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Daclizumab

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daclizumab  (duh-KLIH-zoo-mab) is a drug used to keep the body from rejecting kidney transplants. It is also being studied in the treatment of some types of cancer and other conditions. Daclizumab binds to receptors for a protein called interleukin-2 (IL-2), which are found on some types of immune cells and cancer cells. This may help suppress the body’s immune response and it may help kill cancer cells. Daclizumab is a type of monoclonal antibody. Also called dacliximab and Zenapax.


Information about Daclizumab

Daclizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody to CD25, the alpha subunit of the IL2 receptor on T lymphocytes, which was used in the past to treat and prevent acute cellular rejection after solid organ transplantation and is currently approved as a second line therapy of refactory relapsing multiple sclerosis.

Liver safety of Daclizumab

Daclizumab has been linked to occasional mild-to-moderate serum enzyme elevations during therapy, and to rare but potentially severe and fatal instances of immune mediated, clinically apparent liver injury.

Mechanism of action of Daclizumab

Daclizumab (da kliz’ ue mab) is a humanized monoclonal immunoglobulin G1 antibody to the alpha subunit of the IL2 receptor (CD25). The IL2 receptor is found on T cells and its engagement results in activation and proliferation of T cells and generation of proinflammatory cytokines. Inhibition of the receptor by antibody results in prevention of activation and inhibition of T cell responses. Daclizumab has been shown to be effective in reducing in incidence of acute rejection after renal, liver, heart and lung transplantation.

FDA approval information for Daclizumab

Daclizumab was approved for use in preventing acute rejection after renal transplantation in 1997 and was used largely as a part of induction regimens at and around the time of transplant. However, daclizumab was subsequently withdrawn by the sponsor in 2007 because of market factors rather than toxicity or lack of efficacy. Subsequently daclizumab was evaluated as therapy of several autoimmune conditions and was shown to decrease relapses in patients with refractory, relapsing multiple sclerosis. Daclizumab was reintroduced in 2016 with indications being second line therapy for refractory multiple sclerosis in 2016.

Dosage and administration for Daclizumab

Daclizumab is available in liquid solution in single use syringes or autoinjectors of 150 mg (150 mg/mL) under the brand name Zinbryta. The recommended dose is 150 mg subcutaneously once monthly.

Side effects of Daclizumab

Side effects of daclizumab when used as therapy of multiple sclerosis can include infusion reactions, chills, fever, skin rash, fatigue, leukopenia and infections. Less common, but potentially severe adverse events include immune mediated disorders, severe infections, depression, suicidal ideation and hypersensitivity reactions including anaphylaxis. The following drugs used to prevent transplant rejection.

Immunosuppressants

Monoclonal Antibodies

Antithymocyte Globulin

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