Splenomegaly

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Enlargement of the spleen is called Splenomegaly.

Anatomy of Spleen

Your spleen is an organ above your stomach and under your ribs on your left side. It is about as big as your fist. The spleen is part of your lymphatic system, which fights infection and keeps your body fluids in balance. It contains white blood cells that fight germs. Your spleen also helps control the amount of blood in your body, and destroys old and damaged cells.

Certain diseases might cause your spleen to swell. You can also damage or rupture your spleen in an injury, especially if it is already swollen. If your spleen is too damaged, you might need surgery to remove it. You can live without a spleen. Other organs, such as your liver, will take over some of the spleen's work. Without a spleen, however, your body will lose some of its ability to fight infections.

About Spleen

The spleen is located on the left side of the abdomen.

Two organs in one

It can be considered as two organs in one, since it:

  • Filters the blood and removes abnormal cells, such as old and defective red blood cells.
  • Produces disease-fighting components of the immune system, including antibodies and lymphocytes.

Normal size of spleen

The healthy adult spleen weighs around 200g. However, a variety of disorders can cause the spleen to enlarge, sometimes to 2kg or more.

Enlarged spleen

Any conditions that cause a rapid breakdown of blood cells, such as any of the haemolytic anaemias, can place great strain on the spleen and make it enlarge. Other causes of splenomegaly include infections, liver disease and some cancers.

Symptoms of splenomegaly

Symptoms of splenomegaly include: Enlarged spleen, which can be felt by palpating the abdomen Other symptoms, depending on the cause.  

Causes of splenomegaly

Since the spleen is involved in so many bodily functions, it is vulnerable to a wide range of disorders. Some of the causes of splenomegaly include:

  • Cirrhosis of the liver – which can increase the blood pressure inside the vessels of the spleen.
  • Cystic fibrosis – a genetic disorder, characterised by excessive mucus production, particularly in the lungs and pancreas.
  • Cytomegalovirus – a common viral infection that causes mild, flu-like symptoms.
  • Glandular fever – an infection caused by the Epstein-Barr virus.
  • Haemolytic anaemias such as thalassaemia, a genetic disorder that affects the production of the oxygen-carrying protein in red blood cells (haemoglobin).
  • Hodgkin’s disease – cancer of the lymphatic system.
  • Leukaemia – cancer of the bone marrow that affects the blood cells.
  • Lymphoma – cancer of the lymph nodes of the lymphatic system.
  • Malaria – a parasite transmitted to humans by the bite of infected mosquitoes.

 

Diagnosis of splenomegaly

Diagnosing splenomegaly involves a number of tests, including: Physical examination Ultrasound or abdominal x-ray Computed tomography (CT) scan Blood tests, to check for underlying disorders.  

Treatment for splenomegaly

Treatment for splenomegaly depends on the underlying condition. For example, radiation therapy and chemotherapy may be used to treat cancers, while regular blood transfusions are needed to manage thalassaemia.  

Ruptured spleen

Certain disorders, including glandular fever, can occasionally make the enlarged spleen delicate enough to rupture. A person with splenomegaly should take care to avoid all contact sports and any other activities that could potentially deliver a hard impact to their abdomen. An overzealous palpation of the abdomen or a sudden blow can split the outer capsule of the spleen and cause bleeding into the abdominal cavity. In this instance, surgery to remove the spleen (splenectomy) is needed. The body seems to cope without the spleen, despite this organ’s many vital functions. However, the person may find they have an increased susceptibility to infection following the operation. Their blood may also contain odd-shaped red blood cells. In some cases, it may be possible to leave healthy portions of spleen intact, and only remove the diseased or damaged parts. This allows the spleen to keep performing its usual functions.


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Read Wikipedia's article on Splenomegaly

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