Azathioprine

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Azathioprine (INN, Script error: No such module "IPAc-en"., abbreviated AZA) is an immunosuppressive drug used in organ transplantation and autoimmune diseases and belongs to the chemical class of purine analogues.

Information about Azathioprine

Azathioprine is a purine analogue and prodrug of mercaptopurine that is used as an immunosuppressive agent in organ transplantation to prevent rejection and in autoimmune diseases as a corticosteroid sparing agent.

Liver safety of Azathioprine

Azathioprine is associated with minor, usually transient and asymptomatic elevations in serum aminotransferase levels during therapy and with rare instances of acute, cholestatic liver injury and, with long term use, noncirrhotic portal hypertension as a result of nodular regenerative hyperplasia or sinusoidal obstruction syndrome.

Mechanism of action of Azathioprine

Azathioprine (ay" za thye' oh preen) is an imidazolyl derivative and prodrug of mercaptopurine that inhibits lymphocyte function by antagonism of purine metabolism, thus inhibiting DNA, RNA and subsequent protein synthesis. Azathioprine inhibits the maturation of T cells and blocks delayed hypersensitivity reactions; it also has antiinflammatory activity.

FDA approval information for Azathioprine

Azathioprine was introduced into use in the early 1960s and represented a major breakthrough in the development of antirejection therapy, allowing for more widespread and successful use of kidney, heart and liver transplantation. Azathioprine was approved for use in the United States in 1968 and is still widely used in transplantation and in treatment of autoimmune conditions such as Crohn disease, rheumatoid arthritis and autoimmune hepatitis. Azathioprine is available generically and under the brand name of Imuran as tablets of 50, 75 and 100 mg; a parenteral formulation is also available.

Dosage and administration for Azathioprine

The usual dose is 1 to 3 mg per kilogram or 50 to 150 mg daily and it is typically given long term.

Side effects of Azathioprine

Common side effects include nausea, abdominal upset, rash, aphthous ulcers and dose related bone marrow suppression. Long term use of azathioprine is associated with an increased risk for malignancy, including lymphoma and possibly hepatocellular carcinoma.


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Antineoplastic Agents

Alkylating Agents - Altretamine, Bendamustine, Busulfan, Carmustine, Chlorambucil, Cyclophosphamide, Dacarbazine, Ifosfamide, Lomustine, Mechlorethamine, Melphalan, Procarbazine, Streptozocin, Temozolomide, Thiotepa, Trabectedin

Platinum Coordination Complexes - Carboplatin, Cisplatin, Oxaliplatin

Antibiotics Cytotoxic - Bleomycin, Dactinomycin, Daunorubicin, Doxorubicin, Epirubicin, Idarubicin, Mitomycin, Mitoxantrone, Plicamycin, Mithramycin, Valrubicin

Antimetabolites Antifolates - Methotrexate, Pemetrexed, Pralatrexate, Trimetrexate

Purine Analogues - Azathioprine, Cladribine, Clofarabine, Fludarabine, Mercaptopurine, Nelarabine, Pentostatin, Thioguanine

Pyrimidine Analogues - Azacitidine, Capecitabine, Cytarabine, Decitabine, Floxuridine, Fluorouracil, Gemcitabine, Trifluridine/Tipracil

Biologic Response Modifiers - Aldesleukin (IL-2), Denileukin Diftitox, Interferon gamma

Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors - Belinostat, Panobinostat, Romidepsin, Vorinostat

Hormonal Agents Antiandrogens - Abiraterone, Bicalutamide, Cyproterone, Enzalutamide, Flutamide, Nilutamide

Antiestrogens (including Aromatase Inhibitors) - Anastrozole, Exemestane, Fulvestrant, Letrozole

Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators - Raloxifene, Tamoxifen, Toremifene

Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone Analogues - Degarelix, Goserelin, Histrelin, Leuprolide, Triptorelin

Peptide Hormones - Lanreotide, Octreotide, Pasireotide

Monoclonal Antibodies - Alemtuzumab, Atezolizumab, Avelumab, Bevacizumab, Blinatumomab, Brentuximab, Cetuximab, Daratumumab, Dinutuximab, Durvalumab, Elotuzumab, Gemtuzumab, Inotuzumab Ozogamicin, Ipilimumab, Necitumumab, Nivolumab, Ofatumumab, Olaratumab, Panitumumab, Pembrolizumab, Pertuzumab, Ramucirumab, Rituximab, Tositumomab, Trastuzumab

Protein Kinase Inhibitors - Abemaciclib, Acalabrutinib, Afatinib, Alectinib, Axitinib, Bortezomib, Bosutinib, Brigatinib, Cabozantinib, Carfilzomib, Ceritinib, Cobimetinib, Copanlisib, Crizotinib, Dabrafenib, Dasatinib, Enasidenib, Erlotinib, Gefitinib, Ibrutinib, Idelalisib, Imatinib, Ivosidenib, Ixazomib, Lapatinib, Lenvatinib, Neratinib, Nilotinib, Niraparib, Olaparib, Osimertinib, Palbociclib, Pazopanib, Ponatinib, Regorafenib, Ribociclib, Rucaparib, Ruxolitinib, Sonidegib, Sorafenib, Sunitinib, Trametinib, Vandetanib, Vemurafenib, Vismodegib

Taxanes - Cabazitaxel, Docetaxel, Paclitaxel

Topoisomerase Inhibitors - Etoposide, Irinotecan, Teniposide, Topotecan

Tyrosine Kinase Receptor Inhibitors See Protein Kinase Inhibitors

Vinca Alkaloids - Vinblastine, Vincristine, Vinorelbine

Miscellaneous - Asparaginase (Pegaspargase), Bexarotene, Eribulin, Everolimus, Hydroxyurea, Ixabepilone, Lenalidomide, Mitotane, Omacetaxine, Pomalidomide, Temsirolimus, Thalidomide, Venetoclax

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