Glossary of Obesity
Table of contents:
Obesity terms - A
Added sugars These sugars, syrups, and alternative caloric sweeteners ar additional once foods ar processed or ready. additional sugars don't embrace sugars that occur naturally, like fruit sugar in fruit or milk sugar in milk.
Names for additional sugars include:
refined sugar, cane sugar, corn sugar, corn sweetener, corn syrup, dextrose, fruit sugar (when not naturally occurring), drinkable concentrates, glucose, high-fructose sirup, honey, saccharide, milk sugar (when not in milk or dairy farm products), maltose, malt syrup, molasses, raw sugar, sucrose, and turbinado sugar.
Adipose tissue (add-ih-POSE) Fat tissue within the body.
Aerobic physical activity Aerobic (or endurance) physical activities use giant muscle teams (back, chest, Associate in Nursingd legs) to extend pulse rate and respiration for an extended amount of your time. Examples embrace cycling, brisk walking, running, and swimming. Federal pointers suggest that adults get a hundred and fifty to three hundred minutes of aerobic activity per week. See physical activity.
Obesity terms - B
Bariatric surgery (bear-ee-AT-ric) conjointly referred to as canal surgery or weight-loss surgery, this is often surgery on the abdomen and/or intestines to assist patients with extreme fleshiness slim down. Bariatric surgery could be a weight-loss methodology used for those that have a body mass index (BMI) of forty or additional. Surgery may additionally be Associate in Nursing choice for individuals with a BMI between thirty five and forty United Nations agency have health issues associated with fleshiness like cardiovascular disease or kind two polygenic disease.
BMI See Body mass index.
Body mass index (BMI) BMI could be a live of weight relative to height. The BMI tool uses a formula that produces a score typically accustomed confirm if an individual is scraggy, at a standard weight, overweight, or obese. For adults, a BMI of eighteen.5 to 24.9 is taken into account healthy (or "normal"). an individual with a BMI of twenty five to twenty nine.9 is taken into account overweight, and an individual with a BMI of thirty or additional is taken into account rotund.
Children grow at completely different rates at different times, thus it's not forever straightforward to inform if a baby is overweight. BMI charts kids|for youngsters|for kids} compare their height and weight to alternative children of their same sex and age. for kids ages two to19, those that ar at or on top of the eighty fifth mark ar thought of overweight. those that ar at or on top of the ninety fifth mark ar thought of rotund.
Bone-strengthening activity A physical activity that promotes the expansion and strength of bones. Examples embrace weight lifting and push-ups.
Obesity terms - C
Calorie (CAL-or-ee) A unit of energy in food. Carbohydrates, fats, protein, and alcohol within the foods and drinks we tend to eat give food energy or "calories." Carbohydrates and proteins give four calories per gram, fat has nine calories per gram, and alcohol has seven calories per gram.
Calorie balance The balance between calories you get from consumption and drinking and people you employ up through physical activity and body processes like respiration, digesting food, and, in youngsters, growing.
Carbohydrate (kar-bow-HY-drate) A "carb" could be a major supply of energy for your body. Your system changes carbohydrates into blood sugar (sugar). Your body uses this sugar to create energy for cells, tissues, and organs, and stores any further sugar in your liver and muscles for once it's required. If there's additional sugar than the body will use, the liver may additionally break the sugar down more and store it as body fat.
There ar 2 styles of carbohydrates—simple or complicated. Simple carbohydrates embrace sugars that ar a section of some foods, like fruit sugar in fruit or milk sugar in milk, similarly as sugars that will be additional once foods ar processed or ready See definition of added sugars. complex carbohydrates embrace those who return from legumes, like peas or beans, starchy vegetables, and whole grain breads and cereals. several complicated carbohydrates ar smart sources of fiber.
Cholesterol (ko-LES-te-rol) steroid alcohol could be a fat-like substance that's created by your body and located naturally in animal foods like dairy farm product, eggs, meat, poultry, and food. Foods high in steroid alcohol embrace dairy farm fats, egg yolks, and organ meats like liver. steroid alcohol is required to hold out functions like endocrine and nourishment production. it's carried through the blood by lipoproteins See definition.
Two styles of lipoproteins carry steroid alcohol within the blood: low-density lipoproteins (LDL, typically known as "bad cholesterol") and high-density lipoproteins (HDL or "good cholesterol"). once steroid alcohol levels ar too high, a number of the steroid alcohol could persist with the walls of your arteries. This build-up is named plaque. Over time, plaque could slim your arteries or perhaps block them. High levels of steroid alcohol within the blood could increase your risk of cardiovascular disease.
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Obesity terms - D
Diabetes (dye-ah-BEE-teez) an individual with this malady has blood sugar, or sugar, levels that ar on top of traditional levels. aldohexose comes from the foods you eat. endocrine could be a endocrine that helps the aldohexose get into your cells to allow them energy. polygenic disease happens once the body doesn't create enough endocrine or doesn't use the endocrine it makes. Over time, having an excessive amount of sugar in your blood could cause serious issues. it's going to harm your eyes, kidneys, and nerves, and should cause cardiovascular disease and stroke. Regular physical activity, weight management, and healthy consumption could assist you management your polygenic disease. you ought to conjointly follow your health care provider's recommendation and, once asked to, monitor your glucose level and take prescribed medication. Also see gestational diabetes, type 1 diabetes, and [[type 2 diabetes].
Diet What an individual grub and drinks. Any variety of consumption arrange.
Dietary metallic element conjointly known as "salt," metallic element helps your nerves and muscles work properly. salt is created from metallic element and chloride. Your kidneys management what proportion metallic element is in your blood, emotional it once required and flushing out any excess. If an excessive amount of metallic element builds up in your blood, this might raise your pressure. High pressure See definition] is connected to serious health issues. Most individuals limit their intake of metallic element to but two,300 milligrams (mg) on a daily basis (less than one teaspoon of salt).
Obesity terms - E
Energy expenditure the number of energy that you simply use measured in calories. you employ calories to breathe, send blood through your blood vessels, digest food, maintain posture, and be physically active.
Obesity terms - F
Fat A serious supply of energy within the diet, fat helps the body absorb fat-soluble vitamins, like vitamins A, D, E, and K. Some styles of fats, particularly saturated fats and trans fatty acids See definitions], could raise blood steroid alcohol and increase the danger for cardiovascular disease. Other fats, like unsaturated fats See definition], don't raise blood steroid alcohol. Fats that ar in foods ar mixtures of monounsaturated, polyunsaturated, and [[saturated fatty acids].
Flexibility The vary of motion attainable at a joint. Flexibility exercises enhance the power of a joint to maneuver through its full vary of motion.
Obesity terms - G
Gastrointestinal surgery (to treat obesity) See [[bariatric surgery].
Gestational diabetes (jest-AY-shun-ul) (dye-ah-BEE-teez) a sort of polygenic disease that may occur once a girl is pregnant. within the half of her maternity, a girl could have aldohexose (sugar) in her blood at tier that's more than traditional. In concerning ninety five p.c of cases, glucose returns to traditional once the maternity is over. However, girls United Nations agency develop physiological condition polygenic disease ar in danger for developing kind two polygenic disease later in life. Also see diabetes and [[type 2 disease].
Glucose (GLU-kos) aldohexose could be a major supply of energy for our bodies and a building block for several carbohydrates See definition. The food digestion method breaks down carbohydrates in foods and drinks into aldohexose. once digestion, aldohexose is carried within the blood and goes to body cells wherever it's used for energy or keep.
Table of contents:
Obesity terms - H
HDL See lipoprotein.
Healthy weight Healthy weight is usually supported having a body mass index (BMI) that falls within the traditional (or healthy) vary See body mass index. A healthy weight could lower the possibilities of developing health issues like kind two polygenic disease and cardiovascular disease.
Heart disease many alternative styles of cardiovascular disease exist. the foremost common reason behind cardiovascular disease is narrowing or blockage of the blood vessels that offer blood to the guts. this is often known as arterial blood vessel malady and happens slowly over time. it is the major reason individuals have coronary failures. other forms of heart issues could happen to the valves within the heart, or the guts might not well and cause cardiopathy.
High blood pressure Your pressure rises and falls throughout the day. Associate in Nursing best pressure is a smaller amount than 120/80 mmHg. once pressure stays high—greater than or up to 140/90 mmHg—you have high pressure, conjointly known as "hypertension." With high pressure, the guts works more durable, your arteries take a beating, and your possibilities of a stroke, heart attack, and excretory organ issues ar bigger. Uncontrolled high pressure could cause cecity, heart attacks, cardiopathy, uropathy, and stroke. Prehypertension is pressure between one hundred twenty and 139 for the highest range, or between eighty and eighty nine for rock bottom range. If your pressure is within the prehypertension vary, you will be in danger for prime pressure unless you are taking action to forestall it.
High-density lipoprotein (HDL) (lip-o-PRO-teen) high-density lipoprotein could be a compound created from fat and supermolecule that carries steroid alcohol within the blood to the liver, wherever it's counteracted and excreted. ordinarily known as "good" steroid alcohol, high levels of cholesterin ar connected to a lower risk of cardiovascular disease. Men ought to aim for Associate in Nursing high-density lipoprotein of forty mg/DL or higher. girls ought to aim for Associate in Nursing high-density lipoprotein of fifty mg/DL or higher.
Hydrogenation (high-dro-jen-AY-shun) A natural action that turns liquid fats (oils) into solid fats, chemical process creates a fat known as trans carboxylic acid (also referred to as "trans fat"). Trans fats ar found in frostings, shortening, some margarines, and a few business baked foods, like cakes, cookies, muffins, and pastries. consumption trans fats could raise cardiovascular disease risk.
Hypertension See high blood pressure.
Obesity terms - I
Insulin (IN-sah-lin) A hormone that is produced in Pancreas that helps move glucsoe (sugar) from the blood to muscles and other tissues. endocrine controls glucose levels. Insulin also helps build the body due to the anabolic actions of insulin. Insulin resistance leads to compensatory weight gain, metabolic starvation and a whole cascade of events leading to obesity.
Obesity terms - L
Lactose intolerance an individual with this biological process condition has problem digesting foods that have milk sugar, the sugar found in milk and foods created with milk. If you've got inherited disease, you will feel sick to your abdomen once consumption these foods. you will even have gas, diarrhea, and/or swelling in your abdomen. consumption less food with milk sugar or mistreatment pills or drops to assist you digest milk sugar sometimes helps. Aged and exhausting cheeses, soured milk product (like yogurt), and lactose-free milk and milk product could also be easier to digest. you will ought to take a metal supplement if you avoid milk and foods created with milk as a result of they're the foremost common supply of metal for many individuals.
LDL See low-density lipoprotein.
Lipoprotein (lip-o-PRO-teen) A compound created from fat and supermolecule that carries fats and fat-like substances, like steroid alcohol, within the blood. See conjointly high-density lipoprotein and low-density lipoprotein
Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) (lip-o-PRO-teen) beta-lipoprotein could be a compound created from fat and supermolecule that carries steroid alcohol within the blood from the liver to alternative components of the body. High levels of cholesterin, ordinarily known as "bad" steroid alcohol, cause a buildup of steroid alcohol within the arteries and increase the danger of cardiovascular disease. Associate in Nursing beta-lipoprotein level of but one hundred mg/dL is taken into account best, one hundred to 129 mg/dL is taken into account close to or on top of best, one hundred thirty to 159 mg/dL is taken into account borderline high, one hundred sixty to 189 mg/dL is taken into account high, and one hundred ninety mg/dL or bigger is taken into account terribly high.
Table of contents:
Obesity terms - M
Macronutrient (mac-roh-NOO-tree-ent) A macronutrient is any nutrient that the body uses in comparatively massive amounts. They embrace carbohydrates, fat, and macromolecule See definitions. These ar completely different from micronutrients, like vitamins and minerals, that the body wants in smaller amounts.
Metabolic syndrome (meh-TAB-o-lik SIND-rome) an individual with metabolic syndrome contains a cluster of medical issues that, after they occur along, could increase the danger of cardiovascular disease and polygenic disorder. These issues ar an outsized waist size, high force per unit area, high glucose levels, high levels of triglycerides, and low levels of alpha-lipoprotein (HDL).
Metabolism (meh-TAB-o-liszm) the method that happens within the body to show the food you fret energy your body will use.
Monounsaturated fat (mono-un-SATCH-er-ay-ted) this sort of fat is found in avocados, canola oil, nuts, olives and oil, and seeds. feeding food that has additional monounsaturated fat (or "healthy fat") rather than saturated fat (like butter) could facilitate lower steroid alcohol and cut back cardiovascular disease risk. However, monounsaturated fat has identical range of calories as different kinds of fat and will contribute to weight gain if you eat an excessive amount of of it.
Muscle-strengthening activity a kind of physical activity that promotes the expansion and strength of muscles. Examples embrace lifting weights and doing push-ups and sit-ups. Federal tips advocate that adults do activities that strengthen muscles a minimum of double every week.
Obesity terms - N
Nutrient dense Nutrient-dense foods and drinks offer vital vitamins and minerals and comparatively few calories. The term "nutrient dense" conjointly implies that these foods and drinks haven't been processed or ready in a very manner that additional lots of calories from refined starches, sodium, solid fats, or sugar. Examples embrace skimmed and milk merchandise or substitutes; fruits and vegetables; macromolecule sources like beans and peas, eggs, lean meats, poultry, seafood, and unseasoned buggy and seeds; and whole grains.
- The method of the body mistreatment food to sustain life.
- The study of food and diet.
Obesity terms - O
Obesity (oh-BEE-si-tee) fat refers to excess body fat. as a result of body fat is sometimes not measured directly, a quantitative relation of weight to height is commonly used instead. it's outlined as BMI See body mass index. Associate in Nursing adult WHO contains a BMI of thirty or higher is taken into account weighty.
Oils Fats that ar liquid at temperature, oils return from many alternative plants and from food. Some common oils embrace canola, corn, olive, peanut, safflower, soybean, and helianthus oils. variety of foods ar naturally high in oils, like avocados, olives, nuts, and a few fish. Federal dietary tips See Resources] encourage Americans to switch solid fats with oils once attainable.
Overweight Overweight refers to Associate in Nursing excessive quantity of weight that features muscle, bone, fat, and water. an individual WHO contains a body mass index (BMI) of twenty five to twenty nine.9 See body mass index] is taken into account overweight. it's vital to recollect that though BMI is expounded to the quantity of body fat, BMI doesn't directly live body fat. As a result, some individuals, like athletes, could have a BMI that identifies them as overweight albeit they are doing not have excess body fat.
Obesity terms - P
Pancreas (PAN-kree-as) A secretory organ Associate in Nursingd an organ that creates enzymes to assist the body break down and use nutrients in food. The exocrine gland conjointly produces the internal secretion hormone See definition] and releases it into the blood to assist the body management glucose levels.
Any type of exercise or movement. Physical activity could embrace planned activities like walking, running, strength coaching, basketball, or different sports. Physical activity can also embrace daily activities like mowing the field, laundry the automobile, taking the steps rather than the elevator, and walking the dog. Federal tips on physical activity advocate that adults get a minimum of a hundred and fifty minutes (30 minutes daily, five days a week) of moderate-intensity physical activity for general health advantages. Adults WHO want to reduce or maintain weight loss may have additional physical activity, like three hundred minutes (60 minutes daily, five days a week). kids ought to get a minimum of hr of moderate-intensity physical activity daily.
Polyunsaturated fat (poly-un-SATCH-er-ay-ted) this sort of fat is liquid at temperature. There ar 2 kinds of unsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs): polyunsaturated fatty acid and omega-3 fatty acid. polyunsaturated fatty acid fatty acids ar found in liquid vegetable oils, like vegetable oil, herbaceous plant oil, and vegetable oil. omega-3 fatty acid fatty acids return from plant sources—including oil, flaxseed, vegetable oil, and walnuts—and from fish and shellfish.
Portion size the quantity of a food served or eaten in one occasion. a little isn't a regular quantity. the quantity of food it includes could vary by person and occasion See serving size.
Protein (PRO-teen) one in all the nutrients that offer calories to the body. macromolecule is a necessary nutrient that helps build several elements of the body, as well as blood, bone, muscle, and skin. macromolecule provides four calories per gram and is found in foods like beans, farm merchandise, eggs, fish, meat, nuts, poultry, and tofu.
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Obesity terms - R
Refined grains Any grain that's not an entire grain See definition] could be a refined grain. This includes grains and grain merchandise missing the bran, endosperm, and/or germ. several refined grains ar low in fiber and enriched with iron, niacin, riboflavin, and vitamin B complex and fortified with pteroylglutamic acid as needed by U.S. rules. Some samples of refined grain merchandise ar white flour, bread and tortillas, and rice.
Registered Dietetian (R.D.) An individual WHO has studied diet and nutrition at a university program approved by the Academy of Nutrition and bioscience (formerly the yankee dietary Association). To become Associate in Nursing R.D., an individual should complete 900 hours of supervised sensible expertise authorised by the Commission on the certification for bioscience Education Associate in Nursingd should pass an communicating.
Obesity terms - S
Saturated fat (SATCH-er-ay-ted) this sort of fat is solid at temperature. Saturated fat is found in full-fat farm merchandise (like butter, cheese, cream, regular frozen dessert, and whole milk), copra oil, lard, palm oil, ready-to-eat meats, and therefore the skin and fat of chicken and turkey, among different foods. Saturated fats have identical range of calories as different kinds of fat, and will contribute to weight gain if eaten in excess. feeding a diet high in saturated fat conjointly raises blood steroid alcohol and risk of cardiovascular disease.
Serving size a regular quantity of a food, like a cup or an oz..
Solid fats These kinds of fats ar typically not liquid at temperature. Solid fats ar found in most animal foods however can also be made of vegetable oils through chemical change See definition. Some common solid fats in our diet embrace beef fat, butter, chicken fat, copra oil, palm oil, pork fat (lard), shortening, and stick paste. Foods high in solid fats embrace full-fat (regular) cheese, cream, ice cream, and whole milk; bacon, poultry skin, regular hamburger, sausages, and well-marbled cuts of meats; and plenty of food (such as cookies, crackers, croissants, donuts, and pastries).
Stroke A stroke happens once blood flow to your brain stops. among minutes, brain cells begin to die. There ar 2 forms of stroke. The additional common kind, referred to as ischaemic stroke, is caused by a blood that blocks or plugs a vessel within the brain. the opposite kind, referred to as hemorrhage, is caused by a vessel that breaks and bleeds into the brain. "Mini-strokes," or transient ischaemic attacks (TIAs), occur once the blood provide to the brain is stopped for a brief time.
Sugar-sweetened beverages Drinks that ar sugary with additional sugars See definition] typically add an outsized range of calories. These beverages embrace, however don't seem to be restricted to, energy and sports drinks, fruit drinks, soda, and fruit juices.
Obesity terms - T
Trans fatty acids a kind of fat made once liquid fats (oils) ar was solid fats through a action referred to as chemical change See definition. feeding an outsized quantity of trans carboxylic acid, or "trans fats," conjointly raises blood steroid alcohol and risk of cardiovascular disease.
Triglycerides (Try-GLIH-ser-ides) a kind of fat in your blood, triglycerides will contribute to the hardening and narrowing of your arteries if levels ar too high. This puts you in danger of getting a attack or stroke. Triglycerides ar measured in conjunction with steroid alcohol as a part of a biopsy. traditional glyceride levels ar below a hundred and fifty mg/dL. Levels higher than two hundred mg/dL ar high.
Type one diabetes (dye-ah-BEET-eez) kind one polygenic disorder is believed to be Associate in Nursing disease that attacks and destroys the cells within the exocrine gland that turn out hormone. (An disease happens once the body's system, that typically helps the body fight diseases, turns against its own tissue.) kind one polygenic disorder was referred to as "insulin-dependent diabetes," or "juvenile polygenic disorder." while not hormone, the body isn't ready to use glucose (glucose) for energy. To treat the illness, an individual should inject hormone, exercise daily, and take a look at glucose many times daily.
Type 2 diabetes (dye-ah-BEET-eez) individuals with kind a pair of polygenic disorder turn out hormone, however either don't create enough hormone or their bodies don't expeditiously use the hormone they create. individuals with kind a pair of polygenic disorder is also ready to management their condition by losing weight through diet and exercise. they will conjointly ought to inject hormone or take medication in conjunction with continued to follow a healthy feeding pattern and being physically active on an everyday basis. kind a pair of polygenic disorder was referred to as "noninsulin-dependent polygenic disorder" or "adult-onset diabetes" and is that the most typical type of diabetes. kids and adolescents WHO ar overweight can also be in danger to develop kind a pair of polygenic disorder.
Table of contents:
Obesity terms - U
Unsaturated fat (un-SATCH-er-ay-ted) Unsaturated fats ar liquid at temperature. Vegetable oils ar a serious supply of unsaturated fat within the diet. Unsaturated fats embrace unsaturated fats and monounsaturated fats See definitions. different foods, like avocados, fatty fish like salmon and tuna, most nuts, and olives ar sensible sources of unsaturated fat.
Obesity terms - V
Very low calorie diet (VLCD) A VLCD could be a diet supervised by a health care skilled that usually uses commercially ready formulas to push fast weight loss in some patients WHO ar thought-about to be weighty. individuals on a VLCD consume concerning 800 calories daily or less.
Obesity terms - W
Waist circumference Excess fat round the waist and a bigger waist size increase the danger of health issues coupled to fat. ladies with a waist size of quite thirty five inches or men with a waist size of quite forty inches have a better risk of developing health issues coupled to fat, like polygenic disorder, cardiovascular disease, and high force per unit area.
Weight management This refers to achieving and maintaining a healthy weight with healthy feeding and physical activity.
Weight-cycling This refers to losing and gaining weight over and yet again.
Whole grains Grains and grain merchandise made of the whole grain seed, typically referred to as the kernel, that consists of the bran, endosperm, and/or germ. If the kernel has been cracked, crushed, or flaked, it should retain nearly identical relative proportions of bran, endosperm, and germ because the original grain so as to be referred to as whole grain. Many, however not all, whole grains also are a supply of dietary fiber.
Whole wheat grains Grains and grain merchandise made of the whole wheat kernel See whole grains.
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