Calcium in biology

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Calcium ions (Ca2+) contribute to the physiology and biochemistry of organisms and the cell. They play an important role in signal transduction pathways,[1][2] where they act as a second messenger, in neurotransmitter release from neurons, in contraction of all muscle cell types, and in fertilization. Many enzymes require calcium ions as a cofactor, those of the blood-clotting cascade being notable examples. Extracellular calcium is also important for maintaining the potential difference across excitable cell membranes, as well as proper bone formation.

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  1. Brini, Marisa; Ottolini, Denis; Calì, Tito; Carafoli, Ernesto (2013). "Chapter 4. Calcium in Health and Disease". In Astrid Sigel, Helmut Sigel and Roland K. O. Sigel. Interrelations between Essential Metal Ions and Human Diseases. Metal Ions in Life Sciences. 13. Springer. pp. 81–137. doi:10.1007/978-94-007-7500-8_4. ISBN 978-94-007-7499-5. PMID 24470090.
  2. Brini, Marisa; Call, Tito; Ottolini, Denis; Carafoli, Ernesto (2013). "Chapter 5 Intracellular Calcium Homeostasis and Signaling". In Banci, Lucia (Ed.). Metallomics and the Cell. Metal Ions in Life Sciences. 12. Springer. pp. 119–68. doi:10.1007/978-94-007-5561-1_5. ISBN 978-94-007-5560-4. PMID 23595672. electronic-book ISBN 978-94-007-5561-1 ISSN 1559-0836 electronic-ISSN 1868-0402
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