
+
* '''[[Mycoplasma pneumonia]]''' also known as walking pneumonia; a milder form of atypical pneumonia caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae
  
* '''[[cortex]]''' tightly packed layer of fungal filaments at the
+
* '''[[mycoses (mycosis, sing.)]]''' refers to diseases caused by fungi
  
immunocompromised patients, transplant recipients,
+
* '''[[mycotoxin]]''' biologically active product of pathogenic fungi that causes adverse changes in the host cells
  
outer surface of a lichen; foliose lichens have a
+
* '''[[myelin sheath]]''' insulating layer that surrounds the axon of some neurons and helps to promote signal propagation
  
* '''[[deoxyribonucleotides]]''' DNA nucleotides containing
+
* '''[[myocarditis]]''' inflammation of the heart muscle tissues
  
and developing fetuses
+
==N==
  
second cortex layer beneath the medulla
+
* '''[[naïve mature B cell]]''' a B cell that has not yet been activated
  
deoxyribose as the pentose sugar component
+
* '''[[naked virus]]''' virus composed of a nucleic acid core, either DNA or RNA, surrounded by a capsid
  
* '''[[cytopathic effect]]''' cell abnormality resulting from a
+
* '''[[nalidixic acid]]''' member of the quinolone family that functions by inhibiting the activity of DNA gyrase, blocking DNA replication
  
* '''[[counterstain]]''' a secondary stain that adds contrasting
+
* '''[[narrow-spectrum antimicrobial]]''' drug that targets only a specific subset of microbes
  
* '''[[dermatophyte]]''' any fungus of the genera
+
* '''[[nasal cavity]]''' air-filled space in the skull immediately behind the nose
  
viral infection
+
* '''[[nasolacrimal duct]]''' tear duct connecting the lacrimal glands to the nasal cavity
  
color to cells from which the primary stain has been
+
* '''[[nasolacrimal duct]]''' tear fluid flows from each eye through this duct to the inner nose
  
Microsporum, Epidermophyton, or Trichophyton,
+
* '''[[nasopharynx]]''' part of the upper throat (pharynx) extending from the posterior nasal cavity; carries air inhaled through the nose
  
washed out by a decolorizing agent
+
* '''[[native structure]]''' three-dimensional structure of folded fully functional proteins
  
* '''[[cytoplasm]]''' the gel-like material composed of water
+
* '''[[natural active immunity]]''' immunity that develops as a result of natural infection with a pathogen
  
which feed on keratin (a protein found in skin, hair,
+
* '''[[natural antibiotic]]''' antimicrobial compound that is produced naturally by microorganisms in nature
  
and dissolved or suspended chemicals contained
+
* '''[[natural killer cells (NK cells)]]''' lymphoid cells that recognize and destroy abnormal target cells by inducing apoptosis
  
and nails) and can cause cutaneous infections
+
* '''[[natural passive immunity]]''' transfer of maternal antibodies from mother to fetus (transplacentally) or infant (via breastmilk)
  
* '''[[crenation]]''' shriveling of a cell
+
* '''[[necrotizing fasciitis]]''' a serious infection, also known as flesh-eating disease, that leads to rapid destruction of tissue through the action of exotoxin A; it can be caused by S. pyogenes or several other bacterial species
  
within the plasma membrane of a cell
+
* '''[[negative (–) single-strand RNA (–ssRNA)]]''' a viral RNA strand that cannot be translated until it is replicated into positive single-strand RNA by viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase
  
* '''[[dermis]]''' the second layer of human skin, found
+
* '''[[negative stain]]''' a stain that produces color around the structure of interest while not coloring the structure itself
  
* '''[[Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease]]''' form of transmissible
+
* '''[[Nematoda]]''' phylum comprising roundworms
  
between the epidermis and the hypodermis
+
* '''[[neonatal herpes]]''' herpes infection of the newborn, generally caused by infection during birth
  
* '''[[cytoplasmic membrane]]''' see cell membrane
+
* '''[[neonatal meningitis]]''' meningitis caused by Group B streptococcus and occurring primarily in neonates (less than 2 months old)
  
spongiform encephalopathy found in humans;
+
* '''[[neonatal tetanus]]''' tetanus acquired through infection of the cut umbilical cord
  
* '''[[descriptive epidemiology]]''' a method of studying a
+
* '''[[neurocysticercosis]]''' parasitic invasion of brain tissues by the larvae of the pork tapeworm, Taenia solium
  
typically a fatal disease
+
* '''[[neuromycosis]]''' any fungal infection of the nervous system
  
* '''[[cytoproct]]''' a protozoan cell structure that is
+
* '''[[neuron]]''' specialized cell found throughout the nervous system that transmits signals through the nervous system using electrochemical processes
  
disease outbreak using case histories, contact
+
* '''[[neuropathy]]''' numbness or tingling sensation caused by damage to peripheral nerves
  
specialized for excretion
+
* '''[[neurotoxoplasmosis]]''' disease caused by the invasion of brain tissues by the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii; typically only affects immunocompromised patients
  
* '''[[crisis phase]]''' point at which a fever breaks, reaching
+
* '''[[neurotransmitter]]''' compound that is released at the synapse of neurons to stimulate or suppress the actions of other cells
  
interviews, medical information, and other sources
+
* '''[[neutralism]]''' type of symbiosis that does not affect either of the two populations
  
a peak before the hypothalamus resets back to
+
* '''[[neutralization]]''' binding of an antibody to a pathogen or toxin, preventing attachment to target cells
  
* '''[[cytosine]]''' pyrimidine nitrogenous base found in
+
* '''[[neutrophile]]''' organism that grows best at a near a neutral pH of 6.5–7.5
  
of information
+
* '''[[neutrophils]]''' leukocytes with a multilobed nucleus found in large numbers in peripheral blood; able to leave the bloodstream to phagocytose pathogens in infected tissues; also called polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs)
  
normal body temperature
+
* '''[[next generation sequencing]]''' a group of automated techniques used for rapid DNA sequencing
  
nucleotides
+
* '''[[nicotine adenine dinucleotide (NAD+/NADH)]]''' oxidized/reduced forms of an electron carrier in cells
  
* '''[[desensitization]]''' injections of antigen that lead to
+
* '''[[nicotine adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP+/NADPH)]]''' oxidized/reduced forms of an electron carrier in cells
  
* '''[[critical item]]''' object that must be sterile because it
+
* '''[[nitrogen fixation]]''' bacterial biochemical pathways that incorporate inorganic nitrogen gas into organic forms more easily used by other organisms
  
* '''[[cytoskeleton]]''' a network of filaments or tubules in the
+
* '''[[nitrogenous base]]''' nitrogen-containing ring structure within a nucleotide that is responsible for complementary base pairing between nucleic acid strands
  
production of antigen-specific IgG molecules,
+
* '''[[noncoding DNA]]''' regions of an organism’s genome that, unlike genes, do not encode proteins
  
will be used inside the body, often penetrating sterile
+
* '''[[noncommunicable disease]]''' disease that is not transmitted from one person to another
  
eukaryotic cell that provides shape and structural
+
* '''[[noncompetitive (allosteric) inhibitor]]''' molecule that binds to allosteric sites, inducing a conformational change in the enzyme’s structure that prevents it from functioning
  
effectively outcompeting IgE molecules on the
+
* '''[[noncritical item]]''' object that may contact intact skin but does not penetrate it; requires cleanliness but not a high level of disinfection
  
tissues or the bloodstream
+
* '''[[noncyclic photophosphorylation]]''' pathway used in photosynthetic organisms when both ATP and NADPH are required by the cell
  
support for cells; aids movement of materials
+
* '''[[nonenveloped virus]]''' naked virus
  
surface of sensitized mast cells for antigen
+
* '''[[nongonococcal urethritis (NGU)]]''' a nonspecific infection of the urethra that is not caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae
  
throughout the cell
+
* '''[[noninfectious disease]]''' disease caused by something other than an infectious agent (e.g., genetics, environment, nutritional deficiencies)
  
* '''[[cross-match]]''' in the major cross-match, donor red
+
* '''[[nonionizing radiation]]''' low-energy radiation, like ultraviolet light, that can induce dimer formation between two adjacent pyrimidine bases, resulting in DNA polymerase stalling and possible formation of a frameshift mutation
  
* '''[[desiccation]]''' method of microbial control involving
+
* '''[[nonsense mutation]]''' point mutation that converts a codon encoding an amino acid (a sense codon) into a stop codon (a nonsense codon)
  
blood cells are checked for agglutination using
+
* '''[[nontreponemal serologic tests]]''' qualitative and quantitative indirect diagnostic tests for syphilis
  
* '''[[cytostome]]''' a protozoan cell structure that is
+
* '''[[northern blot]]''' a technique in molecular genetics used to detect the amount of RNA made by gene expression within a tissue or organism sample; RNA fragments within a sample are separated by agarose gel electrophoresis, immobilized on a membrane, and then exposed to a specific DNA probe labeled with a radioactive or fluorescent molecular beacon to aid in detection
  
the removal of water from cells through drying or
+
* '''[[nosocomial disease]]''' disease acquired in a hospital setting
  
recipient serum; in the minor cross-match, donor
+
* '''[[notifiable disease]]''' a disease for which all cases must legally be reported to regional, state, and/or federal public health agencies
  
specialized for phagocytosis (i.e., to take in food)
+
* '''[[nuclear envelope]]''' (also called the nuclear membrane) a structure defining the boundary of the nucleus; composed of two distinct lipid bilayers that are contiguous with each other and with the endoplasmic reticulum
  
dehydration
+
* '''[[nuclear lamina]]''' a meshwork of intermediate filaments (mainly lamins) found just inside the nuclear envelope; provides structural support to the nucleus
  
serum is checked for agglutinizing antibodies against
+
* '''[[nucleic acid]]''' class of macromolecules composed of nucleotide monomers polymerized into strands
  
* '''[[cytotoxic T cells]]''' effector cells of cellular immunity
+
* '''[[nucleoid]]''' concentrated area of DNA genome and associated proteins found in a prokaryotic cell that is not surrounded by a membrane
  
* '''[[desquamation]]''' peeling and shedding of outermost
+
* '''[[nucleoid-associated protein (NAP)]]''' protein that assists in the organization and packaging of the chromosome in prokaryotic cells
  
recipient red blood cells
+
* '''[[nucleolus]]''' a dense region within the nucleus where ribosomal RNA biosynthesis occurs and preribosomal complexes are made
  
that target and eliminate cells infected with
+
* '''[[nucleoside analog]]''' chemical that is structurally similar to a normal nucleotide base that can be incorporated into DNA instead of normal bases during replication but that has different base pairing rules than the normal base for which it was substituted, inducing mutation
  
skin
+
* '''[[nucleotide excision repair (dark repair)]]''' enzymatic mechanism to repair pyrimidine dimers by cutting the dimer-containing DNA strand on both sides of dimer, removing the intervening strand and replacing the bases with the correct ones
  
* '''[[cross-presentation]]''' a mechanism by which dendritic
+
* '''[[nucleotide]]''' nucleic acid monomer composed of a pentose sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base
  
intracellular pathogens through induction of
+
* '''[[nucleus]]''' a membrane-bound structure of eukaryotic cells that houses the DNA genome
  
* '''[[diapedesis]]''' process by which leukocytes pass
+
* '''[[numerical aperture]]''' a measure of a lens’s ability to gather light
  
cells process antigens for MHC I presentation to
+
{{catz}}
  
apoptosis
+
==O==
  
through capillary walls to reach infected tissue; also
+
* '''[[objective lenses]]''' on a light microscope, the lenses closest to the specimen, typically located at the ends of turrets
  
CD8 T cells through phagocytosis of the pathogen
+
* '''[[obligate aerobe]]''' organism that requires oxygen for growth
  
called extravasation
+
* '''[[obligate anaerobe]]''' organism that dies in the presence of oxygen
  
(which would normally lead to MHC II presentation)
+
* '''[[obligate intracellular pathogen]]''' microorganism that cannot synthesize its own ATP and, therefore, must rely on a host cell for energy; behaves like a parasite when inside a host cell, but is metabolically inactive outside of a host cell
  
* '''[[cytotoxicity]]''' harmful effects to host cell
+
* '''[[observational study]]''' a type of scientific study that involves measurement of study subjects on variables hypothesized to be associated with the outcome of interest, but without any manipulation of the subjects
  
* '''[[diaphragm]]''' a component of a microscope; typically
+
* '''[[ocular lens]]''' on a microscope, the lens closest to the eye (also called an eyepiece)
  
* '''[[cross-resistance]]''' when a single resistance
+
* '''[[oil immersion lens]]''' a special objective lens on a microscope designed to be used with immersion oil to improve resolution
  
consists of a disk under the stage with holes of
+
* '''[[Okazaki fragment]]''' short fragment of DNA made during lagging strand synthesis
  
mechanism confers resistance to multiple
+
* '''[[oligopeptide]]''' peptide having up to approximately 20 amino acids
  
various sizes; can be adjusted to allow more or less
+
* '''[[oligotroph]]''' organism capable of living in low-nutrient environments
  
antimicrobial drugs
+
* '''[[opacity]]''' the property of absorbing or blocking light
  
light from the light source to reach the specimen
+
* '''[[operator]]''' DNA sequence located between the promoter region and the first coding gene to which a repressor protein can bind
  
* '''[[cross-sectional study]]''' a type of observational study
+
* '''[[operon]]''' a group of genes with related functions often found clustered together within the prokaryotic chromosome and transcribed under the control of a single promoter and operator repression sequence
  
* '''[[D]]'''
+
* '''[[ophthalmia neonatorum]]''' inflammation of the conjunctiva in newborns caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae transmitted during childbirth
  
* '''[[differential interference-contrast microscope]]''' a
+
* '''[[opisthotonos]]''' characteristic symptom of tetanus that results in uncontrolled muscular spasms and backward arching of the neck and spine
  
in which measurements are made on cases, both
+
* '''[[opportunistic pathogen]]''' microorganism that can cause disease in individuals with compromised host defenses
  
* '''[[dacryocystitis]]''' inflammation of the lacrimal sac
+
* '''[[opsonin]]''' any molecule that binds to and coats the outside of a pathogen, identifying it for destruction by phagocytes (examples include antibodies and the complement proteins C3b and C4b)
  
microscope that uses polarized light to increase
+
* '''[[opsonization]]''' process of coating a pathogen with a chemical substance (an opsonin) that allows phagocytic cells to recognize, engulf, and destroy the pathogen more easily
  
affected and unaffected, at one point in time and the
+
* '''[[optimum growth pH]]''' the pH at which an organism grows best
  
often associated with a plugged nasolacrimal duct
+
* '''[[optimum growth temperature]]''' the temperature at which a microorganism’s growth rate is highest
  
contrast
+
* '''[[optimum oxygen concentration]]''' the ideal concentration of oxygen for a particular microorganism
  
measurements analyzed to uncover associations with
+
* '''[[oral herpes]]''' an infection caused by herpes simplex virus that results in cold sores, most commonly on and around the lips
  
the disease state
+
* '''[[oral thrush]]''' Candida infection of the mouth
  
* '''[[daptomycin]]''' cyclic lipopetide that disrupts the
+
* '''[[orchitis]]''' inflammation of one or both of the testes
  
* '''[[differential media]]''' media that contain additives that
+
* '''[[organic molecule]]''' composed primarily of carbon; typically contains at least one carbon atom bound to one or more hydrogen atoms
  
bacterial cell membrane
+
* '''[[organotroph]]''' chemotroph that uses organic molecules as its electron source; also known as chemoheterotroph
  
make it possible to distinguish bacterial colonies
+
* '''[[origin of replication]]''' specific nucleotide sequence where replication begins
  
* '''[[crustose lichens]]''' lichens that are tightly attached to
+
* '''[[oropharynx]]''' area where air entering mouth enters the pharynx
  
the substrate, giving them a crusty appearance
+
* '''[[osmosis]]''' diffusion of water across a semipermeable membrane
  
* '''[[darkfield microscope]]''' a compound light microscope
+
* '''[[osmotic pressure]]''' the force or pressure generated by water diffusing across a semipermeable membrane, driven by differences in solute concentration across the membrane
  
based on metabolic activities of the organisms
+
* '''[[osteomyelitis]]''' inflammation of bone tissue
  
that produces a bright image on a dark background;
+
* '''[[otitis externa]]''' an infection of the external ear canal, most commonly caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa; often called swimmer’s ear
  
* '''[[differential staining]]''' staining that uses multiple dyes
+
* '''[[otitis]]''' inflammation of the ear
  
* '''[[cryptococcosis]]''' fungal pneumonia caused by the
+
* '''[[otitis media with effusion]]''' accumulation of fluid inside the middle ear with or without infection
  
typically a modified brightfield microscope
+
* '''[[Ouchterlony assay]]''' test in which antigen and antisera are added to neighboring wells in an agar gel, allowing visualization of precipitin arcs
  
to differentiate between structures or organisms
+
* '''[[outer membrane]]''' a phospholipid bilayer external to the peptidoglycan layer found in gram-negative cell walls
  
encapsulated yeast Cryptococcus neoformans
+
* '''[[oxazolidinones]]''' class of synthetic protein synthesis inhibitors that interfere with formation of the initiation complex for translation and prevent translocation of the growing protein from the ribosomal A site to the P site
  
commonly found in bird droppings
+
* '''[[oxidation reaction]]''' chemical reaction that removes electrons (often as part of H atoms) from donor molecules, leaving them oxidized
  
* '''[[death phase (decline phase)]]''' phase of the growth
+
* '''[[oxidative phosphorylation]]''' mechanism for making ATP that uses the potential energy stored within an electrochemical gradient to add Pi to ADP
  
* '''[[diffraction]]''' the changing of direction (bending or
+
* '''[[oxygenic photosynthesis]]''' type of photosynthesis found in plants, algae, and cyanobacteria, and in which H2O is used as the electron donor to replace an electron lost by a reaction center pigment, resulting in oxygen as a byproduct
  
curve at which the number of dying cells exceeds the
+
{{catz}}
  
spreading) that occurs when a light wave interacts
+
==P==
  
* '''[[cryptosporidiosis]]''' intestinal infection caused by
+
* '''[[P (peptidyl) site]]''' functional site of an intact ribosome that binds charged tRNAs carrying amino acids that have formed peptide bonds with the growing polypeptide chain but have not yet dissociated from their corresponding tRNA
  
number of new cells formed
+
* '''[[palatine tonsil]]''' lymphoid tissue located near the oropharynx
  
with an opening or barrier
+
* '''[[pandemic disease]]''' an epidemic that is worldwide as opposed to regional
  
Cryptosporidium parvum or C. hominis
+
* '''[[papilloma]]''' growth on the skin associated with infection by any of the human papilloma viruses (HPV); commonly known as a wart
  
* '''[[decimal reduction time (DRT)]]''' or D-value]]''' amount
+
* '''[[paracrine function]]''' refers to a cytokine signal released from a cell to a receptor on a nearby cell
  
* '''[[dikaryotic]]''' having two separate nuclei within one
+
* '''[[parasitism]]''' type of symbiosis in which one population benefits while harming the other parasitology the study of parasites
  
* '''[[culture density]]''' the number of cells per volume of
+
* '''[[parenteral route]]''' means of entry by a pathogen through skin or mucous membranes when these barriers are breached
  
of time it takes for a specific protocol to produce a
+
* '''[[paroxysmal stage]]''' most serious stage of pertussis (whooping cough), characterized by severe and prolonged coughing spells
  
cell
+
* '''[[passive carrier]]''' an individual capable of transmitting a pathogen to another individual without becoming infected
  
broth
+
* '''[[passive immunity]]''' adaptive immune defenses received from another individual or animal
  
one order of magnitude decrease in the number of
+
* '''[[pasteurization]]''' form of microbial control using heat that is applied to foods; kills pathogens and reduces the number of spoilage-causing microbes while maintaining food quality
  
organisms; that is, death of 90% of the population
+
* '''[[pathogen]]''' a disease-causing microorganism
  
* '''[[dimorphic fungus]]''' a fungus that can take the form of
+
* '''[[pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs)]]''' common molecular motifs found on pathogens
  
* '''[[culture medium]]''' combination of compounds in
+
* '''[[pathogenicity]]''' ability of a microbial agent to cause disease
  
a yeast or a mold, depending on environmental
+
* '''[[pattern recognition receptors (PRRs)]]''' receptors on the surface or in the interior of phagocytic cells that bind to pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs)
  
solution that supports growth
+
* '''[[pellicle]]''' structure that underlies the plasma membrane in protists, providing additional support
  
* '''[[decolorizing agent]]''' a substance that removes a stain,
+
* '''[[pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)]]''' infection of the female reproductive organs that may spread from the vagina to the cervix, uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries
  
conditions
+
* '''[[penetration]]''' entry of phage or virus into a host cell through injection, endocytosis, or membrane fusion
  
* '''[[cutaneous mycosis]]''' any fungal infection that affects
+
* '''[[penicillin]]''' β-lactam antibacterial that was the first cell wall synthesis inhibitor developed
  
usually from some parts of the specimen
+
* '''[[penis]]''' external genital organ in males through which urine and semen are discharged
  
* '''[[dioecious]]''' refers to sexually reproducing organisms
+
* '''[[pentamidine]]''' antiprotozoan drug that appears to degrade kDNA in target cells, as well as inhibit protein synthesis
  
the surface of the skin, hair, or nails
+
* '''[[pentose phosphate pathway (PPP)]]''' alternative glycolytic pathway that produces intermediates used for the biosynthesis of nucleotides and amino acids; also called the phosphogluconate pathway or the hexose monophosphate shunt
  
* '''[[deeply branching bacteria]]''' bacteria that occupy the
+
* '''[[peptic ulcer]]''' an ulcer in the lining of the stomach or duodenum, often associated with Helicobacter pylori
  
in which individuals have either male or female
+
* '''[[peptide bond]]''' bond between the carboxyl group of one amino acid and the amine group of another; formed with the loss of a water molecule
  
* '''[[cyanobacteria]]''' phototrophic, chlorophyll-containing
+
* '''[[peptidoglycan (murein)]]''' the polymer of alternating N-acetylmuramic acid NAM and N-acetylglucosamine (NAG) subunits linked together by peptide chains; a major constituent of bacterial cell walls
  
lowest branches of the phylogenetic tree of life
+
* '''[[peptidyl transferase]]''' RNA-based ribozyme that is part of the 50S ribosomal subunit and catalyzes formation of the peptide bond between the amino acid bound to a tRNA and the growing polypeptide chain
  
reproductive organs (not both)
+
* '''[[perforin]]''' compound released from a natural killer cell that creates pores in the target cell through which other toxins (particularly granzymes) can gain access to the cytoplasm
  
bacteria that produce large amounts of gaseous
+
* '''[[pericarditis]]''' inflammation of the sac that surrounds the heart
  
* '''[[definitive host]]''' the preferred host organism for a
+
* '''[[period of convalescence]]''' fifth stage of acute disease, during which the patient returns to normal function
  
* '''[[diphtheria]]''' serious infection of the larynx, caused by
+
* '''[[period of decline]]''' fourth stage of disease, during which the number of pathogens present in the host decreases, along with signs and symptoms of disease
  
oxygen
+
* '''[[period of illness]]''' third stage of acute disease, during which the number of pathogens present in the host is greatest and the signs and symptoms of disease are most severe
  
parasite, in which the parasite reaches maturity and
+
* '''[[periodontal disease]]''' a condition in which the gums are inflamed and may erode
  
the toxigenic bacterium Corynebacterium
+
* '''[[periodontitis]]''' inflammation of the gums that is more severe than gingivitis, spreading deeper into the tissues
  
* '''[[cyclic AMP (cAMP)]]''' intracellular signaling
+
* '''[[peripheral nervous system]]''' network of neurons that connects the CNS with organs, sensory organs, and muscles throughout the body
  
may reproduce sexually
+
* '''[[peripheral tolerance]]''' mechanism by which regulatory T cells inhibit self-reactive immune responses in T cells that have already exited the thymus
  
diphtheriae
+
* '''[[periplasmic space]]''' the space between the cell wall and the plasma membrane, primarily in gram-negative bacteria
  
molecule made through the action of adenylyl
+
* '''[[peristalsis]]''' muscular contractions of the gastrointestinal tract that propel ingested material through the stomach, intestines, and, eventually, through the rectum and out of the body
  
* '''[[degeneracy]]''' redundancy in the genetic code because
+
* '''[[peritrichous]]''' having numerous flagella covering the entire surface of a bacterial cell
  
cyclase from ATP when glucose levels are low, with
+
* '''[[peroxidase]]''' enzyme that catalyzes the detoxification of peroxides
  
a given amino acid is encoded by more than one
+
* '''[[peroxisome]]''' in eukaryotic cells, a membrane-bound organelle (not part of the endomembrane system) that produces hydrogen peroxide to break down various types of molecules; also plays a role in lipid biosynthesis
  
* '''[[diploid]]''' having two copies of each chromosome
+
* '''[[peroxygen]]''' type of strong oxidizing agent that causes free radical formation in cells; can be used as a disinfectant or antiseptic
  
the ability to bind to a catabolite activator protein to
+
* '''[[persister]]''' dormant cell that survives in the death phase and is resistant to most antibiotics
  
nucleotide triplet codon
+
* '''[[pertussis]]''' contagious illness caused by Bordetella pertussis that causes severe coughing fits followed by a whooping sound during inhalation; commonly known as whooping cough
  
* '''[[direct agglutination assay]]''' assay that can be used to
+
* '''[[pertussis toxin]]''' main virulence factor accounting for the symptoms of whooping cough
  
allow it to bind to regulatory regions and activate the
+
* '''[[petechiae]]''' small red or purple spots on the skin that result from blood leaking out of damaged vessels
  
* '''[[degerming]]''' protocol that significantly reduces
+
* '''[[Petroff-Hausser counting chamber]]''' calibrated slide that allows counting of bacteria in a specific volume under a microscope
  
detect the agglutination of bacteria by the action of
+
* '''[[Peyer’s patches]]''' lymphoid tissue in the ileum that monitors and fights infections
  
transcription of operons encoding enzymes for
+
* '''[[phagemid]]''' a plasmid capable of being replicated as a plasmid and also incorporated into a phage head
  
microbial numbers by using mild chemicals (e.g.,
+
* '''[[phagocytosis]]''' a type of endocytosis in which large particles are engulfed by membrane invagination, after which the particles are enclosed in a pocket, which is pinched off from the membrane to form a vacuole
  
antibodies in patient serum
+
* '''[[phagolysosome]]''' compartment in a phagocytic cell that results when the phagosome is fused with the lysosome, leading to the destruction of the pathogens inside
  
metabolism of alternative substrates
+
* '''[[phagosome]]''' compartment in the cytoplasm of a phagocytic cell that contains the phagocytosed pathogen enclosed by part of the cell membrane
  
soap) and gentle scrubbing of a small area of skin or
+
* '''[[pharmacogenomics (toxicogenomics)]]''' the evaluation of the effectiveness and safety of drugs on the basis of information from an individual’s genomic sequence as well as examination of changes in gene expression in response to the drug
  
* '''[[direct antihuman globulin test (DAT)]]''' another
+
* '''[[pharyngitis]]''' inflammation of the pharynx
  
* '''[[cyclic photophosphorylation]]''' pathway used in
+
* '''[[pharynx]]''' region connecting the nose and mouth to the larynx: the throat
  
tissue to avoid the transmission of pathogenic
+
* '''[[phase-contrast microscope]]''' a light microscope that uses an annular stop and annular plate to increase contrast
  
name for a direct Coombs’ test
+
* '''[[phenol coefficient]]''' measure of the effectiveness of a chemical agent through comparison with that of phenol on Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi
  
photosynthetic organisms when the cell’s need for
+
* '''[[phenolics]]''' class of chemical disinfectants and antiseptics characterized by a phenol group that denatures proteins and disrupts membranes
  
microbes
+
* '''[[phenotype]]''' observable characteristics of a cell or organism
  
ATP outweighs that for NADPH, thus bypassing
+
* '''[[phosphodiester bonds]]''' linkage whereby the phosphate group attached to the 5ʹ carbon of the sugar of one nucleotide bonds to the hydroxyl group of the 3ʹ carbon of the sugar of the next nucleotide
  
* '''[[direct contact transmission]]''' movement of a
+
* '''[[phosphogluconate pathway]]''' see pentose phosphate pathway
  
NADPH production
+
* '''[[phospholipase]]''' enzyme that degrades phospholipids
  
* '''[[degranulation]]''' release of the contents of mast cell
+
* '''[[phospholipid]]''' complex lipid that contains a phosphate group
  
pathogen between hosts by physical contact or
+
* '''[[phospholipid-derived fatty acids (PLFA) analysis]]''' technique in which membrane phospholipids are saponified to release the fatty acids of the phospholipids, which can be subjected to FAME analysis for identification purposes
  
granules in response to the cross-linking of IgE
+
* '''[[phosphorescence]]''' the ability of certain materials to absorb energy and then release that energy as light after a delay
  
transfer in droplets at a distance less than one meter
+
* '''[[photosynthesis]]''' process whereby phototrophic organisms convert solar energy into chemical energy that can then be used to build carbohydrates
  
* '''[[cyclosporiasis]]''' intestinal infection caused by
+
* '''[[photosynthetic pigment]]''' pigment molecule used by a cell to absorb solar energy; each one appears the color of light that it transmits or reflects
  
molecules on the cell surface with allergen
+
* '''[[photosystem]]''' organized unit of pigments found within a photosynthetic membrane, containing both a light-harvesting complex and a reaction center
  
Cyclospora cayetanensis
+
* '''[[phototaxis]]''' directional movement using flagella in response to light
  
molecules
+
* '''[[phototroph]]''' organism that gets its energy from light
  
* '''[[direct Coombs’ test]]''' assay that looks for antibodies
+
* '''[[phototrophic bacteria]]''' nontaxonomic group of bacteria that use sunlight as their primary source of energy
  
in vivo against red blood cells caused by various
+
* '''[[phylogeny]]''' the evolutionary history of a group of organisms
  
* '''[[cystic echinococcosis]]''' hydatid disease, an infection
+
* '''[[phytoplankton]]''' photosynthetic plankton
  
* '''[[dehydration synthesis]]''' chemical reaction in which
+
* '''[[pia mater]]''' fragile and innermost membrane layer surrounding the brain
  
types of infections, drug reactions, and autoimmune
+
* '''[[pili]]''' long protein extensions on the surface of some bacterial cells; specialized F or sex pilus aids in DNA transfer between cells
  
caused by the tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus
+
* '''[[pinocytosis]]''' a type of endocytosis in which small dissolved materials are endocytosed into smaller vesicles
  
monomer molecules bind end to end in a process that
+
* '''[[plague]]''' infectious epidemic disease caused by Yersinia pestis
  
disorders
+
* '''[[plankton]]''' microscopic organisms that float in the water and are carried by currents; they may be autotrophic (phytoplankton) or heterotrophic (zooplankton)
  
that can cause cyst formation
+
* '''[[planktonic]]''' free-floating or drifting in suspension
  
results in the formation of water molecules as a
+
* '''[[plantibodies]]''' monoclonal antibodies produced in plants that are genetically engineered to express mouse or human antibodies
  
byproduct
+
* '''[[plaque]]''' clear area on bacterial lawn caused by viral lysis of host cells
  
* '''[[direct ELISA]]''' enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent
+
* '''[[plasma cell]]''' activated and differentiated B cell that produces and secretes antibodies
  
* '''[[cysticerci]]''' larval form of a tapeworm
+
* '''[[plasma]]''' fluid portion of the blood that contains all clotting factors
  
assay in which the antigens are immobilized in the
+
* '''[[plasma membrane]]''' (also called the cell membrane or cytoplasmic membrane) lipid bilayer with embedded proteins that defines the boundary of the cell
  
* '''[[deletion]]''' type of mutation involving the removal of
+
* '''[[plasmalemma]]''' protist plasma membrane
  
well of a microtiter plate; only a single antibody is
+
* '''[[plasmid]]''' small, circular, double-stranded DNA molecule that is typically independent from the bacterial chromosome
  
* '''[[cystitis]]''' inflammation of the bladder
+
* '''[[plasmolysis]]''' the separation of the plasma membrane away from the cell wall when a cell is exposed to a hypertonic environment
  
one or more bases from a DNA sequence
+
* '''[[platelets]]''' cell fragments in the peripheral blood that originate from megakaryocyte cells in the bone marrow; also called thrombocytes
  
used in the test
+
* '''[[Platyhelminthes]]''' phylum comprising flatworms
  
* '''[[cysts]]''' microbial cells surrounded by a protective
+
* '''[[pleconaril]]''' an antiviral drug targeting picornaviruses that prevents the uncoating of virus particles upon their infection of host cells
  
* '''[[Deltaproteobacteria]]''' class of Proteobacteria that
+
* '''[[pleomorphic]]''' able to change shape
  
* '''[[direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) test]]''' FA
+
* '''[[pneumococcal meningitis]]''' bacterial infection caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae that results in an inflammation of the meninges
  
outer covering; some microbial cysts are formed to
+
* '''[[Pneumocystis pneumonia]]''' common pulmonary infection in patients with AIDS; caused by P. jirovecii
  
includes sulfate-reducing bacteria
+
* '''[[pneumonia]]''' pulmonary inflammation that causes the lungs to fill with fluids
  
technique in which the labeled antibody binds to the
+
* '''[[pneumonic plague]]''' rare form of plague that causes massive hemorrhages in the lungs and is communicable through aerosols
  
help the microbe survive harsh conditions, whereas
+
* '''[[point mutation]]''' mutation, most commonly a base substitution, that affects a single base pair
  
* '''[[denatured protein]]''' protein that has lost its secondary
+
* '''[[point source spread]]''' a form of common source spread in which the transmission of a disease from the source occurs for a brief period that is less than the pathogen’s incubation period
  
target antigen
+
* '''[[polar tubule]]''' a tube-like structure produced by spores of parasitic Microsporidia fungi that pierces host cell membranes
  
others are a normal part of the life cycle
+
* '''[[poliomyelitis (polio)]]''' disease caused by an infection of the enteric polio virus characterized by inflammation of the motor neurons of the brain stem and spinal cord; can result in paralysis
  
and tertiary structures (and quaternary structure, if
+
* '''[[poly-A tail]]''' string of approximately 200 adenine nucleotides added to the 3’ end of a eukaryotic primary mRNA transcript to stabilize it
  
* '''[[direct hemagglutination assay]]''' test that determines
+
* '''[[polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE)]]''' a method for separating populations of proteins and DNA fragments during Sanger sequencing of varying sizes by differential migration rates caused by a voltage gradient through a vertical gel matrix
  
* '''[[cytochrome oxidase]]''' final ETS complex used in
+
* '''[[polycistronic mRNA]]''' single mRNA molecule commonly produced during prokaryotic transcription that carries information encoding multiple polypeptides
  
applicable) without the loss of its primary structure
+
* '''[[polyclonal antibodies]]''' antibodies produced in a normal immune response, in which multiple clones of B cells respond to many different epitopes on an antigen
  
the titer of certain bacteria and viruses that causes
+
* '''[[polyenes]]''' class of antifungal drugs that bind to ergosterol to form membrane pores, disrupting fungal cell membrane integrity
  
aerobic respiration that transfers energy-depleted
+
* '''[[polyhedral virus]]''' virus with a three-dimensional shape with many facets
  
* '''[[dendrites]]''' branched extensions of the soma of a
+
* '''[[polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB)]]''' a type of cellular inclusion surrounded by a phospholipid monolayer embedded with protein
  
clumping of red blood cells
+
* '''[[polylinker site]]''' or * '''[[multiple cloning site (MCS)]]''' a short sequence containing multiple unique restriction enzyme recognition sites that are used for inserting foreign DNA into the plasmid after restriction digestion of both the foreign DNA and the plasmid
  
electrons to oxygen to form H2O
+
* '''[[polymer]]''' macromolecule composed of individual units, monomers, that bind together like building blocks.
  
neuron that interact with other cells
+
* '''[[polymerase chain reaction (PCR)]]''' an in vitro molecular technique that rapidly amplifies the number of copies of specific DNA sequences to make the amplified DNA available for other analyses
  
* '''[[direct microscopic cell count]]''' counting of cells
+
* '''[[polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN)]]''' see neutrophils
  
* '''[[cytokine storm]]''' an excessive release of cytokines,
+
* '''[[polymyxins]]''' lipophilic polypeptide antibiotics that target the lipopolysaccharide component of gram-negative bacteria and ultimately disrupt the integrity of their outer and inner membranes
  
* '''[[dengue fever]]''' mosquito-borne viral hemorrhagic
+
* '''[[polypeptide]]''' polymer having from approximately 20 to 50 amino acids
  
using a calibrated slide under a light microscope
+
* '''[[polyphyletic]]''' refers to a grouping of organisms that is not descended from a single common ancestor
  
typically triggered by a superantigen, that results in
+
* '''[[polyribosome (polysome)]]''' structure including an mRNA molecule that is being translated by multiple ribosomes concurrently
  
disease; also known as breakbone fever
+
* '''[[polysaccharide]]''' polymer composed of hundreds of monosaccharides linked together by glycosidic bonds; also called glycans
  
* '''[[direct repair (light repair or photoreactivation)]]'''
+
* '''[[portal of entry]]''' anatomical feature of the body through which pathogens can enter host tissue
  
unregulated activation of T cells
+
* '''[[portal of exit]]''' anatomical feature of the body through which pathogens can leave diseased individual
  
* '''[[dental calculus]]''' calcified heavy plaque on teeth, also
+
* '''[[positive (+) strand]]''' viral RNA strand that acts like messenger RNA and can be directly translated inside the host cell
  
light-dependent mechanism for repairing pyrimidine
+
* '''[[positive stain]]''' a stain that colors the structure of interest
  
* '''[[cytokines]]''' protein molecules that act as a chemical
+
* '''[[pour plate method]]''' a technique used for inoculating plates with diluted bacterial samples for the purpose of cell counting; cells are mixed with warm liquid agar before being poured into Petri dishes
  
called tartar
+
* '''[[praziquantel]]''' antihelminthic drug that induces a calcium influx into tapeworms, leading to spasm and paralysis
  
dimers involving the enzyme photolyase
+
* '''[[precipitin]]''' complex lattice of antibody and antigen that becomes too large to stay in solution
  
signals; produced by cells in response to a
+
* '''[[precipitin ring test]]''' assay in which layers of antisera and antigen in a test tube form precipitin at the interface of the two solutions
  
* '''[[dental caries]]''' cavities formed in the teeth as a result
+
* '''[[prevalence]]''' the total number or proportion of individuals in a population ill with a specific disease
  
* '''[[disaccharide]]''' one of two monosaccharides linked
+
* '''[[primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM)]]''' acute and deadly parasitic infection of brain tissues by the amoeba Naegleria fowleri
  
stimulation event
+
* '''[[primary antibody]]''' in a sandwich ELISA, the antibody that is attached to wells of a microtiter plate to capture antigen from a solution, or in an indirect ELISA, the antigen-specific antibody present in a patient’s serum
  
of tooth decay caused by microbial activity
+
* '''[[primary cell culture]]''' cells taken directly from an animal or plant and cultured in vitro
  
together by a glycosidic bond
+
* '''[[primary immunodeficiency]]''' genetic condition that results in impaired immune function
  
1256
+
* '''[[primary infection]]''' initial infection produced by a pathogen
  
Appendix E
+
* '''[[primary lymphoid tissue]]''' one of two types of lymphatic tissue; comprises bone marrow and the thymus
  
* '''[[disease]]''' any condition in which the normal structure
+
* '''[[primary pathogen]]''' microorganism that can cause disease in the host regardless of the effectiveness of the host’s immune system
  
* '''[[ectoplasm]]''' outer, more gelatinous layer of cytoplasm
+
* '''[[primary response]]''' the adaptive immune response produced upon first exposure to a specific antigen
  
* '''[[endosymbiotic theory]]''' the theory that mitochondria
+
* '''[[primary stain]]''' refers, in differential staining techniques, to the first dye added to the specimen
  
or function of the body is damaged or impaired
+
* '''[[primary structure]]''' bonding sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide chain * '''[[protein]]''' macromolecule that results when the number of amino acids linked together becomes very large, or when multiple polypeptides are used as building subunits
  
under a protist cell membrane
+
* '''[[primary transcript]]''' RNA molecule directly synthesized by RNA polymerase in eukaryotes before undergoing the additional processing required to become a mature mRNA molecule
  
and chloroplasts arose as a result of prokaryotic cells
+
* '''[[primase]]''' RNA polymerase enzyme that synthesizes the RNA primer required to initiate DNA synthesis
  
establishing a symbiotic relationship within a
+
* '''[[primer]]''' short complementary sequence of five to 10 RNA nucleotides synthesized on the template strand by primase that provides a free 3’-OH group to which DNA polymerase can add DNA nucleotides
  
* '''[[disinfectant]]''' antimicrobial chemical applied to a
+
* '''[[prion]]''' acellular infectious particle consisting of just proteins that can cause progressive diseases in animals and humans
  
* '''[[edema]]''' swelling due to accumulation of fluid and
+
* '''[[prodromal period]]''' second stage of acute disease, during which the pathogen continues to multiply in the host and nonspecific signs and symptoms become observable
  
eukaryotic host
+
* '''[[progeny virus]]''' newly assembled virions ready for release outside the cell
  
fomite during disinfection that may be toxic to
+
* '''[[proglottid]]''' body segment of a cestode (tapeworm)
  
protein in tissue as a result of increased permeability
+
* '''[[prokaryote]]''' an organism whose cell structure does not include a membrane-bound nucleus
  
tissues
+
* '''[[prokaryotic cell]]''' a cell lacking a nucleus bound by a complex nuclear membrane
  
of capillary walls during an inflammatory response;
+
* '''[[promoter]]''' DNA sequence onto which the transcription machinery binds to initiate transcription
  
* '''[[endothelia]]''' layer of epithelial cells lining blood
+
* '''[[propagated spread]]''' the progression of an infectious disease from person to person, either indirectly or directly, through a population of susceptible individuals as one infected individual transmits the agent to others, who transmit it to others yet again
  
chronic edema can also result from blockage of
+
* '''[[prophage]]''' phage genome that has incorporated into the host genome
  
vessels, lymphatics, the blood-brain barrier, and
+
* '''[[prospective study]]''' a research design that follows cases from the beginning of the study through time to associate measured variables with outcomes
  
* '''[[disinfection]]''' protocol that removes potential
+
* '''[[prostate gland]]''' gland that contributes fluid to semen
  
lymphatic vessels, as in the case of elephantiasis
+
* '''[[prostatitis]]''' inflammation of the prostate gland
  
some other tissues
+
* '''[[protease]]''' enzyme involved in protein catabolism that removes individual amino acids from the ends of peptide chains
  
pathogens from a fomite
+
* '''[[protease inhibitor]]''' class of antiviral drugs, used in HIV therapy and hepatitis C therapy, that inhibits viral-specific proteases, preventing viral maturation
  
* '''[[effector cells]]''' activated cells of cellular immunity
+
* '''[[protein signature]]''' an array of proteins expressed by a cell or tissue under a specific condition
  
* '''[[endotoxin]]''' lipid A component of lipopolysaccharides
+
* '''[[Proteobacteria]]''' phylum of gram-negative bacteria
  
* '''[[disk-diffusion method]]''' a technique for measuring of
+
* '''[[proteomic analysis]]''' study of all accumulated proteins of an organism
  
that are involved in the immediate immune response,
+
* '''[[proteomics]]''' the study of the entire complement of proteins in an organism; involves monitoring differences in gene expression patterns between cells at the protein level
  
in the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria
+
* '''[[protists]]''' informal name for diverse group of eukaryotic organisms, including unicellular, colonial, and multicellular types that lack specialized tissues
  
the effectiveness of one or more antimicrobial agents
+
* '''[[proton motive force]]''' electrochemical gradient formed by the accumulation of hydrogen ions (also known as protons) on one side of a membrane relative to the other protozoan (plural: protozoa) a unicellular eukaryotic organism, usually motile
  
primarily to defend the body against pathogens
+
* '''[[protozoans]]''' informal term for some protists, generally those that are nonphotosynthetic, unicellular, and motile protozoology the study of protozoa
  
against a known bacterium; involves measuring the
+
* '''[[provirus]]''' animal virus genome that has integrated into the host chromosome
  
* '''[[enriched media]]''' media that contain additional
+
* '''[[pseudohyphae]]''' short chains of yeast cells stuck together
  
zone(s) of inhibition around the chemical agent(s) in
+
* '''[[pseudomembrane]]''' grayish layer of dead cells, pus, fibrin, red blood cells, and bacteria that forms on mucous membranes of the nasal cavity, tonsils, pharynx, and larynx of individuals with diphtheria
  
* '''[[electron carrier]]''' cellular molecule that accepts high-
+
* '''[[pseudomembranous colitis]]''' inflammation of the large intestine with the formation of a pseudomembrane; caused by C. difficile
  
essential nutrients to support growth
+
* '''[[pseudopodia]]''' temporary projections involved in ameboid movement; these “false feet” form by gel-sol cycling of actin polymerization/depolymerization
  
a culture of the bacterium
+
* '''[[psittacosis]]''' zoonotic Chlamydophila infection from birds that causes a rare form of pneumonia
  
energy electrons from reduced molecules like foods
+
* '''[[psoriasis]]''' autoimmune disease involving inflammatory reactions in and thickening of skin
  
* '''[[enrichment culture]]''' media providing growth
+
* '''[[psychrophile]]''' a microorganism that grows best at cold temperatures; most have an optimum growth temperature of about 15 °C and can survive temperatures below 0 °C; most cannot survive temperatures above 20 °C
  
and later serves as an electron donor in subsequent
+
* '''[[psychrotroph]]''' a microorganism that grows best at cool temperatures, typically between about 4 °C and 25 °C, with optimum growth at about 20 °C
  
* '''[[dispersion]]''' the separation of light of different
+
* '''[[puerperal sepsis]]''' sepsis associated with a bacterial infection incurred by a woman during or after childbirth
  
conditions that favor the expansion of an organism
+
* '''[[purines]]''' nitrogenous bases containing a double-ring structure with a six-carbon ring fused to a five-carbon ring; includes adenine and guanine
  
redox reactions
+
* '''[[purple nonsulfur bacteria]]''' phototrophic bacteria that are similar to purple sulfur bacteria except they use hydrogen rather than hydrogen sulfide for oxidation
  
frequencies due to different degrees of refraction
+
* '''[[purple sulfur bacteria]]''' phototrophic bacteria that oxidize hydrogen sulfide into elemental sulfur and sulfuric acid; their purple color is due to the pigments bacteriochlorophylls and carotenoids
  
present in low numbers
+
* '''[[purulent]]''' an infection that produces pus; suppurative
  
* '''[[electron microscope]]''' a type of microscope that uses
+
* '''[[pus]]''' accumulation of dead pathogens, neutrophils, tissue fluid, and other bystander cells that may have been killed by phagocytes at the site of an infection
  
* '''[[disulfide bridge]]''' covalent bond between the sulfur
+
* '''[[pyelonephritis]]''' an infection of one or both kidneys
  
* '''[[enteric]]''' bacteria of the family Enterobacteriaceae,
+
* '''[[pyocyanin]]''' blue pigments produced by some strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa
  
short-wavelength electron beams rather than light to
+
* '''[[pyoderma]]''' any suppurative (pus-producing) infection of the skin
  
atoms of two sulfhydryl side chains
+
* '''[[pyoverdin]]''' a water-soluble, yellow-green or yellow-brown pigment produced by some strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa
  
which live in the human intestinal tract
+
* '''[[pyrimidines]]''' nitrogenous bases containing a single six-carbon ring; includes cytosine and thymine in DNA
  
increase magnification and resolution
+
* '''[[pyrophosphate (PPi)]]''' two connected phosphate groups in solution
  
* '''[[DNA gyrase (topoisomerase II)]]''' bacterial
+
* '''[[pyuria]]''' pus or white blood cells in the urine
  
* '''[[electron transport system (ETS)]]''' series of
+
{{catz}}
  
* '''[[enteritis]]''' inflammation of the lining of the intestine
+
==Q==
  
topoisomerase that relaxes the supercoiled
+
* '''[[Q fever]]''' highly infectious zoonotic disease caused by Coxiella burnetii that farmers can contract from their animals by inhalation
  
membrane-associated protein complexes and
+
* '''[[quarantine]]''' the isolation of an individual for the purpose of preventing the spread of disease
  
chromosome to make DNA more accessible for the
+
* '''[[quaternary ammonium salts (quats)]]''' group of cationic detergents, named for the characteristic quaternary nitrogen atom that confers a positive charge, that make up an important class of disinfectants and antiseptics
  
* '''[[enterobiasis]]''' intestinal infection caused by the
+
* '''[[quaternary structure]]''' structure of protein complexes formed by the combination of several separate polypeptides or subunits
  
associated mobile accessory electron carriers
+
* '''[[quinolines]]''' class of antiprotozoan drugs long used for the treatment of malaria; interferes with heme detoxification
  
initiation of replication
+
* '''[[quorum sensing]]''' cell-to-cell communication in bacteria; enables a coordinated response from cells when the population reaches a threshold density
  
pinworm Enterobius vermicularis
+
==R==
  
important in the generation of the proton motive
+
* '''[[R plasmid]]''' plasmid containing genes encoding proteins that make a bacterial cell resistant to one or more antibiotics
  
* '''[[DNA ligase]]''' enzyme that catalyzes the formation of a
+
* '''[[rabies]]''' contagious viral disease primarily transmitted by the bite of infected mammals that can cause acute encephalitis resulting in madness, aggressiveness, coma, and death
  
force required for ATP production by chemiosmosis;
+
* '''[[radial immunodiffusion]]''' precipitin reaction in which antigen added to a well in an antiserum-impregnated gel diffuses, producing a precipitin ring whose diameter squared is directly proportional to antigen concentration
  
* '''[[enterohemorrhagic]]''' E. coli]]''' (EHEC)]]''' E. coli bacteria
+
* '''[[rat-bite fever]]''' relapsing fever caused by either Bacillus moniliformis or Spirillum minor; can be transmitted by the bite of a rat or through contact with rat feces or urine
  
covalent phosphodiester linkage between the 3’-OH
+
* '''[[reaction center]]''' protein complex in a photosystem, containing a pigment molecule that can undergo oxidation upon excitation by a light-harvesting pigment, actually giving up an electron
  
the last component involved in the cellular
+
* '''[[reactivation tuberculosis]]''' secondary infection by Mycobacterium tuberculosis that forms later in life; occurs when the bacteria escape from the Ghon complexes and establish focal infections at other sites in immunocompromised individuals
  
that cause severe gastrointestinal illness with
+
* '''[[reactive oxygen species (ROS)]]''' unstable and toxic ions and molecules derived from partial reduction of oxygen
  
end of one DNA fragment and the 5’ phosphate end
+
* '''[[reading frame]]''' way nucleotides in mRNA are grouped into codons
  
respiration of glucose
+
* '''[[real-time PCR (quantitative PCR, qPCR)]]''' a variant of PCR involving the use of fluorescence to allow for the monitoring of the increase in double-stranded template during a PCR reaction as it occurs, allowing for the quantitation of the original target sequence
  
potential serious complications such as hemolytic
+
* '''[[receptor-mediated endocytosis]]''' a type of endocytosis in which extracellular ligands are targeted to specific cells through their binding to specific cell surface receptors
  
of another DNA fragment
+
* '''[[recognition site]]''' a specific, often palindromic, DNA sequence recognized by a restriction enzyme that is typically four to six base pairs long and reads the same in the 5ʹ to 3ʹ direction on one strand as it does in the 5ʹ to 3ʹ direction on the complementary strand
  
uremic syndrome
+
* '''[[recombinant DNA molecule]]''' a DNA molecule resulting from the cutting and insertion of DNA from one organism into the DNA of another organism, resulting in a new combination of genetic material
  
* '''[[electroporation]]''' a genetic engineering technique in
+
* '''[[recombinant DNA pharmaceuticals]]''' pharmaceuticals produced as a result of genetic engineering
  
* '''[[DNA packaging]]''' process in which histones or other
+
* '''[[recombinant DNA technology]]''' the process by which DNA from one organism is cut and new pieces of foreign DNA from a second organism are inserted, artificially creating new combinations of genetic material within the organism
  
which cells are exposed to a short electric pulse,
+
* '''[[redox potential]]''' tendency for a molecule to acquire electrons and become reduced; electrons flow from molecules with lower redox potentials to those with higher redox potentials
  
* '''[[enteroinvasive]]''' E. coli]]''' (EIEC)]]''' E. coli bacteria that
+
* '''[[redox reaction]]''' pairing of an oxidation reaction with a reduction reaction
  
DNA binding proteins perform various levels of
+
* '''[[reduction reaction]]''' chemical reaction that adds electrons to acceptor molecules, leaving them reduced
  
inducing them to take up DNA molecules from their
+
* '''[[reemerging infectious disease]]''' a disease that was once under control or largely eradicated that has begun causing new outbreaks due to changes in susceptible populations, the environment, or the pathogen itself
  
cause relatively mild gastrointestinal illness
+
* '''[[reflection]]''' when light bounces back from a surface
  
DNA wrapping and attachment to scaffolding
+
* '''[[refraction]]''' bending of light waves, which occurs when a light wave passes from one medium to another
  
environment
+
* '''[[refractive index]]''' a measure of the magnitude of slowing of light waves by a particular medium
  
* '''[[enteropathogenic]]''' E. coli]]''' (EPEC)]]''' E. coli bacteria
+
* '''[[regulatory T cells]]''' class of T cells that are activated by self-antigens and serve to inhibit peripheral self-reacting T cells from causing damage and autoimmunity
  
proteins to allow the DNA to fit inside a cell
+
* '''[[rejection]]''' process by which adaptive immune responses recognize transplanted tissue as non-self, mounting a response that destroys the tissue or leads to the death of the individual
  
* '''[[elementary bodies]]''' metabolically and reproductively
+
* '''[[relapsing fever]]''' louse- or tickborne disease caused by Borrelia recurrentis or B. hermsii and characterized by a recurrent fever
  
that cause serious gastrointestinal illness
+
* '''[[replica plating]]''' plating technique in which cells from colonies growing on a complete medium are inoculated onto various types of minimal media using a piece of sterile velvet, ensuring that the orientation of cells deposited on all plates is the same so that growth (or absence thereof) can be compared between plates
  
* '''[[DNA polymerase]]''' class of enzymes that adds
+
* '''[[replication bubble]]''' circular structure formed when the DNA strands are separated for replication
  
inactive, endospore-like form of intracellular
+
* '''[[replication fork]]''' Y-shaped structure that forms during the process of replication as DNA unwinds and opens up to separate the DNA strands
  
* '''[[enterotoxigenic]]''' E. coli]]''' (ETEC)]]''' E. coli bacteria that
+
* '''[[replication]]''' process by which DNA is copied
  
nucleotides to the free 3’-OH group of a growing
+
* '''[[reporter genes]]''' genes that encode easily observable characteristics, allowing for their expression to be easily monitored
  
bacteria that spreads infection outside of cells
+
* '''[[repressible operon]]''' bacterial operon, that typically containing genes encoding enzymes required for a biosynthetic pathway and that is expressed when the product of the pathway continues to be required but is repressed when the product of the pathway accumulates, removing the need for continued expression
  
cause a relatively mild illness commonly called
+
* '''[[repressor]]''' protein that suppresses transcription of a gene or operon in response to an external stimulus
  
DNA chain that are complementary to the template
+
* '''[[reservoir]]''' a living host or nonliving site in which a pathogenic organism can survive or multiply
  
* '''[[elongation in DNA replication]]''' stage of DNA
+
* '''[[resident microbiota]]''' microorganisms that constantly live in the human body
  
traveler’s diarrhea
+
* '''[[resolution]]''' the ability to distinguish between two points in an image
  
strand
+
* '''[[restriction endonuclease (restriction enzyme)]]''' bacterial enzyme that cuts DNA fragments at a unique, often palindromic, recognition site; used in genetic engineering for splicing DNA fragments together into recombinant molecules
  
replication during which DNA polymerase adds
+
* '''[[restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP)]]''' a genetic variant identified by differing numbers or sizes of DNA fragments generated after digestion of a DNA sample with a restriction endonuclease; the variants are caused by the loss or gain of restriction sites, or the insertion or deleting of sequences between restriction sites.
  
* '''[[DNA primers]]''' short, synthetic, single-stranded DNA
+
* '''[[retort]]''' large industrial autoclave used for moist heat sterilization on a large scale
  
nucleotides, complementary to the parental strand, to
+
* '''[[retrospective study]]''' a research design that associates historical data with present cases
  
* '''[[enterotoxin]]''' toxin that affects the intestines
+
* '''[[retrovirus]]''' positive ssRNA virus that produces and uses reverse transcriptase to make an ssDNA copy of the retroviral genome that can then be made into dsDNA and integrate into the host cell chromosome to form a provirus within the host chromosome.
  
fragments of known sequence that bind to specific
+
* '''[[reverse transcriptase]]''' enzyme found in retroviruses that can make a copy of ssDNA from ssRNA
  
the 3’ end of a growing DNA strand
+
* '''[[reverse transcriptase inhibitor]]''' classes of antiviral drugs that involve nucleoside analog competitive inhibition and non-nucleoside noncompetitive inhibition of the HIV reverse transcriptase
  
* '''[[Entner-Doudoroff (ED) pathway]]''' alternative
+
* '''[[reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR)]]''' a variation of PCR used to obtain DNA copies of a specific mRNA molecule that begins with the conversion of mRNA molecules to cDNA by the enzyme reverse transcriptase
  
target sequences within a sample due to
+
* '''[[Reye syndrome]]''' potentially life-threatening sequelae to some viral infections that result in the swelling of the liver and brain; aspirin use has also been linked to this syndrome
  
* '''[[elongation in transcription]]''' stage of transcription
+
* '''[[Rh factor]]''' red blood cell surface antigen that can trigger type II hypersensitivity reactions
  
glycolytic pathway used by some bacteria
+
* '''[[rheostat]]''' a dimmer switch that controls the intensity of the illuminator on a light microscope
  
complementarity between the target DNA sequence
+
* '''[[rheumatic fever]]''' serious clinical sequela of an infection with Streptococcus pyogenes that can result in damage to joints or the valves of the heart
  
during which RNA polymerase extends the RNA
+
* '''[[rheumatoid arthritis]]''' systemic autoimmune disease in which immune complexes form and deposit in the joints and their linings, leading to inflammation and destruction
  
and the primer; commonly used in PCR but may be
+
* '''[[rhinitis]]''' inflammation of the nasal cavity
  
* '''[[enveloped virus]]''' a virus formed with a nucleic-acid
+
* '''[[rhizines]]''' structures made of hyphae found on some lichens; aid in attachment to a surface
  
molecule by adding RNA nucleotides,
+
* '''[[ribonucleic acid (RNA)]]''' single-stranded nucleic acid composed of ribonucleotides; important in transcription and translation (protein synthesis)
  
used in other hybridization techniques
+
* '''[[ribonucleotides]]''' RNA nucleotides containing ribose as the pentose sugar component and a nitrogenous base
  
packed capsid surrounded by a lipid layer
+
* '''[[ribosome]]''' a complex intracellular structure that synthesizes proteins
  
complementary to the template DNA strand
+
* '''[[riboswitch]]''' small region of noncoding RNA found within the 5’ end of some prokaryotic mRNA molecules that may bind to a small intracellular molecule, influencing the completion of transcription and/or translation
  
* '''[[DNA probe]]''' a single-stranded DNA fragment that is
+
* '''[[ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase (RuBisCO)]]''' first enzyme of the Calvin cycle responsible for adding a CO2 molecule onto a five-carbon ribulose bisphosphate (RuBP) molecule
  
* '''[[enzyme]]''' catalyst for biochemical reactions inside
+
* '''[[rifampin]]''' semisynthetic member of the rifamycin class that blocks bacterial RNA polymerase activity, inhibiting transcription
  
* '''[[elongation of translation]]''' stage of translation during
+
* '''[[rimantadine]]''' antiviral drug that targets the influenza virus by preventing viral escape from endosomes upon host cell uptake, preventing viral RNA release and subsequent viral replication
  
complementary to part of the gene (DNA or RNA)
+
* '''[[ringworm]]''' a tinea (cutaneous mycosis of the skin), typically characterized by a round, red, slightly raised lesion that heals outward from the center, giving it the appearance of a round worm
  
cells
+
* '''[[RNA interference (RNAi)]]''' process by which antisense RNAs or small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) interfere with gene expression by binding to mRNA, preventing translation and protein synthesis
  
which amino acids are added one by one to the C-
+
* '''[[RNA polymerase]]''' enzyme that adds nucleotides to the 3’-OH group of the growing mRNA molecule that are complementary to the template strand, forming covalent phosphodiester bonds between the nucleotides in the RNA
  
of interest
+
* '''[[RNA splicing]]''' process of removing intron-encoded RNA sequences from eukaryotic primary transcripts and reconnecting those encoded by exons
  
terminus of the growing polypeptide
+
* '''[[RNA transcript]]''' mRNA produced during transcription
  
* '''[[enzyme immunoassay (EIA)]]''' type of assay wherein
+
* '''[[Rocky Mountain spotted fever]]''' potentially fatal tickborne disease caused by Rickettsia rickettsii characterized by fever, body aches, and a rash
  
* '''[[DNAse]]''' pathogen-produced nuclease that degrades
+
* '''[[rogue form]]''' misfolded form of the PrP protein that is normally found in the cell membrane and has the tendency to aggregate in neurons, causing extensive cell death and brain damage
  
an enzyme is coupled to an antibody; addition of a
+
* '''[[rolling circle replication]]''' type of rapid unidirectional DNA synthesis of a circular DNA molecule
  
* '''[[Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas (EMP) pathway]]''' type
+
* '''[[roseola]]''' a rash-causing illness, most commonly affecting children, associated with human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6)
  
extracellular DNA
+
* '''[[rough endoplasmic reticulum]]''' a type of endoplasmic reticulum containing bound 80S ribosomes for the synthesis of proteins destined for the plasma membrane
  
chromogenic substrate for the antibody allows
+
* '''[[route of administration]]''' method used to introduce a drug into the body
  
of glycolysis found in animals and the most common
+
* '''[[rRNA]]''' type of stable RNA that is a major constituent of ribosomes, ensuring proper alignment of the mRNA and the ribosomes as well as catalyzing the formation of the peptide bonds between two aligned amino acids during protein synthesis
  
quantification or identification of the antigen bound
+
* '''[[rubella]]''' German measles, caused by the rubella virus
  
* '''[[dosage]]''' amount of medication given during a certain
+
* '''[[runs (running)]]''' purposeful, directional movement of a prokaryotic cell propelled by counterclockwise flagellar rotation
  
in microbes
+
{{catz}}
  
by the antibody
+
==S==
  
time interval
+
* '''[[σ factor]]''' subunit of bacterial RNA polymerase conferring promoter specificity that can be substituted with a different version in response to an environmental condition, allowing for a quick and global change of the regulon transcribed
  
* '''[[emerging infectious disease]]''' a disease that is new to
+
* '''[[saccharide]]''' carbohydrate
  
* '''[[enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)]]'''
+
* '''[[salmonellosis]]''' gastrointestinal illness caused by Salmonella bacteria
  
the human population or has increased in prevalence
+
* '''[[salpingitis]]''' inflammation of the fallopian tubes
  
* '''[[double immunodiffusion]]''' see Ouchterlony assay
+
* '''[[sandwich ELISA]]''' EIA in which the primary antibody is first attached to the wells of a microtiter plate, allowing it to capture antigen from an unknown solution to be quantified
  
specialized form of EIA in which either the primary
+
* '''[[Sanger DNA sequencing (dideoxy method, chain termination method)]]''' the original DNA sequencing technique in which dideoxy nucleotides, each labeled with a molecular beacon, are used to terminate chain elongation; the resulting incrementally sized fragments are then separated by electrophoresis to determine the sequence of the DNA molecule
  
over the previous 20 years
+
* '''[[sanitization]]''' protocol that reduces microbial load on inanimate surfaces to levels deemed safe for public health
  
antibody or the antigen is first attached to a solid
+
* '''[[saprozoic]]''' refers to protozoans that ingest small, soluble food molecules
  
* '''[[doubling time]]''' the time it takes for the population to
+
* '''[[SARS]]''' severe acute respiratory syndrome; caused by a zoonotic coronavirus that results in flu-like symptoms
  
* '''[[enantiomers]]''' stereoisomers that are mirror images of
+
* '''[[saturated fatty acid]]''' lipid with hydrocarbon chains containing only single bonds, which results in the maximum number of hydrogen atoms per chain
  
surface such as the well of a microtiter plate
+
* '''[[scanning electron microscope (SEM)]]''' a type of electron microscope that bounces electrons off of the specimen, forming an image of the surface
  
double; also referred to as generation time
+
* '''[[scanning probe microscope]]''' a microscope that uses a probe that travels across the surface of a specimen at a constant distance while the current, which is sensitive to the size of the gap, is measured
  
each other and nonsuperimposable
+
* '''[[scanning tunneling microscope]]''' a microscope that uses a probe that is passed just above the specimen as a constant voltage bias creates the potential for an electric current between the probe and the specimen
  
* '''[[eosinophils]]''' leukocytes with granules containing
+
* '''[[scarlet fever]]''' bacterial infection caused by Streptococcus pyogenes, marked by a high fever and a disseminated scarlet rash
  
* '''[[droplet transmission]]''' direct contact transmission of
+
* '''[[schistosomiasis]]''' helminthic infection caused by Schistosoma spp.; transmitted from a snail intermediate host to human swimmers or bathers in freshwater
  
histamine and major basic protein; facilitate allergic
+
* '''[[schizogony]]''' asexual reproduction in protozoans that is characterized by multiple cell divisions (one cell dividing to form many smaller cells)
  
a pathogen transferred in sneezed or coughed
+
* '''[[scolex]]''' the head region of a cestode (tapeworm), which typically has suckers and/or hooks for attachment to the host
  
* '''[[encephalitis]]''' inflammation of the tissues of the brain
+
* '''[[scrapie]]''' form of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy that primarily affects sheep
  
responses and protection against parasitic protozoa
+
* '''[[sebaceous gland]]''' a gland located in hair follicles that secretes sebum
  
droplets of mucus that land on the new host within a
+
* '''[[sebum]]''' lipid-rich substance secreted by the sebaceous glands of the skin
  
and helminths
+
* '''[[secondary antibody]]''' antibody to which an enzyme is attached for use in ELISA assays; in direct and sandwich ELISAs, it is specific for the antigen being quantified, whereas in indirect ELISA, it is specific for the primary antibody
  
radius of one meter
+
* '''[[secondary immunodeficiency]]''' impaired immune response due to infection, metabolic disturbance, poor diet, stress, or other acquired factors
  
* '''[[encystment]]''' the process of forming a cyst
+
* '''[[secondary infection]]''' second infection that develops after a primary infection as a result of the primary disease compromising immune defenses or antibiotics, thus eliminating protective microbiota
  
* '''[[epidemic disease]]''' an illness with a higher-than-
+
* '''[[secondary lymphoid tissue]]''' one of two types of lymphatic tissue; comprises the spleen, lymph nodes, Peyer’s patches, and mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT)
  
* '''[[drug resistance]]''' ability of a microbe to persist and
+
* '''[[secondary response]]''' the adaptive immune response produced in response to a specific antigen to which the body has previously been exposed
  
* '''[[endemic disease]]''' an illness that is constantly present
+
* '''[[secondary structure]]''' structure stabilized by hydrogen bonds between the carbonyl and amine groups of a polypeptide chain; may be an α-helix or a β-pleated sheet, or both
  
expected incidence in a given period within a given
+
* '''[[secretory vesicle]]''' membranous sac that carries molecules through the plasma membrane to be released (secreted) from the cell
  
grow in the presence of an antimicrobial drug
+
* '''[[selective IgA deficiency]]''' primary immunodeficiency in which individuals produce normal levels of IgG and IgM, but are unable to produce secretory IgA
  
(often at low levels) in a population
+
* '''[[selective media]]''' media that contain additives that encourage the growth of some bacteria while inhibiting others
  
population
+
* '''[[selective toxicity]]''' desirable quality of an antimicrobial drug indicating that it preferentially kills or inhibits the growth of the target microbe while causing minimal or no harm to the host
  
* '''[[dry-heat sterilization]]''' protocol that involves the
+
* '''[[semiconservative DNA replication]]''' pattern of DNA replication process whereby each of the two parental DNA strands acts as a template for new DNA to be synthesized, producing hybrid old- and new-strand daughter molecules
  
* '''[[endergonic reaction]]''' chemical reaction that requires
+
* '''[[semicritical item]]''' object that contacts mucous membranes or nonintact skin but does not penetrate tissues; requires a high level of disinfection
  
* '''[[epidemic typhus]]''' severe and sometimes fatal
+
* '''[[seminal vesicles]]''' glands that contribute fluid to semen
  
direct application of high heat
+
* '''[[semisynthetic antimicrobial]]''' chemically modified derivative of a natural antibiotic
  
energy beyond activation energy to occur
+
* '''[[sense strand]]''' strand of DNA that is not transcribed for gene expression; it is complementary to the antisense strand
  
infection caused by Rickettsia prowazekii and
+
* '''[[sepsis]]''' systemic inflammatory response to an infection that results in high fever and edema, causing organ damage and possibly leading to shock and death
  
* '''[[dura mater]]''' tough, outermost membrane that
+
* '''[[septate hyphae]]''' hyphae that contain walls between individual cells; characteristic of some fungi
  
* '''[[endocarditis]]''' inflammation of the endocardium,
+
* '''[[septic arthritis]]''' see infectious arthritis
  
transmitted by body lice
+
* '''[[septic shock]]''' serious condition marked by the loss of blood pressure resulting from an inflammatory response against a systemic infection
  
surrounds the brain
+
* '''[[septic]]''' the condition of being septicemic; having an infection in the blood
  
especially the heart valves
+
* '''[[septicemia]]''' condition in which pathogens are multiplying in blood
  
* '''[[epidemiology]]''' the study of where and when
+
* '''[[septicemic plague]]''' form of plague that occurs when the bacterial pathogen gains access to the bloodstream
  
* '''[[dynein]]''' motor proteins that interact with
+
* '''[[septum]]''' separating structure that forms during cell division; also describes the separating wall between cells in a filament
  
* '''[[endocrine function]]''' refers to a cytokine signal
+
* '''[[sequela (plural: sequelae)]]''' condition that arises as a consequence of a prior disease
  
infectious diseases occur in a population and how
+
* '''[[serial dilution]]''' sequential transfer of known volumes of culture samples from one tube to another to perform a several-fold dilution of the original culture
  
microtubules in eukaryotic flagella and cilia
+
* '''[[seroconversion]]''' point in an infection at which antibody to a pathogen is detectible using an immunoassay
  
released from a cell and carried by the bloodstream
+
* '''[[serotype]]''' strain or variation of the same species of bacteria; also called serovar
  
they are transmitted and maintained in nature
+
* '''[[serovar]]''' specific strain of bacteria identified by agglutination using strain-specific antisera
  
to a distant recipient cell
+
* '''[[serum]]''' fluid portion of the blood after clotting has occurred; generally lacks clotting factors
  
* '''[[dysentery]]''' intestinal inflammation that causes
+
* '''[[serum sickness]]''' systemic type III hypersensitivity reaction
  
* '''[[epidermis]]''' the outermost layer of human skin
+
* '''[[sessile]]''' attached to a surface
  
diarrhea with blood and mucus
+
* '''[[severe combined immunodeficiency disease (SCID)]]''' genetic disorder resulting in impaired function of B cells and T cells
  
* '''[[endocytosis]]''' the uptake of molecules through plasma
+
* '''[[sex pilus]]''' specialized type of pilus that aids in DNA transfer between some prokaryotic cells
  
membrane invagination and vacuole/vesicle
+
* '''[[sheath]]''' part of the tail on a bacteriophage that contracts to introduce the viral DNA into the bacterium
  
* '''[[epididymis]]''' coiled tube that collects sperm from the
+
* '''[[shigellosis]]''' gastrointestinal illness caused by Shigella bacteria, also called bacillary dysentery
  
* '''[[dysuria]]''' urination accompanied by burning,
+
* '''[[shingles]]''' acute and painful rash that forms following the reactivation of a latent chickenpox infection
  
formation
+
* '''[[shock]]''' extreme drop in blood pressure that, among other causes, can result from a strong immune response to the activity of toxins or response to bacterial products and can result in death
  
testes and passes it on to the vas deferens
+
* '''[[shuttle vector]]''' a plasmid that can move between bacterial and eukaryotic cells
  
discomfort, or pain
+
* '''[[side chain]]''' the variable functional group, R, attached to the α carbon of an amino acid
  
* '''[[endomembrane system]]''' a series of organelles
+
* '''[[sign]]''' objective and measurable indication of a disease
  
* '''[[epididymitis]]''' inflammation of the epididymis caused
+
* '''[[silent mutation]]''' point mutation that results in the same amino acid being incorporated into the resulting polypeptide
  
(endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatuses,
+
* '''[[simple microscope]]''' a type of microscope with only one lens to focus light from the specimen
  
by a bacterial infection
+
* '''[[simple staining]]''' a staining technique that uses a single dye
  
lysosomes, and transport vesicles) arranged as
+
* '''[[single-stranded binding protein]]''' protein that coats the single strands of DNA near each replication fork to prevent the single-stranded DNA from rewinding into a double helix
  
* '''[[epigenetic regulation]]''' chemical modification of
+
* '''[[sinusitis]]''' inflammation of the sinuses
  
membranous tubules, sacs, and disks that synthesize
+
* '''[[S-layer]]''' cell envelope layer composed of protein covering the cell walls of some bacteria and archaea; in some archaea, may function as the cell wall
  
DNA or associated histones to influence
+
* '''[[slime layer]]''' a type of glycocalyx with unorganized layers of polysaccharides that aid bacterial adherence to surfaces
  
* '''[[E]]'''
+
* '''[[smear]]''' a thin layer of a specimen on a slide
  
many cell components
+
* '''[[smooth endoplasmic reticulum]]''' a type of endoplasmic reticulum that lacks ribosomes, is involved in the biosynthesis of lipids and in carbohydrate metabolism, and serves as the site of detoxification of toxic compounds within the cell
  
transcription
+
* '''[[soft chancres]]''' soft, painful ulcers associated with the STI chancroid
  
* '''[[E (exit) site]]''' functional site of an intact ribosome that
+
* '''[[soma]]''' cell body of a neuron
  
* '''[[endoplasm]]''' inner, more fluid layer of cytoplasm
+
* '''[[sonication]]''' method of microbial control that involves application of ultrasound waves to form cavitation within a solution, including inside cells, disrupting cell components as a result
  
releases dissociated uncharged tRNAs so that they
+
* '''[[Southern blot]]''' a technique in molecular genetics used to detect the presence of certain DNA sequences within a given DNA sample; DNA fragments within the sample are separated by agarose gel electrophoresis, immobilized on a membrane, and then exposed to a specific DNA probe labeled with a radioactive or fluorescent molecular beacon to aid in detection
  
under a protist cell membrane (inside of the
+
* '''[[specialized transduction]]''' transfer of a specific piece of bacterial chromosomal DNA near the site of integration by the phage
  
* '''[[epiglottis]]''' flap of cartilage that covers the larynx
+
* '''[[specificity]]''' the ability of the specific adaptive immune system to target specific pathogens or toxins
  
can be recharged with free amino acids
+
* '''[[spike]]''' viral glycoprotein embedded within the viral capsid or envelope used for attachment to host cells
  
during swallowing; diverts food to the esophagus
+
* '''[[spirochetes]]''' a group of long, thin, spiral-shaped fastidious bacteria that includes the human pathogens that cause syphilis, Lyme disease, and leptospirosis
  
ectoplasm)
+
* '''[[spleen]]''' abdominal organ consisting of secondary lymphoid tissue that filters blood and captures pathogens and antigens that pass into it; also contains specialized macrophages and dendritic cells that are crucial for antigen presentation
  
and prevents it from entering the respiratory tract
+
* '''[[spliceosome]]''' protein complex containing small nuclear ribonucleoproteins that catalyzes the splicing out of intron-encoded RNA sequences from the primary transcript during RNA maturation in eukaryotes
  
* '''[[East African trypanosomiasis]]''' acute form of
+
* '''[[spontaneous generation]]''' the now-disproven theory that life can arise from nonliving matter
  
* '''[[endoplasmic reticulum]]''' part of the endomembrane
+
* '''[[spontaneous mutation]]''' mutation not caused by a mutagen that occurs through DNA replication errors
  
African trypanosomiasis caused by Trypanosoma
+
* '''[[sporadic disease]]''' an illness that occurs at relatively low levels with no discernible pattern or trend, frequently with no geographic focus
  
system that is an interconnected array of tubules and
+
* '''[[spores]]''' specialized cells that may be used for reproduction or may be specialized to withstand harsh conditions
  
* '''[[epiglottitis]]''' inflammation of the epiglottis
+
* '''[[sporotrichosis]]''' subcutaneous infection caused by the fungus Sporothrix schenkii, which causes skin lesions and can potentially spread to the lymphatic system; also known as rose gardener’s disease or rose thorn disease
  
brucei rhodesiense
+
* '''[[sporulation]]''' the process by which a vegetative cell produces a dormant endospore
  
flattened sacs with a single lipid bilayer that may be
+
* '''[[spread plate method]]''' a technique used for inoculating plates with diluted bacterial samples for the purpose of cell counting; the liquid sample is pipetted onto solid medium and spread uniformly across the plate
  
* '''[[eastern equine encephalitis]]''' serious, but rare,
+
* '''[[St. Louis encephalitis]]''' mosquito-borne viral infection of the brain that occurs primarily in the central and southern United States
  
either rough or smooth; important in synthesizing
+
* '''[[stage]]''' the platform of a microscope on which slides are placed
  
* '''[[epiphyte]]''' a plant that grows on another plant
+
* '''[[staining]]''' the addition of stains or dyes to a microscopic specimen for the purpose of enhancing contrast
  
mosquito-borne viral infection of the brain that is
+
* '''[[staphylococcal food poisoning]]''' gastrointestinal illness caused by toxins produced by Staphylococcus aureus
  
proteins and lipids
+
* '''[[staphylolysins]]''' a class of staphylococcal exotoxins that are cytotoxic to skin cells and white blood cells
  
* '''[[epitope]]''' smaller exposed region on an antigen that is
+
* '''[[starch]]''' energy-storage polysaccharide in plants; composed of two types of glucose polymers: amylose and amylopectin
  
found primarily on the Atlantic and Gulf coast states
+
* '''[[start codon]]''' AUG codon, specifying methionine, which is typically the codon that initiates translation
  
* '''[[endospore]]''' a cellular structure formed by some
+
* '''[[stationary phase]]''' interval during which the number of cells formed by cell division is equal to the number of cells dying
  
recognized by B-cell and T-cell receptors and
+
* '''[[stereoisomers]]''' isomers that differ in the spatial arrangements of atoms
  
of the United States
+
* '''[[sterilant]]''' strong chemical that effectively kills all microbes and viruses in or on an inanimate item
  
bacteria in response to adverse conditions; preserves
+
* '''[[sterile field]]''' specified area that is free of all vegetative microbes, endospores, and viruses
  
antibodies
+
* '''[[sterilization]]''' protocol that completely removes all vegetative cells, endospores, and viruses from an item
  
* '''[[Ebola virus disease (EVD)]]''' potentially fatal viral
+
* '''[[steroid]]''' lipid with complex, ringed structures found in cell membranes and hormones
  
DNA of the cell in a dormant state until conditions
+
* '''[[sterol]]''' the most common type of steroid; contains an OH group at one specific position on one of the molecule’s carbon rings
  
* '''[[Epsilonproteobacteria]]''' class of Proteobacteria that
+
* '''[[sticky ends]]''' short, single-stranded complementary overhangs that may be produced when many restriction enzymes cut DNA
  
hemorrhagic fever found primarily in western Africa
+
* '''[[stigma]]''' light-sensing eyespot found in Euglena
  
are favorable again
+
* '''[[stop codon (nonsense codon)]]''' one of three codons for which there is no tRNA with a complementary anticodon; a signal within the mRNA for termination of translation
  
are microaerophilic
+
* '''[[stratum corneum]]''' a layer of dead, keratinized cells that forms the uppermost layer of the epidermis
  
and transmitted through contact with body fluids
+
* '''[[strep throat (streptococcal pharyngitis)]]''' bacterial pharyngitis caused by Streptococcus pyogenes
  
* '''[[endospore staining]]''' a differential staining technique
+
* '''[[streptococcal toxic shock-like syndrome (STSS)]]''' condition similar to staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome but with greater likelihood of bacteremia, necrotizing fasciitis, and acute respiratory distress syndrome
  
* '''[[equivalence zone]]''' region where the
+
* '''[[stroma]]''' a gel-like fluid that makes up much of a chloroplast’s volume, and in which the thylakoids floats
  
* '''[[eclipse phase]]''' period after viral infection during
+
* '''[[strongyloidiasis]]''' soil-transmitted intestinal infection caused by the helminth Strongyloides stercoralis
  
that uses two stains to make bacterial endospores
+
* '''[[structural formula]]''' graphic representation of the molecular structure showing how the atoms are arranged
  
antibody-antigen ratio produces the greatest amount
+
* '''[[structural isomers]]''' molecules composed of the same numbers and types of atoms but with different bonding sequences
  
which the infective virus is not detected, either
+
* '''[[subacute bacterial endocarditis]]''' form of endocarditis in which damage to the valves of the heart occurs over months as a result of blood clot formation and immune-response-induced fibrosis of the valves
  
appear distinct from the rest of the cell
+
* '''[[subclinical disease]]''' disease that does not present any signs or symptoms
  
of precipitin in a precipitin reaction
+
* '''[[subcutaneous mycosis]]''' any fungal infection that penetrates the epidermis and dermis to enter deeper tissues
  
intracellularly or extracellularly, and biosynthesis is
+
* '''[[substrate]]''' chemical reactants of an enzymatic reaction
  
occurring
+
* '''[[substrate-level phosphorylation]]''' direct method of ATP production in which a high-energy phosphate group is removed from an organic molecule and added to an ADP molecule
  
This OpenStax book is available for free at http://cnx.org/content/col12087/1.5
+
* '''[[subunit vaccine]]''' vaccine that contains only key antigens as opposed to whole pathogens
  
Appendix E
+
* '''[[sugar-phosphate backbone]]''' alternating sugar-phosphate structure composing the framework of a nucleic acid strand that results from phosphodiester bond formation between nucleotides
  
1257
+
* '''[[sulfonamides (sulfa drugs)]]''' group of structurally related synthetic antimicrobial compounds that function as antimetabolites, competitively inhibiting an enzyme in the bacterial folic acid synthesis pathway
  
* '''[[erysipelas]]''' a skin infection, typically caused by
+
* '''[[superantigen]]''' class of exotoxin that triggers a strong nonspecific immune response with excessive production of cytokines (cytokine storm) causing inflammation, high fever, shock, and, potentially, death
  
* '''[[extracellular matrix]]''' material composed of
+
* '''[[supercoiled]]''' extensive wrapping and twisting of a DNA molecule, allowing the DNA to fit within a small space
  
* '''[[flagella]]''' long, rigid, spiral structures used by
+
* '''[[supercoiling]]''' process in which DNA is underwound or overwound to fit inside a cell
  
Streptococcus pyogenes, that presents as a red, large,
+
* '''[[supercritical fluid]]''' molecule, commonly carbon dioxide, brought to high pressures to reach a state that has physical properties between those of liquids and gases, allowing it to effectively penetrate surfaces and cells to form carbonic acid, which lowers the pH of cells considerably, leading to sterilization
  
proteoglycans and fibrous proteins secreted by some
+
* '''[[superinfection]]''' secondary infection that may develop as a result of long-term, broad-spectrum antimicrobial use
  
prokaryotic cells for motility in aqueous
+
* '''[[superoxide dismutase]]''' enzyme that catalyzes the breakdown of superoxide anions
  
intensely inflamed patch of skin involving the
+
* '''[[suppurative]]''' producing pus; purulent
  
eukaryotic cells that lack cell walls; helps
+
* '''[[surfactant]]''' group of chemical compounds used for degerming; lower the surface tension of water, creating emulsions that mechanically carry away microorganisms
  
environments; composed of a filament made of
+
* '''[[sweat gland]]''' one of numerous tubular glands embedded in the dermis that secretes the watery substance known as perspiration
  
dermis, usually with clear borders, typically on the
+
* '''[[symbiosis]]''' any interaction between different species that are associated with each other within a community
  
multicellular structures withstand physical stresses
+
* '''[[symptom]]''' subjective experience of disease felt by the patient
  
flagellin, a hook, and motor (basal body) that are
+
* '''[[synapse]]''' junction between a neuron and another cell
  
legs or face
+
* '''[[syncytia]]''' multinucleated cells that form from the fusion of normal cells during infections or other processes
  
and coordinates signaling from the external surface
+
* '''[[syndrome]]''' group of signs and symptoms characteristic of a particular disease
  
attached to the cell envelope
+
* '''[[syngamy]]''' process in which haploid gametes fuse
  
of the cell to the interior of the cell
+
* '''[[synthetic antimicrobial]]''' antimicrobial developed from a chemical not found in nature
  
* '''[[erythema nodosum]]''' a condition that causes
+
* '''[[syphilis]]''' an STI caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum
  
* '''[[flagella staining]]''' a staining protocol that uses a
+
* '''[[systemic autoimmune disease]]''' autoimmune disease that affect the organism as a whole, rather than a single organ
  
inflammation in the subcutaneous fat cells of the
+
* '''[[systemic infection]]''' infection that has spread to multiple locations or body systems
  
* '''[[extracellular polymeric substances (EPS)]]''' hydrated
+
* '''[[systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS)]]''' severe inflammatory response to the presence of microbes in the blood; can lead to sepsis
  
mordant to coat the flagella with stain until they are
+
* '''[[systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)]]''' systemic autoimmune disease producing inflammatory type III hypersensitivities as antibodies form immune complexes with nuclear and cytoplasmic antigens
  
hypodermis resulting in red nodules
+
* '''[[systemic mycosis]]''' a fungal infection that spreads throughout the body
  
gel secreted by bacteria in a biofilm containing
+
{{catz}}
  
thick enough to be seen
+
==T==
  
polysaccharides, proteins, nucleic acids, and some
+
* '''[[T-cell receptors (TCR)]]''' molecules on T cells involved in the recognition of processed foreign epitopes presented with MHC I or MHC II
  
* '''[[erythema]]''' redness at the site of inflammation,
+
* '''[[T lymphocyte]]''' lymphocyte that serves as the central orchestrator, bridging humoral, cellular, and innate immunity, and serves as the effector cells of cellular immunity; T cell
  
* '''[[flagellum (eukaryotic) (plural: flagella)]]''' long,
+
* '''[[taeniasis]]''' infection caused by Taenia or Diphyllobothrium
  
lipids
+
* '''[[tail fiber]]''' long protein component on the lower part of a phage used for specific attachment to bacterial cell
  
usually due to dilation of blood vessels in the area to
+
* '''[[tail pins]]''' points extended at the base of a bacteriophage sheath that, along with tail fibers, lead to phage attachment to a bacterial cell
  
whip-like, filamentous external structure found on
+
* '''[[tapeworms]]''' segmented, hermaphroditic, parasitic flatworms (Platyhelminthes)
  
help bring in white blood cells
+
* '''[[tartar]]''' calcified heavy plaque on teeth, also called dental calculus taxonomy the classification, description, identification, and naming of living organisms
  
* '''[[extrachromosomal DNA]]''' additional molecules of
+
* '''[[T-dependent antigen]]''' a protein antigen that is only capable of activating a B cell with the cooperation of a helper T cell
  
some eukaryotic cells; composed of microtubules in
+
* '''[[TDP]]''' thermal death point is the lowest temperature at which all microorganisms are killed in a 10-minute exposure
  
DNA distinct from the chromosomes that are also
+
* '''[[TDT]]''' thermal death time is the length of time needed to kill all microorganisms in a sample at a given temperature
  
a 9+2 arrangement; used for locomotion
+
* '''[[telomerase]]''' enzyme that attaches to the end of a linear chromosome and adds nucleotides to the 3’ end of one of the DNA strands, maintaining the telomere sequence, thus preventing loss of DNA from the end of the chromosome
  
* '''[[erythrocyte]]''' red blood cell
+
* '''[[telomere]]''' repetitive, noncoding sequence found at the end of a linear eukaryotic chromosome that protects the genes near the end of the chromosome from deletion as the DNA molecule is repeatedly replicated
  
part of the cell’s genome
+
* '''[[temperate phage]]''' bacteriophage that can incorporate viral genome into the host cell chromosome and replicate with the host cell until new viruses are produced; a phage that undergoes the lysogenic cycle
  
* '''[[flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD/FADH]]'''2]]''')]]'''
+
* '''[[teratogenic]]''' able to disrupt the normal development of a fetus in utero
  
* '''[[erythrogenic toxin]]''' exotoxin produced by some
+
* '''[[terbinafine]]''' antifungal drug of the allylamine class that is used topically for the treatment of dermatophytic skin infections
  
* '''[[extravasation]]''' process by which leukocytes pass
+
* '''[[termination of DNA replication]]''' stage of replication during which DNA replication is halted once the chromosome has been fully replicated
  
oxidized/reduced forms of an electron carrier in cells
+
* '''[[termination of transcription]]''' stage of transcription that occurs when RNA polymerase has reached specific DNA sequences, leading to release of the enzyme from the DNA template, freeing the RNA transcript and, thus, halting transcription
  
strains of Streptococcus pyogenes; activity of the
+
* '''[[termination of translation]]''' stage of translation during which a nonsense codon aligns with the A site, signaling release factors to release of the polypeptide, leading to the dissociation of the small and large ribosomal subunits from the mRNA and from each other
  
through capillary walls to reach infected tissue; also
+
* '''[[tertiary structure]]''' large-scale, three-dimensional structure of a polypeptide
  
* '''[[flocculant]]''' visible aggregation that forms between a
+
* '''[[test sensitivity]]''' probability that a diagnostic test will find evidence of the targeted disease when the pathogen is present
  
toxin can produce the characteristic rash of scarlet
+
* '''[[test specificity]]''' probability that a diagnostic test will not find evidence of the targeted disease when the pathogen is absent
  
called diapedesis
+
* '''[[testes]]''' (singular testis) pair of glands located in the scrotum of males that produce sperm and testosterone
  
substance in suspension (e.g., lipid in water) and
+
* '''[[tetanus]]''' bacterial disease caused by exotoxin produced by Clostridium tetani that causes a rigid paralysis
  
fever
+
* '''[[tetracyclines]]''' class of protein synthesis inhibitors that bind to the 30S subunit, blocking the association of tRNAs with the ribosome during translation
  
antibodies against the substance
+
* '''[[TH1 cells]]''' subtype of T cells that stimulate cytotoxic T cells, macrophages, neutrophils, and NK cells
  
* '''[[erythromycin]]''' protein synthesis inhibitor of the
+
* '''[[TH17 cells]]''' subtype of T cell that are essential for defense against specific pathogens and infections, such as chronic mucocutaneous infections with C. albicans
  
* '''[[flow cytometry]]''' technique analyzing cells for
+
* '''[[TH2 cells]]''' subtype of T cells that stimulate B cells and direct their differentiation; also involved in directing antibody class switching
  
macrolide class that is often used as an alternative to
+
* '''[[thallus]]''' body of fleshy fungi (more generally, a body without a root, stem, or leaf) that commonly co-occurs with HIV infection; the microbes move to the lymphatic system in the groin
  
fluorescence intensity; specific subsets of cells are
+
* '''[[thermophile]]''' a microorganism that grows best at warm temperatures, typically between about 50 °C and 80 °C
  
penicillin
+
* '''[[thin sections]]''' thin slices of tissue for examination under a TEM
  
* '''[[F]]'''
+
* '''[[thioglycolate medium]]''' medium designed to test the aerotolerance of bacteria; it contains a low concentration of agar to allow motile bacteria to move throughout the medium
  
usually labeled in some way prior to the analysis
+
* '''[[thioglycolate tube culture]]''' contains reducing medium through which oxygen diffuses from the tube opening, producing a range of oxygen environments down the length of the tube
  
* '''[[eschar]]''' a localized mass of dead skin tissue
+
* '''[[thrombocytes]]''' see platelets
  
* '''[[F]]'''-]]''' (recipient) cell]]''' E. coli cell lacking the F plasmid
+
* '''[[thylakoids]]''' a highly dynamic collection of membranous sacs found in the stroma of chloroplasts; site of photosynthesis
  
* '''[[fluconazole]]''' antifungal drug of the imidazole class
+
* '''[[thymic selection]]''' a three-step process of negative and positive selection of T cells in the thymus
  
and thus incapable of forming a conjugation pilus
+
* '''[[thymine dimer]]''' covalent linkage between two adjacent thymine bases on exposure to ultraviolet radiation
  
that is administered orally or intravenously for the
+
* '''[[thymine]]''' pyrimidine nitrogenous base found only in DNA nucleotides
  
* '''[[Etest]]''' simple, rapid method for determining MIC,
+
* '''[[tincture]]''' solution of an antiseptic compound dissolved in alcohol
  
but capable of receiving the F plasmid during
+
* '''[[T-independent antigen]]''' a nonprotein antigen that can activate a B cell without cooperation from a helper T cell
  
treatment of several types of systemic yeast
+
* '''[[tinea]]''' any cutaneous fungal infection caused by dermatophytes, such as tinea corporis, tinea capitis, tinea cruris, and tinea pedis
  
involving commercially available plastic strips that
+
* '''[[tinea capitis]]''' cutaneous mycosis of the scalp; also known as ringworm of the scalp
  
conjugation
+
* '''[[tinea corporis]]''' cutaneous mycosis of the body; also known as ringworm of the body
  
infections
+
* '''[[tinea cruris]]''' cutaneous mycosis of the groin region; also known as jock itch
  
contain a gradient of an antimicrobial and are placed
+
* '''[[tinea pedis]]''' cutaneous mycosis of the feet; also known as athlete’s foot
  
on an agar plate inoculated with a bacterial lawn
+
* '''[[tissue tropism]]''' tendency of most viruses to infect only certain tissue types within a host
  
* '''[[F pilus (F pili)]]''' specialized type of pilus that aids in
+
* '''[[titer]]''' concentration obtained by titration; the reciprocal of a measurement of biological activity determined by finding the dilution of an unknown (e.g., antigen-specific antibody in an antiserum) that shows the defined end-point; always expressed as a whole number
  
* '''[[fluid mosaic model]]''' refers to the ability of
+
* '''[[tolerance]]''' lack of an anti-self immune response
  
DNA transfer between cells; conjugation pilus of E.
+
* '''[[toll-like receptors (TLRs)]]''' pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs) that may be found on the external surface of phagocytes or facing inward in interior compartments
  
membrane components to move fluidly within the
+
* '''[[tonsillitis]]''' inflammation of the tonsils
  
* '''[[etiologic agent]]''' the pathogen or substance
+
* '''[[topoisomerase]]''' type of enzyme that helps maintain the structure of supercoiled chromosomes, preventing overwinding of DNA during certain cellular processes like DNA replication
  
coli
+
* '''[[topoisomerase II]]''' enzyme responsible for facilitating topological transitions of DNA, relaxing it from its supercoiled state
  
plane of the membrane, as well as the mosaic-like
+
* '''[[total magnification]]''' in a light microscope is a value calculated by multiplying the magnification of the ocular by the magnification of the objective lenses
  
responsible for causing a particular disease;
+
* '''[[toxemia]]''' presence of toxins in the blood
  
* '''[[F plasmid (fertility factor)]]''' bacterial plasmid in E.
+
* '''[[toxic shock syndrome]]''' severe condition marked by the loss of blood pressure and blood clot formation caused by a bacterial superantigen, toxic shock syndrome toxin
  
composition of the components
+
* '''[[toxigenicity]]''' ability of a pathogen to produce toxins to cause damage to host cells
  
causative agent
+
* '''[[toxin]]''' poison produced by a pathogen
  
coli containing genes encoding the ability to
+
* '''[[toxoid vaccine]]''' vaccine that contains inactivated bacterial toxins
  
* '''[[flukes]]''' any of the parasitic nonsegmented flatworms
+
* '''[[toxoplasmosis]]''' typically asymptomatic protozoan infection caused by Toxoplasma spp. and transmitted through contact with cysts in cat feces; infections in pregnant women may cause birth defects or miscarriage
  
* '''[[etiology]]''' the science of the causes of disease
+
* '''[[trace element]]''' indispensable element present in cells in lower amounts than macronutrients; also called micronutrient
  
conjugate, including genes encoding the formation
+
* '''[[trachea]]''' also known as the windpipe, this is a stiffened tube of cartilage that runs from the larynx to the bronchi
  
(trematodes) that have an oral sucker and sometimes
+
* '''[[trachoma]]''' a type of conjunctivitis, caused by Chlamydia trachomatis, that is a major cause of preventable blindness
  
of the conjugation pilus
+
* '''[[transcription bubble]]''' region of unwinding of the DNA double helix during transcription
  
a second ventral sucker; they attach to the inner
+
* '''[[transcription factors]]''' proteins encoded by regulatory genes that function by influencing the binding of RNA polymerase to the promoter and allowing its progression to transcribe structural genes
  
* '''[[Eukarya]]''' the domain of life that includes all
+
* '''[[transcription]]''' process of synthesizing RNA using the information encoded in DNA
  
unicellular and multicellular organisms with cells
+
* '''[[transcriptomics]]''' the study of the entire collection of mRNA molecules produced by cells; involves monitoring differences in gene expression patterns between cells at the mRNA level
  
* '''[[F’ plasmid]]''' integrated F plasmid imprecisely excised
+
* '''[[transduction]]''' mechanism of horizontal gene transfer in bacteria in which genes are transferred through viral infection
  
walls of intestines, lungs, large blood vessels, or the
+
* '''[[transendothelial migration]]''' process by which circulating leukocytes exit the bloodstream via the microvascular endothelium
  
from the chromosome; carries with it some
+
* '''[[transfection]]''' the introduction of recombinant DNA molecules into eukaryotic hosts
  
liver in human hosts
+
* '''[[transformation]]''' mechanism of horizontal gene transfer in bacteria in which naked environmental DNA is taken up by a bacterial cell
  
that contain membrane-bound nuclei and organelles
+
* '''[[transgenic]]''' describing an organism into which foreign DNA from a different species has been introduced
  
chromosomal DNA adjacent to the integration site
+
* '''[[transient microbiota]]''' microorganisms, sometimes pathogenic, that are only temporarily found in the human body
  
* '''[[fluorescence microscope]]''' a microscope that uses
+
* '''[[transition reaction]]''' reaction linking glycolysis to the Krebs cycle, during which each pyruvate is decarboxylated and oxidized (forming NADH), and the resulting two-carbon acetyl group is attached to a large carrier molecule called coenzyme A, resulting in the formation of acetyl-CoA and CO; also called the bridge reaction
  
* '''[[eukaryote]]''' an organism made up of one or more
+
* '''[[translation (protein synthesis)]]''' process of protein synthesis whereby a ribosome decodes an mRNA message into a polypeptide product
  
* '''[[F]]'''+]]''' (donor) cell]]''' E. coli cell containing the F plasmid,
+
* '''[[transmissible spongiform encephalopathy]]''' degenerative disease caused by prions; leads to the death of neurons in the brain
  
natural fluorochromes or fluorescent stains to
+
* '''[[transmission electron microscope (TEM)]]''' a type of electron microscope that uses an electron beam, focused with magnets, that passes through a thin specimen
  
cells that contain a membrane-bound nucleus and
+
* '''[[transmittance]]''' the amount of light that passes through a medium
  
capable of forming a conjugation pilus
+
* '''[[transparency]]''' the property of allowing light to pass through
  
increase contrast
+
* '''[[transport vesicle]]''' membranous sac that carries molecules between various components of the endomembrane system
  
organelles
+
* '''[[transposition]]''' process whereby a DNA sequence known as a transposon independently excises from one location in a DNA molecule and integrates elsewhere
  
* '''[[Fab region]]''' arm of an antibody molecule that
+
* '''[[transposon (transposable element)]]''' molecule of DNA that can independently excise from one location in a DNA molecule and integrate into the DNA elsewhere
  
* '''[[fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS)]]'''
+
* '''[[trench fever]]''' louseborne disease caused by Bartonella quintana and characterized by high fever, body aches, conjunctivitis, ocular pain, severe headaches, and severe bone pain
  
* '''[[eukaryotic cell]]''' has a nucleus surrounded by a
+
* '''[[trench mouth]]''' a severe form of gingivitis, also called acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis
  
includes an antigen-binding site
+
* '''[[treponemal serologic tests]]''' tests for syphilis that measure the amount of antibody directed against antigens associated with Treponema pallidum
  
technique for using a flow cytometer to physically
+
* '''[[triacylglycerol]]''' three fatty acids chemically linked to a glycerol molecule; also called a triglyceride
  
complex nuclear membrane that contains multiple,
+
* '''[[triazoles]]''' ergosterol biosynthesis inhibitors used to treat several types of systemic yeast infections; exhibit more selective toxicity than the imidazoles and are associated with fewer side effects
  
separate cells into two populations based on
+
* '''[[tricarboxylic acid cycle]]''' see Krebs cycle
  
rod-shaped chromosomes
+
* '''[[trichinosis]]''' soil-transmitted intestinal infection caused by the nematode Trichinella spiralis; associated with cyst formation
  
* '''[[facultative anaerobe]]''' organism that grows better in
+
* '''[[trichomoniasis]]''' a common STI caused by Trichomonas vaginalis
  
fluorescence intensity
+
* '''[[trichuriasis]]''' intestinal infection caused by the whipworm Trichuris trichiura
  
* '''[[eustachian tube]]''' small passage between the
+
* '''[[triglyceride]]''' three fatty acids chemically linked to a glycerol molecule; also called a triacylglycerol
  
the presence of oxygen but can proliferate in its
+
* '''[[trimethoprim]]''' synthetic antimicrobial compound that functions as an antimetabolite to an enzyme in the bacterial folic acid synthesis pathway
  
nasopharynx and the middle ear that allows pressure
+
* '''[[tRNA]]''' small type of stable RNA that carries the correct amino acid to the site of protein synthesis in the ribosome and base pairs with the mRNA to allow the amino acid it carries to be inserted in the polypeptide chain being synthesized
  
absence
+
* '''[[trophozoite]]''' a life cycle phase in which protists are actively feeding and growing
  
* '''[[fluorescent antibody (FA) techniques]]''' suite of
+
* '''[[tubercle]]''' small, rounded lesion
  
assays that use a fluorescently labeled antibody to
+
* '''[[tuberculosis]]''' life-threatening form of microbial infection marked by the presence of acid-fast bacteria growing in nodules (especially in the lungs)
  
to equalize across the tympanic membrane
+
* '''[[tularemia]]''' infection of the lymphatic system by Francisella tularensis; also known as rabbit fever
  
* '''[[false negative]]''' negative result to a test for an
+
* '''[[tumbles (tumbling)]]''' random, circuitous movement of a bacterial cell, propelled by clockwise flagellar rotation
  
bind to and so make an antigen easy to visualize
+
* '''[[tumor]]''' collection or aggregate of cells; can be benign (noncancerous) or malignant (cancerous)
  
* '''[[eutrophs]]''' microorganisms that require a copious
+
* '''[[tumor-inducing (Ti) plasmid]]''' a naturally occurring plasmid of the bacterium Agrobacterium tumefaciens that researchers use as a shuttle vector to introduce a desired DNA fragment into plant cells
  
infection or condition (e.g., presence of antigen,
+
* '''[[turbidity]]''' cloudiness of a culture due to refraction of light by cells and particles
  
antibody, or nucleic acid) when the infection or
+
* '''[[two-photon microscope]]''' a microscope that uses long-wavelength or infrared light to fluoresce fluorochromes in the specimen
  
* '''[[fluorescent enzyme immunoassay (FEIA)]]''' EIA in
+
* '''[[tympanic membrane]]''' also referred to as the ear drum, this structure separates the outer and middle ear
  
amount of organic nutrients; also called copiotrophs
+
* '''[[type 1 diabetes mellitus]]''' hyperglycemia caused by an autoimmune disease affecting insulin production by β cells of the pancreas
  
condition is actually present
+
* '''[[type I hypersensitivity]]''' rapid-onset allergic reaction due to cross-linking of antigen-specific IgE on the outside of mast cells, resulting in release of inflammatory mediators
  
which the substrate is a fluorogen that becomes
+
* '''[[type II hypersensitivity]]''' cytotoxic reaction triggered by IgG and IgM antibodies binding to antigens on cell surfaces
  
fluorescent following reaction with the enzyme
+
* '''[[type III hypersensitivity]]''' inflammatory reaction induced by formation of immune complexes and their deposition in tissues and blood vessels
  
* '''[[excystment]]''' the process of emerging from a cyst
+
* '''[[type IV hypersensitivity]]''' delayed T-cell-mediated inflammatory reaction that takes longer to manifest than the first three hypersensitivity types, due to the need for activation of antigen-presenting cell and T-cell subsets
  
* '''[[false positive]]''' positive result to a test for an infection
+
* '''[[typhoid fever]]''' serious illness caused by infection with certain serotypes of Salmonella
  
* '''[[exergonic reaction]]''' chemical reaction that does not
+
==U==
  
or condition (e.g., presence of antigen, antibody, or
+
* '''[[UHT pasteurization]]''' method of pasteurization that exposes milk to ultra-high temperatures (near 140 °C) for a few seconds, effectively sterilizing it so that it can be sealed and stored for long periods without refrigeration
  
* '''[[fluorescent<