Calculus (medicine)

From WikiMD free wellness and medical encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

A calculus (plural calculi) is a stone (a concretion of material, usually mineral salts) that forms in an organ or duct of the body. Formation of calculi is known as lithiasis. Stones can cause a number of medical conditions.

Some common principles (below) apply to stones at any location, but for specifics see the particular stone type in question.

Calculi are not to be confused with gastroliths.

Types of lithiasis

  • Calculi in the renal system (kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra) can be of any one of several compositions, including mixed. Principal compositions include oxalate and urate.
  • Calculi of gall bladder/ bile-duct are primarily developed from bile-salts and cholesterole derivatives.
  • Calculi in the nasal passages (rhinoliths) are rare.
  • Calculi in the gastrointestinal tract (enteroliths) can be enormous. Individual enteroliths weighing many pounds have been reported in horses.
  • Salivary duct calculus
  • Tonsillolith

Calculi usually are asymptomatic, and large calculi may have required many years to grow to their large size.

Etiology

In kidney stones, calcium oxalate is the most common mineral type (see Nephrolithiasis). Uric acid is the second most common mineral type, but an in vitro study showed uric acid stones and crystals can promote the formation of calcium oxalate stones.[1]

Pathophysiology and symptoms

Stones can cause disease by several mechanisms:

  • Irritation of nearby tissues, causing pain, swelling, and inflammation
  • Obstruction of an opening or duct, interfering with normal flow and disrupting the function of the organ in question
  • Predisposition to infection (often due to disruption of normal flow)

A number of important medical conditions are caused by stones:

Diagnosis

Diagnostic workup varies by the stone type, but in general:

  • Clinical history and physical examination
  • Imaging studies
    • Some stone types (mainly those with substantial calcium content) can be detected on X-ray and CT scan
    • Many stone types can be detected by ultrasound
  • Factors contributing to stone formation (as in #Etiology) are often tested:
    • Laboratory testing can give levels of relevant substances in blood or urine
    • Some stones can be directly recovered (at surgery, or when they leave the body spontaneously) and sent to a laboratory for analysis of content

Treatment

Modification of predisposing factors can sometimes slow or reverse stone formation. Treatment varies by stone type, but, in general:

History

The earliest operation for curing stones is also given in the Sushruta Samhita (6th century BCE).[2]The operation involved exposure and going up through the floor of the bladder.[2]

The care of this disease was forbidden to the physicians that had taken the Hippocratic Oath because

  • There was a high probability of intraoperative and postoperative surgical complication like infection or bleeding
  • The physicians would not perform surgery as in ancient cultures they were two different professions

See also

References

Metabolic.jpg

Featured disease

Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of the most dangerous heart attack risk factors: diabetes and prediabetes, abdominal obesity, high triglycerides, low HDL cholesterol and high blood pressure.

Affects one in three adults

Affecting about 35 percent of all adults in the United States according to the CDC, metabolic syndrome contributes to weight gain, by causing a state of internal starvation called metabolic starvation. This in turn leads to increases hunger, sugar cravings and increased portions leading to overeating and weight gain.

Cause and effect misunderstood

Since we traditionally thought that the portion control (which in turn was attributed wrongly to poor will power)is the cause of weight gain, rather than the effect of this metabolic starvation, all our traditional ideas about cause and effect of obesity were not only wrong but lead to the “blame the victim” attitude when it comes to obesity.

Secret of weight gain revealed

Secret of weight gain, and metabolic syndrome revealed - it has been recently proven that metabolic syndrome, and the weight gain itself are caused by a process called insulin resistance. Check your metabolic syndrome risk using the free Metabolic syndrome meter. Watch this amazing Ted Med video that reveals the secret of weight loss - Stop blaming the victim for obesity


External links


 

WikiMD Resources 360 - Calculus (medicine)
360.png
Scientific articles to social media

Articles

Policies / Guidelines
  1. Most recent articles
  2. Most cited articles
  3. Review articles
  4. in N Eng J Med, Lancet, BMJ
  1. US National Guidelines Clearinghouse
  2. NICE Guidance
  3. FDA on Calculus (medicine)
  4. CDC on Calculus (medicine)

Media articles

Patient Resources / Community
  1. Powerpoint Slides
  2. Images
  3. Podcasts & MP3s
  4. Videos
  1. Patient Resources
  2. Discussion groups
  3. Patient Handouts
  4. Doctors Calculus (medicine)

Evidence Based Medicine

Healthcare Provider Resources
  1. Cochrane Collaboration
  2. Bandolier
  3. TRIP
  4. Edidence Based Medicine
  1. Condition/symptom
  2. Causes & Risk Factors
  3. Tests/studies
  4. Treatment

Clinical Trials

News
  1. Ongoing Clinical Trials
  2. Trial results
  3. Clinical Trials at Google
  1. Calculus (medicine) in the news
  2. Be alerted on news
  3. News trends

Definition - Calculus (medicine)

Social media posts - Calculus (medicine)
  1. Definitions
Flickr

Books on the topic

Bing.png
  1. Books on Calculus (medicine)
  2. Amazon on Calculus (medicine)
Facebook posts
Tumblr

Continuing medical education (CME)

Quora.png
  1. CME Programs
Tweets
Commentary & Blogs
Yelp.png
  1. Blogs
  2. Commentary
  3. FAQ
  4. .Gov
  5. PDF files
YouTube videos
Pins
Instagram.png
Reddit
External:W8MD Weight Loss, Sleep & MedSpa Wellness Topics A-Z
W8md-logo.jpg

A | B | C | D | E | F | G

H | I | J | K | L | M | N

O | P | Q | R | S | T | U

V | W | X | Y | Z



W8md2.jpg

World's largest food, health, weight loss, wellnesspedia and encyclopedia

If you are a medical professional or an expert in any field of medicine, please join us in building the world's largest weight loss and wellness encyclopedia created by experts in the field, not by the crowd. WikiMD is sponsored by W8MD weight loss, sleep and medical aesthetic centers


W8MD Weight Loss, Sleep & Medical Aesthetic Centers

Since its inception in 2011, W8MD’s insurance physician weight loss program has successfully helped thousands of patients succeed in not only losing weight but also keep it off with an ongoing maintenance plan.

FANTASTIC PROGRAM. TRULY A LIFE CHANGER. D.M. LOST 100 LBS^^

weight loss success stories

^^Individual results may vary.

Weight-loss.jpg

W8MD weight loss, sleep and medical spa blogs


Support our sponsors

W8MD weight loss, sleep and medspa centers sponsors WikiMD.

W8MD's Locations for losing weight, sleeping better and looking your best

Philadelphia

weight loss Philadelphia | Sleep center Philadelphia

King of Prussia

Lose weight King of Prussia | sleep doctor King of Prussia

New York

Weight loss NYC | Fast weight loss NYC | Lose weight NYC | Sleep apnea NYC

New Jersey

New Jersey Weight Loss, Sleep and Medical Spa Cherry Hill NJ

Other W8MD blogs

Lorcaserin weight loss | Qsymia weight loss | Phentermine weight loss | Weight loss blog | Free weight loss | Saxenda weight loss | Contrave weight loss


Cite error: <ref> tags exist, but no <references/> tag was found

WikiMD Sponsors: W8MD Weight Loss, Sleep & Medical Aesthetics


W8MD weight loss, sleep, medspa and IV nutrition

Tired of being overweight or obese? W8MD's insurance weight loss program can HELP

  • W8MD IV Nutrition: Our IM and IV nutrition therapy includes booster shots for B12, vitamin B complex, Vitamin C, Detox treatments and IV nutrition therapy. learn more…
W8MD weight loss locations: Philadelphia weight loss | King of Prussia, PA weight loss | NYC weight loss | NJ weight loss

Medical Aesthetics

Contact us (718) 946-5501 | Why advertise on WikiMD?


Disclaimer: The entire contents of WIKIMD.ORG are for informational purposes only and do not render medical advice or professional services. If you have a medical emergency, you should CALL 911 immediately! Given the nature of the wiki, the information provided may not be accurate and or incorrect. Use the information on this wiki at your own risk! See full Disclaimers.WikiMD is supported by W8MD Weight loss, Poly-Tech Sleep & Medical Aesthetic Centers of America.