COVID-19 transmission graph

Coronavirus: WHO declares COVID 19 a pandemic. Prevention | FAQs | COVID-19 portal

URGENT:COVID prophylaxis | Vitamin D | Latest research | NIH | CDC | Worldometer

NB:Did you know one coronavirus patient can infect 59,000 others if nothing is done? Dietary cholesterol may not raise cardiovascular risk! Ketogenic diet

Butorphanol

From WikiMD
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Information about Butorphanol

Butorphanol is a synthetic opioid which is used as a nasal spray for treatment of migraine headaches and parenterally as a narcotic analgesic for moderate-to-severe pain or as an adjunct to general anesthesia.

Liver safety of Butorphanol

Butorphanol has not been linked to serum enzyme elevations during therapy or to clinically apparent liver injury.

Mechanism of action of Butorphanol

Butorphanol (bue tor’ fa nol) is a fully synthetic opioid that has both partial agonist and partial antagonist activity to the µ type opiate receptors, as well as antagonist and partial agonist activity at the ĸ opioid receptor. Engagement of the opiate receptors results in inhibition of intracellular adenylate cyclase, decrease in calcium influx and hyperpolarization of neurons with suppression of action potentials. These actions lead to typical analgesic effects of the opioids. The partial agonist-antagonist activity of butorphanol causes it to antagonize the effects of fully agonist opioids such as morphine and fentanyl, and higher doses of butorphanol do not provide the euphoria typical of full agonists.

FDA approval information for Butorphanol

Butorphanol was first approved for use in the United States in 1978. It remains available as a solution for injection as well as nasal spray (typically for migraine headaches).

Indications / clinical use for Butorphanol

Indications for the parenteral forms of butorphanol include moderate-to-severe pain that is not responsive to nonnarcotic analgesia. Butorphanol is available generically and previously under the brand names Stadol as a solution for injection and nasal spray in concentrations of 10 mg/mL.

Dosage and administration for Butorphanol

Typical doses vary by indication and clinical response.

Side effects of Butorphanol

Side effects include sedation, respiratory depression, confusion, euphoria, agitation, itching, sweating, abdominal bloating, nausea, vomiting and constipation, adverse effects which are typical of the opioids, although gastrointestinal side effects may be less. Butorphanol has a lower potential for physical and psychological dependency than morphine, fentanyl and oxycodone and is classified as a Schedule IV drug, indicating that it has medical usefulness, and only a low potential for physical and psychological dependency and abuse.

Full and partial opiod agonists:

Opiate antagonists:


The article on Butorphanol is a stub. YOU can help Wikimd by expanding it!

Medication resources

Learn more

Apple bitten.svg

About us: WikiMD is a free medical encyclopedia and wellnesspedia moderated by medical professionals.

Our mission: Provide up to date physician reviewed health, nutrition and wellness information.

Join us: Do not trust amateurs with your life! Join us in this effort!

W8MD weight loss logo

Ad. Tired of being overweight?. W8MD's insurance Weight loss program can HELP*

Quick links: Medicine Portal | Encyclopedia‏‎‏‎ | Gray's Anatomy‏‎ | Topics‏‎ |‏‎ Diseases‏‎ | Drugs | Wellness | Obesity‏‎ | Metabolic syndrome | Weight loss*
Disclaimer: The entire contents of WIKIMD.ORG are for informational purposes only and do not render medical advice or professional services. If you have a medical emergency, you should CALL 911 immediately! Given the nature of the wiki, the information provided may not be accurate, misleading and or incorrect. Use the information on this wiki at your own risk! See full Disclaimer.
Link to this page: <a href="http://www.wikimd.org/wiki/Butorphanol">Butorphanol</a>

  • Individual results may vary for weight loss from our sponsors.