Information about Luteinizing hormone
Luteinizing hormone(LH) is a pituitary hormone that is essential for sexual development and reproduction in both men and women. LH is regulated by GnRH from the hypothalamus which is sensitive to circulating levels of sex hormones. LH interacts with receptors on ovarian follicles and promotes their maturation. In the middle of the menstrual cycle, a surge of LH triggers ovulation and production of progesterone by the corpus luteum that is necessary for the maturation of the uterine endometrium for implantation of the fertilized egg. In males, LH stimulates production of testosterone by the testes.
Clinical use of Luteinizing hormone
LH is used clinically in assisted reproduction techniques (ART) and in vitro fertilization (IVF) to stimulate ovarian follicle maturation. Both urinary derived (menotropin, Menopur, which also has FSH activity) and recombinant forms (lutropin alfa: Luveris) of human LH have been developed, but not all are available in the United States. LH is generally administered by subcutaneous injection in a cyclic and step-wise fashion. The dosages and regimens of administration vary by indication. These agents should be used only by health care workers with expertise in management of infertility and hypogonadism. Human chorionic gonadotropin(kor" ee on' ik) (hCG) is a polypeptide hormone produced by the placenta following implantation of the fertilized egg. Circulating human chorionic gonadotropin interacts with the luteinizing hormone receptors of the ovary, promoting the corpus luteum and its production of progesterone which is necessary to maintain pregnancy and support the growth of the fetus. Injections of hCG mimic the surge in LH that is necessary for ovulation and are used in the therapy of female infertility, in assisted reproduction techniques. In clinical trials, hCG resulted in pregnancies in approximately 30% of women. hCG prepared from urine of pregnant women and was approved for use in the United States in 1967 as treatment of ovulatory dysfunction in women desiring pregnancy. Subsequently, recombinant forms of hCG have been developed and licensed for use.
Dosage and administration for Luteinizing hormone
Currently, hCG is available as a powder or in solution generically and under trade names such as Novarel and Pregnyl. Recombinant hCG is available as Overle. The dose and regimen of hCG therapy varies by indication and it should be used only by physicians with expertise in the management of infertility and hypogonadism.
Side effects of Luteinizing hormone
Common side effects include headache, nausea, anorexia, and local injection reactions. Uncommon, but potentially severe adverse events include ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. Gonadotropin releasing hormone(GnRH) is a decapeptide, neurohormone produced in the hypothalamus and released in a pulsatile manner. GnRH acts on the pituitary leading to synthesis and secretion of LH and FSH. GnRH activity is low during childhood and increases markedly during puberty.
Clinical use of Luteinizing hormone
The proper pulsatile activity of GnRH is necessary for reproduction, but once pregnancy is established it is no longer necessary, gonadotropin activity being assumed by chorionic gonadotropin produced by the placenta. Synthetic GnRH is used as a part of assisted reproductive techniques as a means of controlling ovarian overstimulation. GnRH is available in solution for injection and its use should be restricted to physicians with expertise in assisted reproductive techniques. In addition, several synthetic GnRH analogues and GnRH antagonists have been developed as therapy of various conditions including hormone-sensitive cancers (breast and prostate), endometriosis and precocious puberty.
Obstetrical and Gynecological Agents