Glossary of pathology

From WikiMD
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Table of contents:

.A | .B | .C | .D | .E | .F | .G | .H | .I | .J | .K | .L | .M

.N | .O | .P | .Q | .R | .S | .T | .U | .V | .W | .X | .Y | .Z

#-A

  • acervulus - noun small asexual fruiting body resembling a cushion or blister consisting of a mat of hyphae that is produced on a host by some fungi
  • acid precipitation - noun rain containing acids that form in the atmosphere when industrial gas emissions (especially sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides) combine with water
  • acid rain - noun rain containing acids that form in the atmosphere when industrial gas emissions (especially sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides) combine with water
  • acropetal - adj. of leaves or flowers; developing or opening in succession from base to apex
  • acute - adj. having or experiencing a rapid onset and short but severe course; of critical importance and consequence; extremely sharp or intense; having or demonstrating ability to recognize or draw fine distinctions; of an angle; less than 90 degrees; ending in a sharp point; noun a mark (') placed above a vowel to indicate pronunciation
  • aeciospore - noun spore of a rust fungus formed in an aecium
  • aecium - noun fruiting body of some rust fungi bearing chains of aeciospores
  • aflatoxin - noun a potent carcinogen from the fungus Aspergillus; can be produced and stored for use as a bioweapon
  • agar - noun a colloidal extract of algae; used especially in culture media and as a gelling agent in foods; any culture medium that uses agar as the gelling agent
  • aggressiveness - noun a natural disposition to be hostile; the quality of being bold and enterprising; a feeling of hostility that arouses thoughts of attack
  • allele - noun either of a pair (or series) of alternative forms of a gene that can occupy the same locus on a particular chromosome and that control the same character
  • amphimixis - noun union of sperm and egg in sexual reproduction;reproduction involving the union or fusion of a male and a female gamete
  • anaerobic - adj. living or active in the absence of free oxygen; not aerobic
  • anastomosis - noun a natural or surgical joining of parts or branches of tubular structures so as to make or become continuous
  • antibiotic - adj. of or relating to antibiotic drugs; noun a chemical substance derivable from a mold or bacterium that kills microorganisms and cures infections
  • antibody - noun any of a large variety of proteins normally present in the body or produced in response to an antigen which it neutralizes, thus producing an immune response
  • antigen - noun any substance (as a toxin or enzyme) that stimulates an immune response in the body (especially the production of antibodies)
  • antiseptic - adj. (extended sense) of exceptionally clean language;clean and honest; thoroughly clean and free of or destructive to disease-causing organisms; made free from live bacteria or other microorganisms; freeing from error or corruption; noun a substance that destroys micro-organisms that carry disease without harming body tissues
  • apothecium - noun a cuplike ascocarp in many lichens and ascomycetous fungi
  • antiseptic - adj. (extended sense) of exceptionally clean language;clean and honest; thoroughly clean and free of or destructive to disease-causing organisms; made free from live bacteria or other microorganisms; freeing from error or corruption; noun a substance that destroys micro-organisms that carry disease without harming body tissues
  • ascocarp - noun mature fruiting body of an ascomycetous fungus
  • ascoma - noun an ascocarp having the spore-bearing layer of cells (the hymenium) on a broad disklike receptacle
  • Ascomycetes - noun large class of higher fungi coextensive with division Ascomycota: sac fungi
  • ascospore - noun sexually produced fungal spore formed within an ascus
  • ascus - noun saclike structure in which ascospores are formed through sexual reproduction of ascomycetes
  • asexual - adj. not having or involving sex
  • atrophy - noun any weakening or degeneration (especially through lack of use); a decrease in size of an organ caused by disease or disuse; verb undergo atrophy
  • autotroph - noun plant capable of synthesizing its own food from simple organic substances
  • avirulent - adj. not virulent; unable to produce disease
  • axenic - adj. used of cultures of microorganisms; not contaminated by or completely free of the presence of other organisms; (of experimental animals) raised under sterile conditions
  • autoecious - adj. of parasites especially rust fungi; completing the entire life cycle on a single host

Table of contents:

.A | .B | .C | .D | .E | .F | .G | .H | .I | .J | .K | .L | .M

.N | .O | .P | .Q | .R | .S | .T | .U | .V | .W | .X | .Y | .Z

B

  • bactericide - noun any chemical agent that destroys bacteria; any drug that destroys bacteria or inhibits their growth
  • bacterium - noun (microbiology) single-celled or noncellular spherical or spiral or rod-shaped organisms lacking chlorophyll that reproduce by fission; important as pathogens and for biochemical properties; taxonomy is difficult; often considered plants
  • bactericide - noun any chemical agent that destroys bacteria; any drug that destroys bacteria or inhibits their growth
  • basidiocarp - noun the fruiting body of a basidiomycete which bears its spores on special cells
  • basidiospore - noun a sexually produced fungal spore borne on a basidium
  • basidium - noun a small club-shaped structure typically bearing four basidiospores at the ends of minute projections; unique to basidiomycetes
  • basidiospore - noun a sexually produced fungal spore borne on a basidium
  • basidium - noun a small club-shaped structure typically bearing four basidiospores at the ends of minute projections; unique to basidiomycetes
  • bioassay - noun appraisal of the biological activity of a substance by testing its effect on an organism and comparing the result with some agreed standard; verb subject to a bio-assay
  • biotic - adj. of or relating to living organisms
  • biotype - noun organisms sharing a specified genotype or the genotype (or peculiarities) so shared
  • blasting - adj. causing injury or blight; especially affecting with sudden violence or plague or ruin; unpleasantly loud and penetrating
  • blight - noun any plant disease resulting in withering without rotting;a state or condition being blighted; verb cause to suffer a blight
  • blotch - noun an irregularly shaped spot; verb mark with spots or blotches of different color or shades of color as if stained
  • breaking - adj. (of waves) curling over and crashing into surf or spray; noun the act of breaking something
  • brown rot - noun any of certain fungous diseases of plants characterized by browning and decay of tissues
  • burn - noun damage inflicted by fire; a place or area that has been burned (especially on a person's body); an injury caused by exposure to heat or chemicals or radiation; pain that feels hot as if it were on fire; a browning of the skin resulting from exposure to the rays of the sun; verb burn with heat, fire, or radiation; undergo combustion; cause to undergo combustion; destroy by fire; feel strong emotion, especially anger or passion; feel hot or painful;spend (significant amounts of money); burn at the stake; cause to burn or combust; shine intensely, as if with heat; get a sunburn by overexposure to the sun; burn, sear, or freeze (tissue) using a hot iron or electric current or a caustic agent; use up (energy); create by duplicating data; cause a sharp or stinging pain or discomfort
  • bursa - noun a small fluid-filled sac located between movable parts of the body especially at joints; a city in northwestern Turkey

C

  • canker - noun an ulceration (especially of the lips or lining of the mouth); a fungal disease of woody plants that causes localized damage to the bark; a pernicious and malign influence that is hard to get rid of; verb infect with a canker; become infected with a canker
  • capsid - noun the outer covering of protein surrounding the nucleic acid of a virus; a variety of leaf bug
  • carcinogen - noun any substance that produces cancer
  • carrier - noun (genetics) an organism that possesses a recessive gene whose effect is masked by a dominant allele; the associated trait is not apparent but can be passed on to offspring; a rack attached to a vehicle; for carrying luggage or skis or the like; a self-propelled wheeled vehicle designed specifically to carry something;a person or firm in the business of transporting people or goods or messages; (medicine) a person (or animal) who has some pathogen to which he is immune but who can pass it on to others; a boy who delivers newspapers; someone whose employment involves carrying something; an inactive substance that is a vehicle for a radioactive tracer of the same substance and that assists in its recovery after some chemical reaction; a large warship that carries planes and has a long flat deck for takeoffs and landings; a man who delivers the mail; a radio wave that can be modulated in order to transmit a signal
  • casting - noun the choice of actors to play particular roles in a play or movie; the act of throwing a fishing line out over the water by means of a rod and reel; the act of creating something by casting it in a mold; object formed by a mold
  • causal agent - noun any entity that produces an effect or is responsible for events or results
  • certification - noun the act of certifying or bestowing a franchise on;validating the authenticity of something or someone; a document attesting to the truth of certain stated facts; confirmation that some fact or statement is true
  • chemotaxis - noun movement by a cell or organism in reaction to a chemical stimulus
  • chemotherapy - noun the use of chemical agents to treat or control disease (or mental illness)
  • chlamydospore - noun thick-walled asexual resting spore of certain fungi and algae
  • chlamydospore - noun thick-walled asexual resting spore of certain fungi and algae
  • chlorosis - noun iron deficiency anemia in young women; characterized by weakness and menstrual disturbances and a green color to the skin
  • chytridiomycetes - noun a class of mostly aquatic fungi; saprophytic or parasitic on algae or fungi or plants
  • cirrus - noun a slender flexible animal appendage as on barnacles or crinoids or many insects; often tactile; a wispy white cloud (usually of fine ice crystals) at a high altitude (4 to 8 miles); usually coiled
  • cleistothecium - noun closed spore-bearing structure of some fungi (especially Aspergillaceae and Erysiphaceae) from which spores are released only by decay or disintegration
  • coalesce - verb fuse or cause to grow together; mix together different elements
  • coccus - noun any spherical or nearly spherical bacteria
  • colonization - noun the act of colonizing; the establishment of colonies
  • colony - noun a group of animals of the same type living together;(microbiology) a group of organisms grown from a single parent cell;a body of people who settle far from home but maintain ties with their homeland; inhabitants remain nationals of their home state but are not literally under the home state's system of government; a geographical area politically controlled by a distant country; one of the 13 British colonies that formed the original states of the United States
  • compartmentalization - noun a mild state of dissociation; the act of distributing things into classes or categories of the same type
  • conidiophore - noun a specialized fungal hypha that produces conidia
  • conidium - noun an asexually produced fungal spore formed on a conidiophore
  • conjugation - noun a class of verbs having the same inflectional forms; the complete set of inflected forms of a verb; the inflection of verbs; the act of making or becoming a single unit; the act of pairing a male and female for reproductive purposes; the state of being joined together
  • conk - noun informal term for the nose; verb hit, especially on the head; pass out from weakness, physical or emotional distress due to a loss of blood supply to the brain; pass from physical life and lose all bodily attributes and functions necessary to sustain life; come to a stop
  • constitutive - adj. constitutional in the structure of something (especially your physical makeup)
  • crozier - noun a staff surmounted by a crook or cross carried by bishops as a symbol of pastoral office
  • cryptobiosis - noun a state in which an animal's metabolic activities come to a reversible standstill
  • curl - noun American chemist who with Richard Smalley and Harold Kroto discovered fullerenes and opened a new branch of chemistry (born in 1933); a strand or cluster of hair; a round shape formed by a series of concentric circles (as formed by leaves or flower petals);verb form a curl, curve, or kink; play the Scottish game of curling;twist or roll into coils or ringlets; wind around something in coils or loops; shape one's body into a curl
  • cyst - noun a closed sac that develops abnormally in some body structure; a small anatomically normal sac or bladderlike structure (especially one containing fluid)

Table of contents:

.A | .B | .C | .D | .E | .F | .G | .H | .I | .J | .K | .L | .M

.N | .O | .P | .Q | .R | .S | .T | .U | .V | .W | .X | .Y | .Z

D

  • damping off - noun a plant disease caused by a fungus; diseased condition of seedlings in excessive moisture
  • decay - noun the organic phenomenon of rotting; a gradual decrease; as of stored charge or current; the process of gradually becoming inferior; the spontaneous disintegration of a radioactive substance along with the emission of ionizing radiation; an inferior state resulting from the process of decaying; verb fall into decay or ruin; undergo decay or decomposition; lose a stored charge, magnetic flux, or current
  • degree day - noun a unit used in estimating fuel requirements for heating a building; the day on which university degrees are conferred
  • deuteromycetes - noun form class; coextensive with subdivision Deuteromycota
  • diagnostic - adj. characteristic or indicative of e.g. a disease;concerned with diagnosis; used for furthering diagnosis
  • antigen - noun any substance (as a toxin or enzyme) that stimulates an immune response in the body (especially the production of antibodies)
  • diploid - adj. of a cell or organism having two sets of chromosomes or twice the haploid number; noun (genetics) an organism or cell having two sets of chromosomes or twice the haploid number
  • Diploid - adj. of a cell or organism having two sets of chromosomes or twice the haploid number; noun (genetics) an organism or cell having two sets of chromosomes or twice the haploid number
  • dieback - noun a disease of plants characterized by the gradual dying of the young shoots starting at the tips and progressing to the larger branches
  • differentiation - noun the mathematical process of obtaining the derivative of a function; a discrimination between things as different and distinct; (biology) the structural adaptation of some body part for a particular function
  • dimorphic - adj. occurring or existing in two different forms
  • Discomycetes - noun a large and taxonomically difficult group of Ascomycetes in which the fleshy fruiting body is disklike or cup-shaped
  • disease - noun an impairment of health or a condition of abnormal functioning
  • disinfect - verb destroy microorganisms or pathogens by cleansing
  • dispersal - noun the act of dispersing or diffusing something
  • dissemination - noun the property of being diffused or dispersed;the opening of a subject to widespread discussion and debate; the act of dispersing or diffusing something
  • dormancy - noun a state of quiet (but possibly temporary) inaction;quiet and inactive restfulness
  • downy mildew - noun any of various fungi of the family Peronosporaceae parasitic on e.g. grapes and potatoes and melons
  • drift - noun a horizontal (or nearly horizontal) passageway in a mine; the pervading meaning or tenor; a general tendency to change (as of opinion); something that is heaped up by the wind or by water currents; a force that moves something along; the gradual departure from an intended course due to external influences (as a ship or plane); a process of linguistic change over a period of time;verb be piled up in banks or heaps by the force of wind or a current;be subject to fluctuation; drive slowly and far afield for grazing;cause to be carried by a current; move in an unhurried fashion; vary or move from a fixed point or course; move about aimlessly or without any destination, often in search of food or employment; be in motion due to some air or water current; wander from a direct course or at random; live unhurriedly, irresponsibly, or freely
  • drought - noun a shortage of rainfall; a prolonged shortage
  • durable - adj. existing for a long time; very long lasting; serviceable for a long time

Table of contents:

.A | .B | .C | .D | .E | .F | .G | .H | .I | .J | .K | .L | .M

.N | .O | .P | .Q | .R | .S | .T | .U | .V | .W | .X | .Y | .Z

E

  • ectoparasite - noun any external parasitic organism (as fleas)
  • enation - noun a natural projection or outgrowth from a plant body or organ; line of descent traced through the maternal side of the family
  • endemic - adj. native to or confined to a certain region; of or relating to a disease (or anything resembling a disease) constantly present to greater or lesser extent in a particular locality; originating where it is found; noun a plant that is native to a certain limited area; a disease that is constantly present to a greater or lesser degree in people of a certain class or in people living in a particular location
  • endogenous - adj. derived or originating internally; of or resembling an endogen
  • endoparasite - noun any of various parasites that live in the internal organs of animals (especially intestinal worms)
  • endospore - noun a small asexual spore that develops inside the cell of some bacteria and algae
  • epidemic - adj. (especially of medicine) of disease or anything resembling a disease; attacking or affecting many individuals in a community or a population simultaneously; noun a widespread outbreak of an infectious disease; many people are infected at the same time
  • epidemiology - noun the branch of medical science dealing with the transmission and control of disease
  • epiphytotic - adj. (of plants) epidemic among plants of a single kind especially over a wide area
  • eradication - noun the complete destruction of every trace of something
  • ergot - noun a fungus that infects various cereal plants forming compact black masses of branching filaments that replace many grains of the plant; source of medicinally important alkaloids and of lysergic acid; a plant disease caused by the ergot fungus
  • ergotism - noun poisoning by ingestion of ergot-infected grain products; characterized by thirst and diarrhea and nausea and craming and vomiting and abnormal cardiac rhythms; in severe cases it can cause seizures and gangrene of the limbs
  • escape - noun the act of escaping physically; a means or way of escaping; an avoidance of danger or difficulty; an inclination to retreat from unpleasant realities through diversion or fantasy; the unwanted discharge of a fluid from some container; a plant originally cultivated but now growing wild; nonperformance of something distasteful (as by deceit or trickery) that you are supposed to do; a valve in a container in which pressure can build up (as a steam boiler); it opens automatically when the pressure reaches a dangerous level; verb issue or leak, as from a small opening; run away from confinement; remove oneself from a familiar environment, usually for pleasure or diversion; fail to experience;escape potentially unpleasant consequences; get away with a forbidden action; flee; take to one's heels; cut and run; be incomprehensible to; escape understanding by
  • etiolation - noun (botany) the act of causing a plant to develop without chlorophyll by growing it without exposure to sunlight; the act of weakening by stunting the growth or development of something; a pale and sickly appearance
  • etiology - noun the philosophical study of causation; the cause of a disease
  • exclusion - noun the state of being excluded; the act of forcing out someone or something; a deliberate act of omission; the state of being excommunicated
  • exogenous - adj. derived or originating externally
  • exudate - noun a substance that oozes out from plant pores; verbrelease (a liquid) in drops or small quantities
  • fastidious - adj. giving careful attention to detail; hard to please; excessively concerned with cleanliness; having complicated nutritional requirements; especially growing only in special artificial cultures

F

  • filamentous - adj. thin in diameter; resembling a thread
  • flagellum - noun a lash-like appendage used for locomotion (e.g., in sperm cells and some bacteria and protozoa); a whip used to inflict punishment (often used for pedantic humor)
  • flagging - adj. weak from exhaustion; noun a walk of flagstones;flagstones collectively
  • fleck - noun a small contrasting part of something; a small fragment of something broken off from the whole; verb make a spot or mark onto
  • focus - noun maximum clarity or distinctness of an image rendered by an optical system; maximum clarity or distinctness of an idea; the concentration of attention or energy on something; a fixed reference point on the concave side of a conic section; a point of convergence of light (or other radiation) or a point from which it diverges; a central point or locus of an infection in an organism; special emphasis attached to something; verb put (an image) into focus; become focussed or come into focus; cause to converge on or toward a central point; direct one's attention on something; bring into focus or alignment; to converge or cause to converge; of ideas or emotions
  • fructification - noun organs of fruiting (especially the reproductive parts of ferns and mosses); the bearing of fruit
  • fumigant - noun a chemical substance used in fumigation
  • Fungi Imperfecti - noun large and heterogeneous form division of fungi comprising forms for which no sexually reproductive stage is known
  • fungicide - noun any agent that destroys or prevents the growth of fungi

G

  • gall - noun abnormal swelling of plant tissue caused by insects or microorganisms or injury; a skin sore caused by chafing; the trait of being rude and impertinent; inclined to take liberties; a digestive juice secreted by the liver and stored in the gallbladder; aids in the digestion of fats; a feeling of deep and bitter anger and ill-will; an open sore on the back of a horse caused by ill-fitting or badly adjusted saddle; verb irritate or vex; become or make sore by or as if by rubbing
  • gametangium - noun cell or organ in which gametes develop
  • gametophyte - noun the gamete-bearing individual or phase in the life cycle of a plant having alternation of generations
  • genotype - noun the particular alleles at specified loci present in an organism; a group of organisms sharing a specific genetic constitution
  • germ theory - noun (medicine) the theory that all contagious diseases are caused by microorganisms
  • girdle - noun a band of material around the waist that strengthens a skirt or trousers; an encircling or ringlike structure; a woman's close-fitting foundation garment; verb put a girdle on or around; cut a girdle around so as to kill by interrupting the circulation of water and nutrients
  • gram-negative - adj. (of bacteria) being of or relating to a bacterium that does not retain the violet stain used in Gram's method
  • gram-positive - adj. (of bacteria) being or relating to a bacterium that retains the violet stain used in Gram's method
  • gram stain - noun a staining technique used to classify bacteria; bacteria are stained with gentian violet and then treated with Gram's solution; after being decolorized with alcohol and treated with safranine and washed in water, those that retain the gentian violet are Gram-positive and those that do not retain it are Gram-negative
  • gummosis - noun pathological production of gummy exudates in citrus and various stone-fruit trees; disease of citrus trees caused by the fungus Phytophthora citrophthora

Table of contents:

.A | .B | .C | .D | .E | .F | .G | .H | .I | .J | .K | .L | .M

.N | .O | .P | .Q | .R | .S | .T | .U | .V | .W | .X | .Y | .Z

H

  • haploid - adj. of a cell or organism having a single set of chromosomes; noun (genetics) an organism or cell having only one complete set of chromosomes
  • hardiness - noun the trait of being willing to undertake things that involve risk or danger; the property of being strong and healthy in constitution
  • hemiparasite - noun a parasitic plant that contains some chlorophyll and therefore is capable of photosynthesis
  • hermaphrodite - adj. of animal or plant; having both male female reproductive organs; noun one having both male and female sexual characteristics and organs; at birth an unambiguous assignment of male or female cannot be made
  • heteroecious - adj. of parasites; passing through different stages of the life cycle on different host species
  • heterotroph - noun an organism that depends on complex organic substances for nutrition
  • hyaline - adj. resembling glass in transparency or translucency;noun a glassy translucent material that occurs in hyaline cartilage or in certain skin conditions
  • hymenium - noun spore-bearing layer of cells in certain fungi containing asci or basidia
  • hyperplasia - noun abnormal increase in number of cells
  • hypertrophy - noun abnormal enlargement of a body part or organ;verb undergo hypertrophy
  • hypersensitive - adj. having an allergy or peculiar or excessive susceptibility (especially to a specific factor)
  • hypha - noun any of the threadlike filaments forming the mycelium of a fungus
  • hypoplasia - noun underdevelopment of an organ because of a decrease in the number of cells

I

  • immune - adj. (usually followed by `to') not affected by a given influence; relating to or conferring immunity (to disease or infection);secure against; relating to the condition of immunity; noun a person who is immune to a particular infection
  • immunity - noun the quality of being unaffected by something;(medicine) the condition in which an organism can resist disease; an act exempting someone; the state of not being susceptible
  • in-situ - adj. being in the original position; not having been moved
  • in vitro - adj. in an artificial environment outside the living organism;adv. in an artificial environment outside the living organism
  • in vivo - adj. within a living organism; adv. in the living organism
  • incubation period - noun the period between infection and the appearance of symptoms of the disease
  • induced - adj. brought about or caused; not spontaneous
  • infectious - adj. easily spread; caused by infection or capable of causing infection; of or relating to infection
  • infective - adj. able to cause disease; caused by infection or capable of causing infection
  • infest - verb invade in great numbers; live on or in a host, as of parasites; occupy in large numbers or live on a host
  • injury - noun an act that injures someone; an accident that results in physical damage or hurt; any physical damage to the body caused by violence or accident or fracture etc.; a casualty to military personnel resulting from combat
  • inoculate - verb impregnate with the virus or germ of a disease in order to render immune; insert a bud for propagation; introduce a microorganism into; introduce an idea or attitude into the mind of;perform vaccinations or produce immunity in by inoculation
  • inoculum - noun a substance (a virus or toxin or immune serum) that is introduced into the body to produce or increase immunity to a particular disease
  • intumescence - noun the swelling of certain substances when they are heated (often accompanied by release of water); swelling up with blood or other fluids (as with congestion)
  • isolate - verb place or set apart; obtain in pure form; separate (experiences) from the emotions relating to them; set apart from others

K

  • knot - noun a sandpiper that breeds in the arctic and winters in the southern hemisphere; any of various fastenings formed by looping and tying a rope (or cord) upon itself or to another rope or to another object; a tight cluster of people or things; something twisted and tight and swollen; a hard cross-grained round piece of wood in a board where a branch emerged; soft lump or unevenness in a yarn; either an imperfection or created by design; a unit of length used in navigation; equivalent to the distance spanned by one minute of arc in latitude; 1,852 meters; verb tie or fasten into a knot; make into knots; make knots out of; tangle or complicate


L

  • latent period - noun the time that elapses before the presence of a disease is manifested by symptoms; the time that elapses between a stimulus and the response to it
  • lesion - noun any visible abnormal structural change in a bodily part; any break in the skin or an organ caused by violence or surgical incision
  • life cycle - noun a series of stages through which an organism passes between recurrences of a primary stage; the course of developmental changes in an organism from fertilized zygote to maturity when another zygote can be produced
  • lodge - noun any of various native American dwellings; a small (rustic) house used as a temporary shelter; small house at the entrance to the grounds of a country mansion; usually occupied by a gatekeeper or gardener; English physicist who studied electromagnetic radiation and was a pioneer of radiotelegraphy (1851-1940); a hotel providing overnight lodging for travelers; a formal association of people with similar interests; verb fix, force, or implant; provide housing for; be a lodger; stay temporarily; file a formal charge against

M

  • macerate - verb soften, usually by steeping in liquid, and cause to disintegrate as a result; become soft or separate and disintegrate as a result of excessive soaking; separate into constituents by soaking;cause to grow thin or weak
  • mantle - noun (zoology) a protective layer of epidermis in mollusks or brachiopods that secretes a substance forming the shell; the cloak as a symbol of authority; the layer of the earth between the crust and the core; United States baseball player (1931-1997); a sleeveless garment like a cloak but shorter; hanging cloth used as a blind (especially for a window); shelf that projects from wall above fireplace; anything that covers; verb cover like a mantle; spread over a surface, like a mantle
  • medium - adj. (meat) cooked until there is just a little pink meat inside; around the middle of a scale of evaluation of physical measures; noun an intervening substance through which signals can travel as a means for communication; a means or instrumentality for storing or communicating information; (usually plural) transmissions that are disseminated widely to the public; the surrounding environment; someone who serves as an intermediary between the living and the dead; a state that is intermediate between extremes; a middle position; an intervening substance through which something is achieved; (biology) a substance in which specimens are preserved or displayed; a liquid with which pigment is mixed by a painter; an occupation for which you are especially well suited;(bacteriology) a nutrient substance (solid or liquid) that is used to cultivate micro-organisms
  • melanin - noun insoluble pigments that account for the color of e.g. skin and scales and feathers
  • microbial - adj. of or involving or caused by or being microbes
  • micronutrient - noun a substance needed only in small amounts for normal body function (e.g., vitamins or minerals)
  • mildew - noun a fungus that produces a superficial (usually white) growth on organic matter; the process of becoming mildewed; verbbecome moldy; spoil due to humidity
  • mold - noun container into which liquid is poured to create a given shape when it hardens; sculpture produced by molding; a fungus that produces a superficial growth on various kinds of damp or decaying organic matter; loose soil rich in organic matter; the process of becoming mildewed; the distinctive form in which a thing is made; verb become moldy; spoil due to humidity; fit tightly, follow the contours of; shape or influence; give direction to; make something, usually for a specific function; form by pouring (e.g., wax or hot metal) into a cast or mold; form in clay, wax, etc
  • monoecious - adj. having male and female reproductive organs in the same plant or animal
  • monogenic - adj. of or relating to an inheritable character that is controlled by a single pair of genes
  • mosaic - adj. decorated with small pieces of colored glass or stone fitted together; of or relating to Moses or the laws and writings attributed to him; noun art consisting of a design made of small pieces of colored stone or glass; assembly of aerial photographs forming a composite picture; transducer formed by the light-sensitive surface on a television camera tube; a pattern resembling a mosaic;a freeware browser; viral disease in solanaceous plants (tomatoes, potatoes, tobacco) resulting in mottling and often shriveling of the leaves
  • motile - adj. (of spores or microorganisms) capable of movement;noun one whose prevailing mental imagery takes the form of inner feelings of action
  • mottle - noun an irregular arrangement of patches of color; verbcolour with streaks or blotches of different shades; mark with spots or blotches of different color or shades of color as if stained
  • mummification - noun embalmment and drying a dead body and wrapping it as a mummy; a condition resembling that of a mummy;(pathology) gangrene that develops in the presence of arterial obstruction and is characterized by dryness of the dead tissue and a dark brown color
  • mummy - noun a body embalmed and dried and wrapped for burial (as in ancient Egypt); informal terms for a mother
  • mushroom - noun fleshy body of any of numerous edible fungi; a large cloud of rubble and dust shaped like a mushroom and rising into the sky after an explosion (especially of a nuclear bomb); any of various fleshy fungi of the subdivision Basidiomycota consisting of a cap at the end of a stem arising from an underground mycelium;common name for an edible agaric (contrasting with the inedible toadstool); verb grow and spread fast; pick or gather mushrooms
  • mutagen - noun any agent (physical or environmental) that can induce a genetic mutation or can increase the rate of mutation
  • mycelium - noun the vegetative part of a fungus consisting of a mass of branching threadlike hyphae
  • mycology - noun the branch of botany that studies fungi and fungus-caused diseases
  • mycotoxin - noun a toxin produced by a fungus
  • Myxomycetes - noun the class of true slime molds; essentially equivalent to the division Myxomycota

N

  • necrosis - noun the localized death of living cells (as from infection or the interruption of blood supply)
  • needle cast - noun a disease of conifers causing the needles to fall
  • nematode - noun unsegmented worms with elongated rounded body pointed at both ends; mostly free-living but some are parasitic

O

  • occlusion - noun (dentistry) the normal spatial relation of the teeth when the jaws are closed; closure or blockage (as of a blood vessel); the act of blocking; an obstruction in a pipe or tube;(meteorology) a composite front when colder air surrounds a mass of warm air and forces it aloft
  • oedema - noun swelling from excessive accumulation of serous fluid in tissue
  • oospore - noun a thick-walled sexual spore that develops from a fertilized oosphere in some algae and fungi
  • ooze - noun the process of seeping; any thick messy substance;verb release (a liquid) in drops or small quantities; pass gradually or leak through or as if through small openings
  • ostiole - noun a small pore especially one in the reproductive bodies of certain algae and fungi through which spores pass


P

  • pandemic - adj. existing everywhere; epidemic over a wide geographical area; noun an epidemic that is geographically widespread; occurring throughout a region or even throughout the world
  • papilla - noun a small projection of tissue at the base of a hair or tooth or feather; a small nipple-shaped protuberance concerned with taste, touch, or smell; (botany) a tiny outgrowth on the surface of a petal or leaf
  • parasite - noun an animal or plant that lives in or on a host (another animal or plant); it obtains nourishment from the host without benefiting or killing the host; a follower who hangs around a host (without benefit to the host) in hope of gain or advantage
  • parasitism - noun the relation between two different kinds of organisms in which one receives benefits from the other by causing damage to it (usually not fatal damage)
  • parthenogenesis - noun process in which an unfertilized egg develops into a new individual; common among insects and some other arthropods; human conception without fertilization by a man
  • pasteurization - noun partial sterilization of foods at a temperature that destroys harmful microorganisms without major changes in the chemistry of the food
  • pathogen - noun any disease-producing agent (especially a virus or bacterium or other microorganism)
  • PR - noun a promotion intended to create goodwill for a person or institution; a self-governing commonwealth associated with the United States occupying the island of Puerto Rico; a soft yellowish-white trivalent metallic element of the rare earth group; can be recovered from bastnasite or monazite by an ion-exchange process
  • pathology - noun the branch of medical science that studies the causes and nature and effects of diseases; any deviation from a healthy or normal condition
  • penetration - noun the act of entering into or through something;the act (by a man) of inserting his penis into the vagina of a woman;an attack that penetrates into enemy territory; the depth to which something penetrates (especially the depth reached by a projectile that hits a target); the ability to make way into or through something;clear or deep perception of a situation
  • perfect - adj. precisely accurate or exact; being complete of its kind and without defect or blemish; without qualification; used informally as (often pejorative) intensifiers; noun a tense of verbs used in describing action that has been completed (sometimes regarded as perfective aspect); verb make perfect or complete
  • pest - noun any unwanted and destructive insect or other animal that attacks food or crops or livestock etc.; a persistently annoying person; any epidemic disease with a high death rate; a serious (sometimes fatal) infection of rodents caused by Yersinia pestis and accidentally transmitted to humans by the bite of a flea that has bitten an infected animal
  • pesticide - noun a chemical used to kill pests (as rodents or insects)
  • phenotype - noun what an organism looks like as a consequence of the interaction of its genotype and the environment
  • plasmodium - noun parasitic protozoan of the genus Plasmodium that causes malaria in humans; multinucleate sheet of cytoplasm characteristic of some stages of such organisms as slime molds
  • polymorphism - noun (biology) the existence of two or more forms of individuals within the same animal species (independent of sex differences); (chemistry) the existence of different kinds of crystal of the same chemical compound
  • powdery mildew - noun any of various fungi of the genus Erysiphe producing powdery conidia on the host surface
  • prokaryote - noun a unicellular organism having cells lacking membrane-bound nuclei; bacteria are the prime example but also included are blue-green algae and actinomycetes and mycoplasma
  • pustule - noun a small inflamed elevation of skin containing pus; a blister filled with pus

Q

  • quarantine - noun isolation to prevent the spread of infectious disease; enforced isolation of patients suffering from a contagious disease in order to prevent the spread of disease; verb place into enforced isolation, as for medical reasons
  • quiescent - adj. causing no symptoms; being quiet or still or inactive; not active or activated; marked by a state of tranquil repose
  • quiescent - adj. causing no symptoms; being quiet or still or inactive; not active or activated; marked by a state of tranquil repose


Table of contents:

.A | .B | .C | .D | .E | .F | .G | .H | .I | .J | .K | .L | .M

.N | .O | .P | .Q | .R | .S | .T | .U | .V | .W | .X | .Y | .Z

R

  • race - noun a contest of speed; any competition; people who are believed to belong to the same genetic stock; a canal for a current of water; (biology) a taxonomic group that is a division of a species; usually arises as a consequence of geographical isolation within a species; the flow of air that is driven backwards by an aircraft propeller; verb compete in a race; cause to move fast or to rush or race; to work as fast as possible towards a goal, sometimes in competition with others; step on it
  • reniform - adj. of a leaf or bean shape resembling the shape of kidney
  • resistant - adj. impervious to being affected; incapable of absorbing or mixing with; disposed to or engaged in defiance of established authority; relating to or conferring immunity (to disease or infection);able to tolerate environmental conditions or physiological stress
  • rhizomorph - noun a dense mass of hyphae forming a rootlike structure characteristic of many fungi
  • rosette - noun an ornament or pattern resembling a rose that is worn as a badge of office or as recognition of having won an honor;a cluster of leaves growing in crowded circles from a common center or crown (usually at or close to the ground); circular window filled with tracery; rhizoctinia disease of potatoes
  • rot - noun unacceptable behavior (especially ludicrously false statements); (biology) the process of decay caused by bacterial or fungal action; a state of decay usually accompanied by an offensive odor; verb waste away; break down
  • roundworm - noun unsegmented worms with elongated rounded body pointed at both ends; mostly free-living but some are parasitic;infections of the skin or nails caused by fungi and appearing as itching circular patches
  • rugose - adj. of leaves; ridged or wrinkled
  • russet - adj. of brown with a reddish tinge; noun a reddish brown homespun fabric
  • rust - adj. of the brown color of rust; noun any of various fungi causing rust disease in plants; the formation of reddish-brown ferric oxides on iron by low-temperature oxidation in the presence of water; a reddish-brown discoloration of leaves and stems caused by a rust fungus; a red or brown oxide coating on iron or steel caused by the action of oxygen and moisture; verb become coated with oxide; become destroyed by water, air, or an etching chemical such as an acid; cause to deteriorate due to the action of water, air, or an acid

S

  • sanitation - noun making something sanitary (free of germs) as by sterilizing; the state of being clean and conducive to health
  • saprobe - noun an organism that lives in and derives its nourishment from organic matter in stagnant or foul water
  • scab - noun the crustlike surface of a healing skin lesion; someone who works (or provides workers) during a strike; verb form a scab;take the place of work of someone on strike
  • scald - noun the act of burning with steam or hot water; a burn cause by hot liquid or steam; verb burn with a hot liquid or steam;heat to the boiling point; treat with boiling water; subject to harsh criticism
  • sclerotium - noun compact usually dark-colored mass of hardened mycelium constituting a vegetative food-storage body in various true fungi; detaches when mature and can give rise to new growth; form genus of sterile imperfect fungi; many form sclerotia; some cause sclerotium disease in plants
  • scorch - noun a discoloration caused by heat; a plant disease that produces a browning or scorched appearance of plant tissues; a surface burn; verb become scorched or singed under intense heat or dry conditions; destroy completely by or as if by fire; become superficially burned; make very hot and dry; burn slightly and superficially so as to affect color
  • septate - adj. of or relating to a septum
  • serrate - adj. notched like a saw with teeth pointing toward the apex;verb make saw-toothed or jag the edge of
  • sessile - adj. attached directly by the base; not having an intervening stalk; permanently attached to a substrate; not free to move about
  • seta - noun a stiff hair or bristle; stalk of a moss capsule
  • shot hole - noun drill hole for a charge of an explosive
  • sign - adj. used of the language of the deaf; noun a perceptible indication of something not immediately apparent (as a visible clue that something has happened); a public display of a (usually written) message; a character indicating a relation between quantities; a gesture that is part of a sign language; a fundamental linguistic unit linking a signifier to that which is signified; (medicine) any objective evidence of the presence of a disorder or disease; structure displaying a board on which advertisements can be posted; any communication that encodes a message; an event that is experienced as indicating important things to come; (astrology) one of 12 equal areas into which the zodiac is divided; having an indicated pole (as the distinction between positive and negative electric charges); verb be engaged by a written agreement;communicate in sign language; mark with one's signature; write one's name (on); communicate silently and non-verbally by signals or signs; place signs, as along a road; engage by written agreement; approve and express assent, responsibility, or obligation; make the sign of the cross over someone in order to call on God for protection; consecrate
  • smut - noun any fungus of the order Ustilaginales; destructive diseases of plants (especially cereal grasses) caused by fungi that produce black powdery masses of spores; creative activity (writing or pictures or films etc.) of no literary or artistic value other than to stimulate sexual desire; an offensive or indecent word or phrase; a black colloidal substance consisting wholly or principally of amorphous carbon and used to make pigments and ink; verb affect with smut or mildew, as of a crop such as corn; become affected with smut; stain with a dirty substance, such as soot; make obscene
  • soft rot - noun mushy or slimy decay of plants caused by bacteria or fungi
  • sorus - noun cluster of sporangia usually on underside of a fern frond; a spore-producing structure in certain lichens and fungi
  • species - noun a specific kind of something; (biology) taxonomic group whose members can interbreed
  • spicule - noun small pointed structure serving as a skeletal element in various marine and freshwater invertebrates e.g. sponges and corals
  • sporangium - noun organ containing or producing spores
  • spore - noun a small usually single-celled asexual reproductive body produced by many nonflowering plants and fungi and some bacteria and protozoans and that are capable of developing into a new individual without sexual fusion
  • sporocarp - noun specialized leaf branch in certain aquatic ferns that encloses the sori or clusters of sporangia
  • sporogenous - adj. producing spores or reproducing by means of spores
  • sporophore - noun a spore-bearing branch or organ: the part of the thallus of a sporophyte that develops spores; in ferns and mosses and liverworts is practically equivalent to the sporophyte
  • sporophyte - noun the spore-producing individual or phase in the life cycle of a plant having alternation of generations
  • sporulate - verb convert into spores; produce spores
  • spot - noun a business establishment for entertainment; a playing card with a specified number of pips on it to indicate its value; a small contrasting part of something; a section of an entertainment that is assigned to a specific performer or performance; a short section or illustration (as between radio or tv programs or in a magazine) that is often used for advertising; a mark on a playing card (shape depending on the suit); a small quantity; an act that brings discredit to the person who does it; a job in an organization; a lamp that produces a strong beam of light to illuminate a restricted area; used to focus attention of a stage performer; a blemish made by dirt; an outstanding characteristic; a point located with respect to surface features of some region; a slight attack of illness; verb mark with a spot or spots so as to allow easy recognition; become spotted; make a spot or mark onto; mar or impair with a flaw; catch sight of
  • staghead - noun an abnormal tufted growth of small branches on a tree or shrub caused by fungi or insects or other physiological disturbance
  • sterilization - noun the procedure of making some object free of live bacteria or other microorganisms (usually by heat or chemical means); the act of making an organism barren or infertile (unable to reproduce)
  • strain - noun an intense or violent exertion; (physics) deformation of a physical body under the action of applied forces; injury to a muscle (often caused by overuse); results in swelling and pain; (psychology) nervousness resulting from mental stress; the act of singing; an effortful attempt to attain a goal; a lineage or race of people; the general meaning or substance of an utterance; a succession of notes forming a distinctive sequence; a special variety of domesticated animals within a species; (biology) a group of organisms within a species that differ in trivial ways from similar groups; difficulty that causes worry or emotional tension; verb use to the utmost; exert vigorously or to full capacity; become stretched or tense or taught; cause to be tense and uneasy or nervous or anxious; alter the shape of (something) by stress; to exert much effort or energy; rub through a strainer or process in an electric blender; remove by passing through a filter; separate by passing through a sieve or other straining device to separate out coarser elements; test the limits of
  • streak - noun a distinctive characteristic; a sudden flash (as of lightning); an unbroken series of events; a marking of a different color or texture from the background; verb run naked in a public place; move quickly in a straight line; mark with spots or blotches of different color or shades of color as if stained
  • striate - adj. marked with stria or striations; verb mark with striae or striations
  • stroma - noun the supporting tissue of an organ (as opposed to parenchyma); the dense colorless framework of a chloroplast; a mass of fungal tissue that has spore-bearing structures embedded in it or on it
  • stunting - noun the performance of stunts while in flight in an aircraft
  • subspecies - noun (biology) a taxonomic group that is a division of a species; usually arises as a consequence of geographical isolation within a species
  • substrate - noun an indigenous language that contributes features to the language of an invading people who impose their language on the indigenous population; any stratum or layer lying underneath another; a surface on which an organism grows or is attached; the substance that is acted upon by an enzyme or ferment
  • susceptible - adj. (often followed by `of' or `to') yielding readily to or capable of; easily impressed emotionally
  • symptom - noun anything that accompanies X and is regarded as an indication of X's existence; (medicine) any sensation or change in bodily function that is experienced by a patient and is associated with a particular disease
  • syncytium - noun a mass of cytoplasm containing several nuclei and enclosed in a membrane but no internal cell boundaries (as in muscle fibers)
  • synergism - noun the theological doctrine that salvation results from the interaction of human will and divine grace; the working together of two things (muscles or drugs for example) to produce an effect greater than the sum of their individual effects
  • systematics - noun the science of systematic classification
  • systemic - adj. affecting an entire system

Table of contents:

.A | .B | .C | .D | .E | .F | .G | .H | .I | .J | .K | .L | .M

.N | .O | .P | .Q | .R | .S | .T | .U | .V | .W | .X | .Y | .Z

T

  • teliospore - noun a chlamydospore that develops in the last stage of the life cycle of the rust fungus
  • Teliospore - noun a chlamydospore that develops in the last stage of the life cycle of the rust fungus
  • thallus - noun a plant body without true stems or roots or leaves or vascular system; characteristic of the thallophytes
  • thermotherapy - noun the use of heat to treat a disease or disorder; heating pads or hot compresses or hot-water bottles are used to promote circulation in peripheral vascular disease or to relax tense muscles
  • tolerance - noun the act of tolerating something; the power or capacity of an organism to tolerate unfavorable environmental conditions; willingness to recognize and respect the beliefs or practices of others; a disposition to allow freedom of choice and behavior; a permissible difference; allowing some freedom to move within limits
  • toxicity - noun the degree to which something is poisonous; grave harmfulness or deadliness
  • toxin - noun a poisonous substance produced during the metabolism and growth of certain microorganisms and some higher plant and animal species
  • transmit - verb send from one person or place to another; broadcast over the airwaves, as in radio or television; transmit or serve as the medium for transmission; transfer to another
  • transmit - verb send from one person or place to another; broadcast over the airwaves, as in radio or television; transmit or serve as the medium for transmission; transfer to another
  • tumor - noun an abnormal new mass of tissue that serves no purpose
  • type - noun a small metal block bearing a raised character on one end; produces a printed character when inked and pressed on paper; a subdivision of a particular kind of thing; all of the tokens of the same symbol; printed characters; (biology) the taxonomic group whose characteristics are used to define the next higher taxon; a person of a specified kind (usually with many eccentricities); verbidentify as belonging to a certain type; write by means of a keyboard with types

V

  • vector - noun a variable quantity that can be resolved into components; any agent (person or animal or microorganism) that carries and transmits a disease; a straight line segment whose length is magnitude and whose orientation in space is direction
  • vermiform - adj. resembling a worm; long and thin and cylindrical
  • viable - adj. capable of life or normal growth and development;capable of being done with means at hand and circumstances as they are
  • virion - noun (virology) a complete viral particle; nucleic acid and capsid (and a lipid envelope in some viruses)
  • viroid - noun the smallest of viruses; a plant virus with its RNA arranged in a circular chromosome without a protein coat
  • virulence - noun extreme hostility; extreme harmfulness (as the capacity of a microorganism to cause disease)
  • virulent - adj. infectious; having the ability to cause disease; harsh or corrosive in tone; extremely poisonous or injurious; producing venom
  • virus - noun (virology) ultramicroscopic infectious agent that replicates itself only within cells of living hosts; many are pathogenic; a piece of nucleic acid (DNA or RNA) wrapped in a thin coat of protein; a software program capable of reproducing itself and usually capable of causing great harm to files or other programs on the same computer; a harmful or corrupting agency

W

  • white rust - noun fungus causing a disease characterized by a white powdery mass of conidia
  • wilt - noun causing to become limp or drooping; any plant disease characterized by drooping and shriveling; usually caused by parasites attacking the roots; verb become limp; lose strength
  • witches' broom - noun an abnormal tufted growth of small branches on a tree or shrub caused by fungi or insects or other physiological disturbance
  • wound - adj. put in a coil; noun the act of inflicting a wound; a casualty to military personnel resulting from combat; a figurative injury (to your feelings or pride); any break in the skin or an organ caused by violence or surgical incision; verb cause injuries or bodily harm to; hurt the feelings of.

Table of contents:

.A | .B | .C | .D | .E | .F | .G | .H | .I | .J | .K | .L | .M

.N | .O | .P | .Q | .R | .S | .T | .U | .V | .W | .X | .Y | .Z

Z

  • zoospore - noun an asexual spore of some algae and fungi that moves by means of flagella
  • Zygomycetes - noun class of fungi coextensive with subdivision Zygomycota
  • zygospore - noun a plant spore formed by two similar sexual cells
W8MD weight loss logo

Ad. Tired of being overweight?. W8MD's insurance Weight loss program can HELP*

Quick links: Medicine Portal | Encyclopedia‏‎‏‎ | Gray's Anatomy‏‎ | Topics‏‎ |‏‎ Diseases‏‎ | Drugs | Wellness | Obesity‏‎ | Metabolic syndrome | Weight loss*
Disclaimer: The entire contents of WIKIMD.ORG are for informational purposes only and do not render medical advice or professional services. If you have a medical emergency, you should CALL 911 immediately! Given the nature of the wiki, the information provided may not be accurate, misleading and or incorrect. Use the information on this wiki at your own risk! See full Disclaimer.
Link to this page: <a href="http://www.wikimd.org/wiki/Glossary_of_pathology">Glossary of pathology</a>

  • Individual results may vary for weight loss from our sponsors.