Sodium Glucose Cotransporter-2 (SGLT-2) Inhibitors

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Information about Sodium Glucose Cotransporter-2 (SGLT-2) Inhibitors

The sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors are diabetic agents that act by inhibiting the reabsorption of glucose in the proximal renal tubule, resulting in loss of glucose in the urine and reduction in serum levels.

Mechanism of action of Sodium Glucose Cotransporter-2 (SGLT-2) Inhibitors

SGLT-2 is the major enzyme responsible for glucose reabsorption in the kidney and its inhibition causes a reduction in the threshold for glucose loss in urine. The excess loss of glucose causes a loss of calories, reduction in serum glucose and mild osmotic diuresis.

Weight loss with Sodium Glucose Cotransporter-2 (SGLT-2) Inhibitors

The SGLT-2 inhibitors also cause a modest weight loss, which may contribute to their beneficial effects.

Types of Sodium Glucose Cotransporter-2 (SGLT-2) Inhibitors

Three specific SGLT-2 inhibitors, canagliflozin, dapagliflozin and empagliflozin, have been shown to result in improvements in glycemic control in type 2 diabetes and introduced into clinical use.

Liver safety of Sodium Glucose Cotransporter-2 (SGLT-2) Inhibitors

In prelicensure studies, none of the three agents was reported to be associated with increases in serum aminotransferase or alkaline phosphatase levels and, since licensure, there have been only very rare reports of clinically apparent liver injury associated with their use.

Antidiabetics

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