Helminths

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Helminths are large, multicellular organisms that are generally visible to the naked eye in their adult stages. Like protozoa, helminths can be either free-living or parasitic in nature. In their adult form, helminths cannot multiply in humans. There are three main groups of helminths (derived from the Greek word for worms) that are human parasites:

Flatworms (platyhelminths) – these include the trematodes (flukes) and cestodes (tapeworms). Thorny-headed worms (acanthocephalins) – the adult forms of these worms reside in the gastrointestinal tract. The acanthocephala are thought to be intermediate between the cestodes and nematodes. Roundworms (nematodes) – the adult forms of these worms can reside in the gastrointestinal tract, blood, lymphatic system or subcutaneous tissues. Alternatively, the immature (larval) states can cause disease through their infection of various body tissues. Some consider the helminths to also include the segmented worms (annelids)—the only ones important medically are the leeches. Of note, these organisms are not typically considered parasites.

Parasites A-Z Index


Parasitic infections cause a tremendous burden of disease in both the tropics and subtropics as well as in more temperate climates. Of all parasitic diseases, malaria causes the most deaths globally. Malaria kills approximately 660,000 people each year, most of them young children in sub-Saharan Africa.

The Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs), which have suffered from a lack of attention by the public health community, include parasitic diseases such as lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis, and Guinea worm disease. The NTDs affect more than 1 billion people—one-sixth of the world’s population—largely in rural areas of low-income countries. These diseases extract a large toll on endemic populations, including lost ability to attend school or work, retardation of growth in children, impairment of cognitive skills and development in young children, and the serious economic burden placed on entire countries.

However, parasitic infections also affect persons living in developed countries, including the United States.

A-Z Index of parasitic diseases

A

Table of contents:

.A | .B | .C | .D | .E | .F | .G | .H | .I | .J | .K | .L | .M

.N | .O | .P | .Q | .R | .S | .T | .U | .V | .W | .X | .Y | .Z

Acanthamoeba Infection

Acanthamoeba Keratitis Infection

African Sleeping Sickness (African trypanosomiasis)

Alveolar Echinococcosis (Echinococcosis, Hydatid Disease)

Amebiasis (Entamoeba histolytica Infection)

American Trypanosomiasis (Chagas Disease)

Ancylostomiasis (Hookworm)

Angiostrongyliasis (Angiostrongylus Infection)

Anisakiasis (Anisakis Infection, Pseudoterranova Infection)

Ascariasis (Ascaris Infection, Intestinal Roundworms)


B

Table of contents:

.A | .B | .C | .D | .E | .F | .G | .H | .I | .J | .K | .L | .M

.N | .O | .P | .Q | .R | .S | .T | .U | .V | .W | .X | .Y | .Z

Babesiosis (Babesia Infection)

Balantidiasis (Balantidium Infection)

Balamuthia

Baylisascariasis (Baylisascaris Infection, Raccoon Roundworm)

Bed Bugs

Bilharzia (Schistosomiasis)

Blastocystis hominis Infection

Body Lice Infestation (Pediculosis)


C

Table of contents:

.A | .B | .C | .D | .E | .F | .G | .H | .I | .J | .K | .L | .M

.N | .O | .P | .Q | .R | .S | .T | .U | .V | .W | .X | .Y | .Z

Capillariasis (Capillaria Infection)

Cercarial Dermatitis (Swimmer’s Itch)

Chagas Disease (American Trypanosomiasis)

Chilomastix mesnili Infection (Nonpathogenic Harmless Intestinal Protozoa)

Clonorchiasis (Clonorchis Infection)

Cutaneous Larva Migrans, Ancylostomiasis, Hookworm

Crabs Pubic Lice

Cryptosporidiosis (Cryptosporidium Infection)

Cutaneous Larva Migrans (CLM, Ancylostomiasis, Hookworm)

Cyclosporiasis (Cyclospora Infection)

Cysticercosis (Neurocysticercosis)

Cystoisospora Infection (Cystoisosporiasis) formerly Isospora Infection

D

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.A | .B | .C | .D | .E | .F | .G | .H | .I | .J | .K | .L | .M

.N | .O | .P | .Q | .R | .S | .T | .U | .V | .W | .X | .Y | .Z

Dientamoeba fragilis Infection

Diphyllobothriasis (Diphyllobothrium Infection)

Dipylidium caninum Infection (dog or cat tapeworm infection)

Dirofilariasis (Dirofilaria Infection)

DPDx

Dracunculiasis (Guinea Worm Disease)

Drinking Water

Dog tapeworm (Dipylidium caninum Infection)


E

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.A | .B | .C | .D | .E | .F | .G | .H | .I | .J | .K | .L | .M

.N | .O | .P | .Q | .R | .S | .T | .U | .V | .W | .X | .Y | .Z

Echinococcosis (Cystic, Alveolar Hydatid Disease)

Elephantiasis (Filariasis, Lymphatic Filariasis)

Endolimax nana Infection (Nonpathogenic Harmless Intestinal Protozoa)

Entamoeba coli Infection (Nonpathogenic Harmless Intestinal Protozoa)

Entamoeba dispar Infection Nonpathogenic Harmless Intestinal Protozoa)

Entamoeba hartmanni Infection (Nonpathogenic Harmless Intestinal Protozoa)

Entamoeba histolytica Infection (Amebiasis)

Entamoeba polecki

Enterobiasis (Pinworm Infection)

F

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.A | .B | .C | .D | .E | .F | .G | .H | .I | .J | .K | .L | .M

.N | .O | .P | .Q | .R | .S | .T | .U | .V | .W | .X | .Y | .Z

Fascioliasis (Fasciola Infection)

Fasciolopsiasis (Fasciolopsis Infection)

Filariasis (Lymphatic Filariasis, Elephantiasis)

Foodborne Diseases


G

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.N | .O | .P | .Q | .R | .S | .T | .U | .V | .W | .X | .Y | .Z

Giardiasis (Giardia Infection)

Gnathostomiasis (Gnathostoma Infection)

Guinea Worm Disease (Dracunculiasis)


H

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.A | .B | .C | .D | .E | .F | .G | .H | .I | .J | .K | .L | .M

.N | .O | .P | .Q | .R | .S | .T | .U | .V | .W | .X | .Y | .Z

Head Lice Infestation (Pediculosis)

Heterophyiasis (Heterophyes Infection)

Hookworm Infection, Human

Hookworm Infection, Zoonotic (Ancylostomiasis, Cutaneous Larva Migrans CLM)

Hydatid Disease (Cystic, Alveolar Echinococcosis)

Hymenolepiasis (Hymenolepis Infection)

I

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.A | .B | .C | .D | .E | .F | .G | .H | .I | .J | .K | .L | .M

.N | .O | .P | .Q | .R | .S | .T | .U | .V | .W | .X | .Y | .Z

Intestinal Roundworms (AscariasisAscaris Infection)

Iodamoeba buetschlii Infection (Nonpathogenic Harmless Intestinal Protozoa)

Isospora Infection (see Cystoisospora Infection)

K

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.A | .B | .C | .D | .E | .F | .G | .H | .I | .J | .K | .L | .M

.N | .O | .P | .Q | .R | .S | .T | .U | .V | .W | .X | .Y | .Z

Kala-azar (Leishmaniasis, Leishmania Infection)

Keratitis (Acanthamoeba Infection)


L

Table of contents:

.A | .B | .C | .D | .E | .F | .G | .H | .I | .J | .K | .L | .M

.N | .O | .P | .Q | .R | .S | .T | .U | .V | .W | .X | .Y | .Z

Leishmaniasis (Kala-azar, Leishmania Infection)

Lice Infestation (Body, Head, or Pubic Lice, Pediculosis, Pthiriasis)

Liver Flukes (Clonorchiasis, Opisthorchiasis, Fascioliasis)

Loiasis (Loa loa Infection)

Lymphatic filariasis (Filariasis, Elephantiasis)


M

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.A | .B | .C | .D | .E | .F | .G | .H | .I | .J | .K | .L | .M

.N | .O | .P | .Q | .R | .S | .T | .U | .V | .W | .X | .Y | .Z

Malaria (Plasmodium Infection)

Microsporidiosis (Microsporidia Infection )

Mite Infestation (Scabies)

Myiasis


N

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.A | .B | .C | .D | .E | .F | .G | .H | .I | .J | .K | .L | .M

.N | .O | .P | .Q | .R | .S | .T | .U | .V | .W | .X | .Y | .Z

Naegleria Infection

Neurocysticercosis (Cysticercosis)

Neglected Parasitic Infections in the U.S.

Neglected Tropical Diseases

Nonpathogenic (Harmless) Intestinal Protozoa


O

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.A | .B | .C | .D | .E | .F | .G | .H | .I | .J | .K | .L | .M

.N | .O | .P | .Q | .R | .S | .T | .U | .V | .W | .X | .Y | .Z

Ocular Larva Migrans (Toxocariasis, Toxocara Infection, Visceral Larva Migrans)

Onchocerciasis (River Blindness)

Opisthorchiasis (Opisthorchis Infection)


P

Table of contents:

.A | .B | .C | .D | .E | .F | .G | .H | .I | .J | .K | .L | .M

.N | .O | .P | .Q | .R | .S | .T | .U | .V | .W | .X | .Y | .Z

Paragonimiasis (Paragonimus Infection)

Pediculosis (Head or Body Lice Infestation)

Pthiriasis (Pubic Lice Infestation)

Pinworm Infection (Enterobiasis)

Plasmodium Infection (Malaria)

Pneumocystis jirovecii Pneumonia

Pseudoterranova Infection (Anisakiasis, Anisakis Infection)

Pubic Lice Infestation (“Crabs,” Pthiriasis)


R

Table of contents:

.A | .B | .C | .D | .E | .F | .G | .H | .I | .J | .K | .L | .M

.N | .O | .P | .Q | .R | .S | .T | .U | .V | .W | .X | .Y | .Z

Raccoon Roundworm Infection (Baylisascariasis, Baylisascaris Infection)

Recreational Water

River Blindness (Onchocerciasis)


S

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.A | .B | .C | .D | .E | .F | .G | .H | .I | .J | .K | .L | .M

.N | .O | .P | .Q | .R | .S | .T | .U | .V | .W | .X | .Y | .Z

Sappinia

Sarcocystosis (Sarcocystosis Infection)

Scabies

Schistosomiasis (Bilharzia)

Sleeping Sickness (Trypanosomiasis, African; African Sleeping Sickness)

Soil-transmitted Helminths

Strongyloidiasis (Strongyloides Infection)

Swimmer’s Itch (Cercarial Dermatitis)

Swimming Pools


T

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.A | .B | .C | .D | .E | .F | .G | .H | .I | .J | .K | .L | .M

.N | .O | .P | .Q | .R | .S | .T | .U | .V | .W | .X | .Y | .Z

Taeniasis (Taenia Infection, Tapeworm Infection)

Tapeworm Infection (Taeniasis, Taenia Infection)

Toxocariasis (Toxocara Infection, Ocular Larva Migrans, Visceral Larva Migrans)

Toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma Infection)

Trichinellosis (Trichinosis)

Trichinosis (Trichinellosis)

Trichomoniasis (Trichomonas Infection)

Trichuriasis (Whipworm Infection, Trichuris Infection)

Trypanosomiasis, African (African Sleeping Sickness, Sleeping Sickness)

Trypanosomiasis, American (Chagas Disease)


V

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.A | .B | .C | .D | .E | .F | .G | .H | .I | .J | .K | .L | .M

.N | .O | .P | .Q | .R | .S | .T | .U | .V | .W | .X | .Y | .Z

Visceral Larva Migrans (Toxocariasis, Toxocara Infection, Ocular Larva Migrans)


W

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.N | .O | .P | .Q | .R | .S | .T | .U | .V | .W | .X | .Y | .Z

Waterborne Diseases

Whipworm Infection (Trichuriasis, Trichuris Infection)


Z

Table of contents:

.A | .B | .C | .D | .E | .F | .G | .H | .I | .J | .K | .L | .M

.N | .O | .P | .Q | .R | .S | .T | .U | .V | .W | .X | .Y | .Z

Zoonotic Diseases (Diseases spread from animals to people)

Zoonotic Hookworm Infection (Ancylostomiasis, Cutaneous Larva Migrans CLM)

External links

CDC Parasites A-Z Index (external links):

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