Nizatidine

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Information about Nizatidine

Nizatidine is a histamine type 2 receptor antagonist (H2 blocker) which is widely used for treatment of acid-peptic disease and heartburn. 

Liver safety of Nizatidine

Nizatidine has been linked to rare instances of clinically apparent acute liver injury.

Mechanism of action of Nizatidine

Nizatidine (nye za' ti deen) was the fourth histamine type 2 receptor blocker (H2 blocker) introduced into clinical practice in the United States and is a commonly used agent for treatment of duodenal and gastric ulcer and gastroesophageal reflux disease.  Other H2 blockers in clinical use include cimetidine, ranitidine and famotidine.  The H2 blockers are specific antagonists of the histamine type 2 receptor, which is found on the basolateral (antiluminal) membrane of gastric parietal cells.  The binding of the agent to the H2 receptor results in inhibition of acid production and secretion, and improvement in symptoms and signs of acid-peptic disease.  The H2 blockers inhibit an early, “upstream” step in gastric acid production and are less potent that the proton pump inhibitors, which inhibit the final common step in acid secretion.  Nevertheless, the H2 blockers inhibit 24 hour gastric acid production by about 70% and are most effective in blocking basal and nocturnal acid production. 

FDA approval information for Nizatidine

Nizatidine was first approved for use in the United States in 1988 and is now available both by prescription and over-the-counter.  The listed indications for nizatidine are duodenal and gastric ulcer disease, gastroesophageal reflux and prevention of stress ulcers.  Nizatidine is available by prescription in capsules of 150 and 300 mg in several generic forms and in both oral and parenteral forms under the brand name Axid.  Over-the-counter preparations of nizatidine are usually tablets of 75 mg (Axid-AR). 

Side effects of Nizatidine

Side effects are uncommon, usually minor, and include diarrhea, constipation, fatigue, drowsiness, headache and muscle aches.

The antiulcer agents in clinical use

Proton Pump Inhibitors

Selective Histamine Type 2 Receptor Antagonists or H2 Blockers

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