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Antineoplastic agents f

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  • F16-il2 fusion protein - An immunocytokine of the human monoclonal antibody fragment F16 (scFv) against the extra-domain A1 of tenascin-C fused, via a short 5-amino acid linker, to a recombinant form of the human cytokine interleukin-2 (IL-2) with potential immunostimulating and antineoplastic activities. The monoclonal antibody portion of the F16-IL2 fusion protein binds to tumor cells expressing the tumor associated antigen (TAA) tenascin-C. In turn, the IL-2 moiety of the fusion protein stimulates natural killer (NK) cells, macrophages and neutrophils and induces T-cell antitumor cellular immune responses thereby selectively killing tenascin-C-expressing tumor cells. In addition, F16-IL2 may potentiate the cytotoxicity of other chemotherapeutic agents. Tenascin-C, a glycoprotein of the extracellular matrix, is expressed in many cancer cell types.
  • Fact complex-targeting curaxin cbl0137 - An orally available curaxin-based agent targeting the Facilitates Chromatin Transcription (FACT) complex, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, CBL0137 binds to FACT and sequesters the FACT complex on chromatin, which inhibits its activity. This prevents transcription of certain genes involved in cancer-associated signaling pathways; it specifically inhibits the transcription of both NF-kappa B and heat shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1) and simultaneously activates p53. This causes an increase in tumor cell apoptosis and a decrease in tumor cell proliferation, in FACT-positive cancers. In addition, this agent is able to sensitize FACT-positive tumor cells to the cytotoxic effects of other chemotherapeutic agents. FACT, a transcription and replication factor composed of the Structure Specific Recognition Protein (SSRP1) and suppressor of Ty 16 (Spt16) proteins, is expressed in a variety of tumor cells while almost absent in normal cells; its expression is associated with increased tumor aggressiveness and poor prognosis.
  • Factor viia inhibitor pci-27483 - A reversible small-molecule inhibitor of activated factor VII (factor VIIa) with potential antineoplastic and antithrombotic activities. FVII, a serine protease, becomes activated (FVIIa) upon binding with TF forming the FVIIa/TF complex, which induces intracellular signaling pathways by activating protease activated receptor 2 (PAR-2). Upon subcutaneous administration, factor VIIa inhibitor PCI-27483 selectively inhibits factor FVIIa in the VIIa/TF complex, which may prevent PAR-2 activation and PAR2-mediated signal transduction pathways, thereby inhibiting tumor cell proliferation, angiogenesis, and metastasis of TF-overexpressing tumor cells. In addition, this agent inhibits both the extrinsic and intrinsic coagulation cascades, preventing blood clot formation. TF, a blood protein overexpressed on the cell surface of a variety of tumor cell types, may correlate with poor prognosis; PAR-2 (also known as thrombin receptor-like 1) is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) and a protease-activated receptor.
  • Factor vii-targeting immunoconjugate protein icon-1 - A human immunoconjugate (ICON) fusion protein composed of a modified version of human factor VII (FVII) which targets tissue factor (TF) that is fused to the Fc domain of the human immunoglobulin G1, with potential anti-thrombotic and antineoplastic activities. Acting in a similar manner as plasma FVII, the natural ligand of TF, ICON-1 targets and binds to TF expressed on neovascular endothelia, thereby preventing TF-mediated signaling pathways, and leading to the initiation of an immune response and the destruction of neovascular tissue. This prevents angiogenesis, inflammation and blood coagulation. Upon intravitreal administration, ICON-1 may block TF-induced angiogenesis and treat wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and ocular melanoma. TF, a naturally occurring glycoprotein in humans, regulates blood clotting, angiogenesis, and inflammation.
  • Fadraciclib - An orally bioavailable inhibitor of cyclin dependent kinases 2, 5 and 9 (CDK2/5/9), with potential antineoplastic and chemoprotective activities. Upon oral administration, fadraciclib selectively binds to and inhibits the activity of CDK2, 5 and 9, which leads to inhibition of CDK2, 5 and 9-dependent cellular pathways, downregulation of genes involved in the pro-survival pathway, prevention of the activation of DNA double-strand break repair pathways, and induction of both cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. This inhibits the proliferation of CDK2/5/9-overexpressing tumor cells. In addition, CYC065 protects hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs), prevents myelosuppression, and preserves the function of the bone marrow. CDKs are serine/threonine kinases involved in the regulation of the cell cycle and may be overexpressed in certain cancer cell types; they play key roles in tumor cell proliferation, the regulation of transcription, and DNA damage repair.
  • Fadrozole hydrochloride - The hydrochloride salt of the nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitor fadrozole with potential antineoplastic activity. Fadrozole specifically inhibits aromatase, blocking the aromatization of androstenedione and testosterone into estrone and estradiol, respectively, the final step in estrogen biosynthesis; the reduction in estrogen levels may inhibit growth in estrogen-dependent cancers. Aromatase, a member of the cytochrome P-450 superfamily, is found in many tissues; overexpression has been linked to the development of preneoplastic and neoplastic changes in breast tissue.
  • Fak inhibitor gsk2256098 - A focal adhesion kinase-1 (FAK) inhibitor with potential antiangiogenic and antineoplastic activities. FAK inhibitor GSK2256098 inhibits FAK, which may prevent the integrin-mediated activation of several downstream signal transduction pathways, including ERK, JNK/MAPK and PI3K/Akt, thereby inhibiting tumor cell migration, proliferation and survival, and tumor angiogenesis. The tyrosine kinase FAK is normally activated by binding to integrins in the extracellular matrix (ECM) but may be upregulated and constitutively activated in various tumor cell types.
  • Fak inhibitor pf-00562271 - An orally bioavailable small molecule and ATP-competitive focal adhesion kinase (FAK) inhibitor with potential antineoplastic and antiangiogenic activities. FAK inhibitor PF-00562271 inhibits the tyrosine kinase FAK, and to a lesser extent, proline-rich tyrosine kinase (PYK2), which may inhibit tumor cell migration, proliferation, and survival. As FAK is a signal transducer for integrins, inhibition of FAK by this agent may prevent integrin-mediated activation of several downstream signals including ERK, JNK/MAPK and PI3K/Akt. FAK and PYK2, upregulated in many tumor cell types, are involved in tumor cell invasion, migration and proliferation.
  • Fak inhibitor vs-4718 - An orally bioavailable focal adhesion kinase (FAK) inhibitor with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, VS-4718 inhibits FAK, blocks fibronectin-stimulated FAK autophosphorylation of Tyr397, and may prevent the integrin-mediated activation of several downstream signal transduction pathways, including ERK, JNK/MAPK and PI3K/Akt. This results in the reduction of the number of cancer stem cells (CSCs) and inhibits tumor cell migration, proliferation and survival. The cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase FAK is a signal transducer for integrins and is constitutively activated in various tumor cell types; it is involved in tumor cell invasion, migration and proliferation and plays a key role in the development, function and survival of CSCs.
  • Fak/alk/ros1 inhibitor apg-2449 - An orally available kinase inhibitor of the receptor tyrosine kinase anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and the receptor tyrosine kinase C-ros oncogene 1 (ROS1), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, ALK/FAK/ROS1 inhibitor APG-2449 selectively binds to and inhibits ALK, FAK and ROS1 kinases. The inhibition leads to disruption of ALK-, FAK- and ROS1-mediated signal transduction pathways and eventually inhibits tumor cell growth in ALK-, FAK- and ROS1-overexpressing tumor cells. ALK belongs to the insulin receptor superfamily and plays an important role in nervous system development; its dysregulation and gene rearrangements are associated with a variety of tumors. The cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase FAK, a signal transducer for integrins, is upregulated and constitutively activated in various tumor types; it plays a key role in tumor cell migration, proliferation, survival, and tumor angiogenesis. ROS1, overexpressed in certain cancer cells, plays a key role in cell growth and survival of cancer cells.
  • Falimarev - A cancer vaccine comprised of a recombinant fowlpox viral vector encoding the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), MUC-1, a transmembrane glycoprotein secreted by glandular epithelial tissues, and TRICOM, comprised of three co-stimulatory molecule transgenes (B7-1, ICAM-1 and LFA-3). This agent may enhance CEA and MUC-1 presentation to antigen-presenting cells (APC) and may activate a cytotoxic T-cell response against CEA- and MUC-1-expressing tumor cells.
  • Famitinib - An orally bioavailable receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) inhibitor with potential antineoplastic activity. Famitinib binds to and inhibits several RTKs, dysregulated in a variety of tumors, including stem cell factor receptor (c-Kit; SCFR), vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) 2 and 3, platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) and FMS-like tyrosine kinases Flt1 and Flt3. Inhibition of these RTKs may result in an inhibition of tumor growth and angiogenesis, and eventually tumor regression in tumor cells overexpressing these RTKs.
  • Fap/4-1bb-targeting darpin mp0310 - A designed ankyrin repeat proteins (DARPin)-based agent targeting the tumor-associated protein fibroblast activation protein (FAP) and the T-cell co-stimulatory immune receptor 4-1BB (CD137; tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 9; TNFRSF9), with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, the FAP/4-1BB-targeting DARPin MP0310 targets and binds to both FAP, localized on tumor stromal cells, and 4-1BB, expressed on a variety of leukocyte subsets including activated T-lymphocytes and natural killer (NK) cells. The simultaneous binding of FAP and 4-1BB results in local clustering of FAP-expressing tumor stromal cells and 4-1BB-expressing T-cells, and local immune cell activation through the promotion of T-cell activation, cytokine release and T-cell-mediated anti-tumor immune responses. 4-1BB, a surface glycoprotein of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, is an inducible costimulatory receptor that plays a key role in T-cell proliferation, survival and cytolytic activity. FAP is abundantly expressed by cancer associated fibroblasts in the majority of solid tumors. Compared to antibodies, DARPins are small in size, have favorable pharmacokinetics and allow for both high affinity binding and efficacy.
  • Fap/4-1bb-targeting fusion protein ro7122290 - A bispecific antibody-like fusion protein consisting of a trimeric ligand for the T-cell co-stimulatory immune receptor 4-1BB (CD137; tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 9; TNFRSF9) and an antigen-binding fragment (Fab) moiety targeting the tumor-associated protein fibroblast activation protein (FAP), with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, the FAP/4-1BB-targeting fusion protein RO7122290 targets and binds to both FAP, localized on tumor stromal cells, and 4-1BB, expressed on a variety of leukocyte subsets including activated T-lymphocytes and natural killer (NK) cells. The simultaneous binding of FAP and 4-1BB results in local clustering of FAP-expressing tumor stromal cells and 4-1BB-expressing T-cells, and local immune cell activation through the promotion of T-cell activation, cytokine release and T-cell-mediated anti-tumor immune responses. 4-1BB, a surface glycoprotein of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, is an inducible costimulatory receptor that plays a key role in T-cell proliferation, survival and cytolytic activity. FAP is abundantly expressed by cancer-associated fibroblasts in the majority of solid tumors.
  • Fap-specific cd8-positive t cells - A preparation of CD8-positive T cells specific for human fibroblast activating protein (FAP) with potential immunopotentiating activity. T cells have been genetically modified to express a chimeric antigen receptor specific for FAP. Upon infusion, the FAP-specific CD8-positive T cells bind to FAP-expressing tumor cells and exhibit a selective toxicity to tumor cells. This may result in both tumor cell lysis and inhibition of tumor cell growth. FAP, a cell surface glycoprotein, is overexpressed on tumor-associated fibroblasts but minimally expressed on normal, healthy cells.
  • Farletuzumab - A humanized, immunoglobulin G1 monoclonal antibody with potential antitumor activity. Farletuzumab specifically targets at glycoprotein 3 (GP-3), a cell surface antigen that is overexpressed on many epithelial-derived cancer cells. Upon binding to the GP-3 antigen, farletuzumab triggers a host immune response against GP-3 expressing cells resulting in cell lysis.
  • Farnesyltransferase/geranylgeranyltransferase inhibitor l-778,123 - A benzonitrile derivative capable of inhibiting some prenyltransferases. L-778,123 is a dual inhibitor of farnesyl:protein and geranylgeranyl:protein transferases; both enzymes catalyze prenylation of oncoprotein KRAS, a prerequisite step in activation of KRAS in signal transduction pathway of apoptosis. Although this agent was developed in part as an anti-KRAS agent, L-778,123 failed in a Phase I trial to inhibit KRAS, which is associated with many types of solid tumors.
  • Fas receptor agonist apo010 - A recombinant, soluble, hexameric fusion protein consisting of three human Fas ligand (FasL) extracellular domains fused to the dimer-forming collagen domain of human adiponectin with potential pro-apoptotic and antineoplastic activities. Assembled into a soluble hexameric structure mimicking the ligand clustering of endogenous active FasL, Fas receptor agonist APO010 activates the Fas receptor, resulting in caspase-dependent apoptosis in susceptible tumor cell populations. FasL is a transmembrane protein of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily and a pro-apoptotic ligand for the death receptor Fas.
  • Fascin inhibitor np-g2-044 - An orally available inhibitor of the protein fascin, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon oral administration, NP-G2-044 targets and binds to fascin, thereby preventing the interaction of fascin with actin filaments, thereby preventing actin bundling and filopodia formation. By preventing actin cytoskeletal reorganization, the dynamic changes in cell shape that are necessary for tumor cell migration and invasion to occur are impaired, and tumor cell migration and metastasis are inhibited. Fascin, the main actin cross-linker protein in filopodia, is upregulated in many types of metastatic tumor cells while its expression is low or absent in normal adult epithelial cells; its expression is correlated with aggressive phenotypes, poor prognosis, and shorter survival. Filopodia, finger-like plasma membrane protrusions that are formed upon remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton, are found at a high frequency in metastatic tumor cells and their presence is correlated with tumor cell invasiveness.
  • Fasn inhibitor tvb-2640 - An orally bioavailable fatty acid synthase (FASN) inhibitor, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, TVB-2640 binds to and blocks FASN, which prevents the synthesis of palmitate needed for tumor cell growth and survival. This leads to a reduction in cell signaling, an induction of tumor cell apoptosis and the inhibition of cell proliferation in susceptible tumor cells. FASN, an enzyme responsible for the de novo synthesis of palmitic acid, is overexpressed in tumor cells and plays a key role in tumor metabolism, lipid signaling, tumor cell survival and drug resistance; tumor cells are dependent on increased fatty acid production for their enhanced metabolic needs and rapid growth.
  • Favezelimab - A humanized, immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4) monoclonal antibody (MAb) directed against the inhibitory receptor lymphocyte activation gene-3 protein (LAG3), with potential immune checkpoint inhibitory and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, favezelimab binds to LAG3 expressed on tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and blocks its binding with major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules expressed on tumor cells. This activates antigen-specific T-lymphocytes and enhances cytotoxic T-cell-mediated tumor cell lysis, which leads to a reduction in tumor growth. LAG3, a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF), is expressed on various immune cells, and negatively regulates both proliferation and activation of T-cells. Its expression on TILs is associated with tumor-mediated immune suppression.
  • Fazarabine - An orally-active pyrimidine analogue of an aza-substituted cytidine in which the ribose moiety is replaced by an arabinose sugar. Similar in action to cytarabine, fazarabine is phosphorylated by deoxycytidine kinase to a triphosphate form which competes with thymidine for incorporation into DNA; its incorporation into DNA inhibits DNA synthesis, resulting in tumor cell death and tumor necrosis. The presence of deoxycytidine kinase in a tumor is a determinant of tumor sensitivity to this drug.
  • Fc-engineered anti-cd40 agonist antibody 2141-v11 - A Fc-engineered agonistic antibody targeting the human B-cell surface antigen CD40, with potential immunostimulatory and antineoplastic activities. Upon intratumoral administration, 2141-V11 targets and binds to CD40 on a variety of immune cell types. This induces CD40-dependent signaling pathways, triggers the proliferation and activation of antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and activates T-cells. This results in an enhanced cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL)-mediated immune response against tumor cells. CD40, a cell surface receptor and member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily (TNFRSF), is expressed on various immune cells, such as dendritic cells (DCs), macrophages and B-cells, and plays a key role in the activation of the immune system.
  • Febuxostat - An orally available, non-purine inhibitor of xanthine oxidase with uric acid lowering activity. Upon oral administration, febuxostat selectively and noncompetitively inhibits the activity of xanthine oxidase, an enzyme that converts oxypurines, including hypoxanthine and xanthine, into uric acid. By inhibiting xanthine oxidase, uric acid production is reduced and serum uric acid levels are lowered. Febuxostat may provide protection against acute renal failure caused by the excessive release of uric acid that occurs upon massive tumor cell lysis resulting from the treatment of some malignancies.
  • Fedratinib - An orally bioavailable, small-molecule, ATP-competitive inhibitor of Janus-associated kinase 2 (JAK2) and FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3; CD135; STK1; FLK2), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon oral administration, fedratinib competes with wild-type JAK2 as well as mutated forms for ATP binding, which may result in inhibition of JAK2 activation, inhibition of the JAK-STAT signaling pathway, inhibition of tumor cell proliferation and induction of tumor cell apoptosis. JAK2 is the most commonly mutated gene in bcr-abl-negative myeloproliferative disorders (MPDs). In addition, fedratinib targets, binds to and inhibits the activity of FLT3. This inhibits uncontrolled FLT3 signaling and results in the inhibition of proliferation in tumor cells overexpressing FLT3. FLT3, a class III receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK), is overexpressed or mutated in most B-lineage neoplasms and in acute myeloid leukemias and plays a key role in tumor cell proliferation.
  • Fedratinib hydrochloride - The monohydrate dihydrochloride salt form of fedratinib, an orally bioavailable, small-molecule, ATP-competitive inhibitor of Janus-associated kinase 2 (JAK2) and FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3; CD135; STK1; FLK2), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon oral administration, fedratinib competes with wild-type JAK2 as well as mutated forms for ATP binding, which may result in inhibition of JAK2 activation, inhibition of the JAK-STAT signaling pathway, inhibition of tumor cell proliferation and induction of tumor cell apoptosis. JAK2 is the most commonly mutated gene in bcr-abl-negative myeloproliferative disorders (MPDs). In addition, fedratinib targets, binds to and inhibits the activity of FLT3. This inhibits uncontrolled FLT3 signaling and results in the inhibition of proliferation in tumor cells overexpressing FLT3. FLT3, a class III receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK), is overexpressed or mutated in most B-lineage neoplasms and in acute myeloid leukemias and plays a key role in tumor cell proliferation.
  • Feladilimab - An agonistic antibody for the inducible T-cell co-stimulator (ICOS; CD278), with potential immune checkpoint inhibitory and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, feladilimab targets and binds to ICOS expressed on tumor infiltrating CD4-positive T-cells. This stimulates ICOS-positive T-cell proliferation, enhances cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) survival and increases CTL-mediated immune responses against tumor cells. ICOS, a T-cell specific, CD28-superfamily costimulatory molecule and immune checkpoint protein, is normally expressed on certain activated T-cells and plays a key role in the proliferation and activation of T-cells.
  • Felzartamab - A fully human monoclonal antibody directed against the cell surface glycoprotein CD-38 with potential antineoplastic activity. Felzartamab specifically binds to CD38 on CD38-positive tumor cells. This may trigger antitumoral antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and may eventually lead to cell lysis in CD38-expressing tumor cells. CD38, a type II transmembrane glycoprotein, is present on various immune cells and hematologic malignancies, and its expression has been correlated with poor prognosis.
  • Fenebrutinib - An orally available inhibitor of Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, fenebrutinib inhibits the activity of BTK and prevents the activation of the B-cell antigen receptor (BCR) signaling pathway. This prevents both B-cell activation and BTK-mediated activation of downstream survival pathways, which leads to the inhibition of the growth of malignant B-cells that overexpress BTK. BTK, a member of the Src-related BTK/Tec family of cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases, is overexpressed in B-cell malignancies; it plays an important role in B-lymphocyte development, activation, signaling, proliferation and survival.
  • Fenretinide - An orally-active synthetic phenylretinamide analogue of retinol (vitamin A) with potential antineoplastic and chemopreventive activities. Fenretinide binds to and activates retinoic acid receptors (RARs), thereby inducing cell differentiation and apoptosis in some tumor cell types. This agent also inhibits tumor growth by modulating angiogenesis-associated growth factors and their receptors and exhibits retinoid receptor-independent apoptotic properties.
  • Fenretinide lipid matrix - An orally bioavailable powder formulation of a synthetic phenylretinamide analogue of retinol with potential chemopreventive and antineoplastic activities. Fenretinide binds to and activates retinoic acid receptors (RARs), thereby inducing cell differentiation and apoptosis in some tumor cell types, including those of the colon, breast, prostate, and neuroblastoma. Independent of RAR activation, this agent also modulates gene expression that leads to ceramide-induced, caspase-independent programmed cell death (PCD) via effectors such as ganglioside GD3 and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Compared to the capsule form, the powder contains a mixture of wheat flour, fats, and sugar that may contribute to the enhanced bioavailability of fenretinide.
  • Fenretinide phospholipid suspension st-001 - An intravenous formulation composed of a phospholipid suspension of nanoparticles containing the synthetic retinoid derivative fenretinide, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon intravenous administration, fenretinide binds to and activates retinoic acid receptors (RARs), thereby inducing cell differentiation and apoptosis in susceptible tumor cell types. Fenretinide also binds to and inhibits the activity of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), which may result in both the induction of tumor cell apoptosis and a decrease in tumor cell proliferation. Independent of RAR activation and mTOR inhibition, this agent may also modulate gene expression that leads to ceramide-induced, caspase-independent programmed cell death (PCD) via effectors such as ganglioside GD3 and reactive oxygen species (ROS).
  • Fermented soybean protein beverage - A fermented soybean-derived phytochemical beverage with potential antineoplastic activity. Fermented soybean protein beverage is reported to exhibit immunostimulatory, anti-viral, pro-apoptotic, anti-angiogenic, anti-proliferative, and anti-inflammatory activities and to enhance the cytotoxic effects of natural killer (NK) cells. The fermentation process is reported to hydrolyze many soybean proteins into amino acids and nitrogen-rich compounds and to protect and enhance the activities of isoflavones such as genistein, protease inhibitors, saponins, phytosterols, inositol hexaphosphate, and other beneficial dietary nutrients and micronutrients found in soybeans.
  • Fermented wheat germ extract - An extract of fermented wheat germ containing a concentrated, standardized amount of methoxy-substituted benzoquinones with immunomodulatory and potential antineoplastic activities. Fermented wheat germ extract (FWGE) inhibits the activities of several enzymes involved in de novo nucleic acid synthesis and in supplying the dNTP pool required for DNA replication. This agent also induces caspase-3- mediated inactivation of poly(ADP)ribose polymerase (PARP), a key enzyme in DNA repair that is overexpressed in many cancers; cleavage of PARP prevents DNA repair and induces apoptosis. The benzoquinones may contribute to the immunomodulatory effects of FWGE, down-regulating major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-1) protein on the surface of cancer cells, allowing natural killer (NK) cell surveillance; and up-regulating the expression of intracellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) on tumor endothelial cells.
  • Fgf receptor antagonist hgs1036 - A soluble fusion protein consisting of the extracellular domain of human fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) fused to the Fc portion of human immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) with potential antineoplastic and anti-angiogenic activities. FGFR1 receptor antagonist FP-1039 prevents FGFR ligands, such as FGF1, FGF2, FGF4, from binding to their cognate receptors, thereby inhibiting the activation of the related FGFR tyrosine kinases. Inhibition of FGFR1 by this agent may retard tumor cell proliferation and induce tumor cell death. FP-1039 may also inhibit vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced angiogenesis. FGFR1 is a receptor tyrosine kinase upregulated in certain tumor cells and involved in tumor cellular proliferation, differentiation, angiogenesis, and survival; most ligands that bind to FGFR1 also bind to the related receptors FGFR3 and FGFR4.
  • Fgf/fgfr pathway inhibitor e7090 - An inhibitor of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF)/fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) pathway, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, the FGF/FGFR pathway inhibitor E7090 selectively interferes with the binding of FGF to FGFR through an as of yet not fully elucidated mechanism. This inhibits FGFR-mediated signaling and leads to both cell proliferation inhibition and cell death in FGFR-overexpressing tumor cells. FGFR is a receptor tyrosine kinase essential to tumor cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival; its expression is upregulated in many tumor cell types.
  • Fgfr inhibitor asp5878 - An orally bioavailable inhibitor of the fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon oral administration, FGFR inhibitor ASP5878 binds to and inhibits FGFR, which results in the inhibition of FGFR-mediated signal transduction pathways. This inhibits proliferation in FGFR-overexpressing tumor cells. FGFR, a family of receptor tyrosine kinases upregulated in many tumor cell types, plays a key role in cellular proliferation and survival.
  • Fgfr inhibitor azd4547 - An orally bioavailable inhibitor of the fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) with potential antineoplastic activity. FGFR inhibitor AZD4547 binds to and inhibits FGFR, which may result in the inhibition of FGFR-related signal transduction pathways, and, so, the inhibition of tumor cell proliferation and tumor cell death. FGFR, up-regulated in many tumor cell types, is a receptor tyrosine kinase essential to tumor cellular proliferation, differentiation and survival.
  • Fgfr inhibitor cpl304110 - An orally bioavailable inhibitor of the fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon oral administration, FGFR inhibitor CPL304110 binds to and inhibits FGFR, which results in the inhibition of FGFR-mediated signal transduction pathways. This inhibits proliferation in FGFR-overexpressing tumor cells. FGFR, a family of receptor tyrosine kinases upregulated in many tumor cell types, plays a key role in cellular proliferation and survival.
  • Fgfr inhibitor debio 1347 - An orally bioavailable inhibitor of the fibroblast growth factor receptor subtypes 1 (FGFR-1), 2 (FGFR-2) and 3 (FGFR-3), with potential antineoplastic activity. FGFR inhibitor debio 1347 binds to and inhibits FGFR-1, -2, and -3, which result in the inhibition of FGFR-mediated signal transduction pathways. This leads to the inhibition of both tumor cell proliferation and angiogenesis, and causes cell death in FGFR-overexpressing tumor cells. FGFR, a family of receptor tyrosine kinases upregulated in many tumor cell types, is essential for tumor cellular proliferation, differentiation and survival.
  • Fgfr/csf-1r inhibitor 3d185 - An orally bioavailable inhibitor of the fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) types 1, 2, and 3 (FGFR1/2/3) and colony stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R; CSF-1R; CD115; M-CSFR), with potential immunomodulatory and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, FGFR/CSF-1R inhibitor 3D185 binds to and inhibits FGFR1/2/3, which may result in the inhibition of FGFR1/2/3-mediated signal transduction pathways. This inhibits proliferation in FGFR1/2/3-overexpressing tumor cells. 3D185 also targets and binds to CSF1R, thereby blocking CSF1R activation and CSF1R-mediated signaling. This inhibits the activities of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), and prevents immune suppression in the tumor microenvironment (TME). This enhances antitumor T-cell immune responses and inhibits the proliferation of tumor cells. FGFR, a family of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) upregulated in many tumor cell types, plays a key role in cellular proliferation, migration and survival. CSF1R, also known as macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor (M-CSFR) and CD115 (cluster of differentiation 115), is a cell-surface receptor that plays major roles in tumor cell proliferation and metastasis.
  • Fgfr/vegfr/pdgfr/flt3/src inhibitor xl999 - A small molecule inhibitor of numerous tyrosine kinases (TKs) including fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR), vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR), platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR), FMS-related tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3), and SRC, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, XL999 binds to and inhibits the activity of these TKs, thereby preventing both the activation of downstream signaling pathways and the proliferation of tumor cells overexpressing these TKs. FGFR, VEGFR, PDGFR, FLT-3, and SRC are upregulated in a variety of cancer cell types and play key roles in tumor cell proliferation, angiogenesis, and metastasis.
  • Fgfr1/2/3 inhibitor hmpl-453 - An orally bioavailable inhibitor of the fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) types 1, 2, and 3 (FGFR1/2/3), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, FGFR inhibitor HMPL-453 binds to and inhibits FGFR1/2/3, which may result in the inhibition of FGFR1/2/3-related signal transduction pathways. This inhibits proliferation in FGFR1/2/3-overexpressing tumor cells. FGFR, a family of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) upregulated in many tumor cell types, plays a key role in cellular proliferation, migration and survival.
  • Fgfr2 inhibitor rly-4008 - An orally bioavailable inhibitor of the fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon oral administration, FGFR2 inhibitor RLY-4008 binds to and inhibits FGFR2, which results in the inhibition of FGFR2-mediated signal transduction pathways. This inhibits the proliferation of FGFR2-overexpressing tumor cells. FGFR2, a receptor tyrosine kinase upregulated in many tumor cell types, plays a key role in cellular proliferation, migration and survival.
  • Fgfr4 antagonist incb062079 - An orally bioavailable, selective inhibitor of human fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR4), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon oral administration, FGFR4 antagonist INCB062079 specifically and irreversibly binds to the cysteine residue at position 552 (Cys 552) that is within the active site of FGFR4. This blocks FGFR4 autophosphorylation and activation of receptor tyrosine kinase activity that would normally occur after binding to its ligand fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19), which both inhibits FGFR4-mediated signaling and leads to an inhibition of tumor cell proliferation in FGF19- and FGFR4-overexpressing cells. FGFR4, a receptor tyrosine kinase, is involved in angiogenesis and in the proliferation, differentiation, and survival of tumor cells. FGFR4 expression is associated with poor prognosis. FGF19 is overexpressed by certain tumor cell types.
  • Fgfr4 inhibitor blu 9931 - An orally bioavailable, selective inhibitor of human fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR4), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon oral administration, FGFR4 antagonist BLU 9931 specifically and irreversibly binds to the cysteine residue at position 552 (Cys 552) that is within the active site of FGFR4. This blocks FGFR4 autophosphorylation and activation of receptor tyrosine kinase activity that would normally occur after binding to its ligand, fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19), which both inhibits FGFR4-mediated signaling and leads to an inhibition of tumor cell proliferation in FGF19- and FGFR4-overexpressing cells. FGFR4, a receptor tyrosine kinase, is involved in angiogenesis and in the proliferation, differentiation, and survival of tumor cells. FGFR4 expression is associated with poor prognosis. FGF19 is overexpressed by certain tumor cell types.
  • Fgfr4 inhibitor h3b-6527 - An orally bioavailable inhibitor of human fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR4), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, H3B-6527 specifically binds to and blocks FGFR4. This prevents the activation of FGFR4, inhibits FGFR4-mediated signaling and leads to an inhibition of cell proliferation in FGFR4-overexpressing tumor cells. FGFR4, a receptor tyrosine kinase overexpressed by certain tumor cell types, is involved in tumor cell proliferation, differentiation, angiogenesis, and survival; FGFR4 expression is associated with poor prognosis.
  • Fgfr4 inhibitor icp-105 - An orally bioavailable inhibitor of human fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR4), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon oral administration, ICP-105 specifically targets, binds to and blocks the binding of the ligand FGF19 to FGFR4. This prevents the activation of FGFR4, inhibits FGFR4-mediated signaling and leads to an inhibition of tumor cell proliferation in FGFR4-overexpressing cells. FGFR4, a receptor tyrosine kinase overexpressed on a variety of cancer cell types, is involved in tumor cell proliferation, differentiation, angiogenesis, and survival. FGF19 is overexpressed by certain tumor cell types.
  • Fianlimab - A monoclonal antibody directed against the inhibitory receptor lymphocyte activation gene-3 protein (LAG-3; LAG3; CD223), with potential immune checkpoint inhibitory and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, fianlimab binds to LAG-3 expressed by tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and blocks LAG-3 binding to tumor cells expressing major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules. This may activate antigen-specific T-lymphocytes and enhance cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL)-mediated tumor cell lysis, which leads to a reduction in tumor growth. LAG-3, a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF), is expressed on various immune cells; its expression on TILs is associated with tumor-mediated immune suppression and the negative regulation of both cellular proliferation and T-cell activation.
  • Fibromun - An immunocytokine consisting of human pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) fused to a human single-chain variable fragment (scFv) directed against the extra-domain B (ED-B) of fibronectin (L19), with potential immunopotentiating and antineoplastic activities. The L19 moiety of recombinant human fusion protein L19TNFalpha binds to the ED-B domain of fibronectin on tumor cells in the tumor neovasculature. In turn, the TNFalpha moiety may locally induce an immune response against ED-B fibronectin-expressing tumor cells and may specifically decrease the proliferation of ED-B-expressing tumor cells. ED-B is predominantly expressed during angiogenesis and tumor growth.
  • Ficlatuzumab - A humanized monoclonal antibody directed against human hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) with potential antineoplastic activity. Ficlatuzumab binds to the soluble ligand HGF, preventing the binding of HGF to its receptor c-Met and activation of the HGF/c-Met signaling pathway, which may result in cell death in c-Met-expressing tumor cells. c-Met, a receptor tyrosine kinase overexpressed or mutated in many tumor cell types, plays a key role in cancer cell growth, survival, angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis.
  • Figitumumab - A human monoclonal antibody directed against the insulin-like growth factor type I receptor (IGF1R) with potential antineoplastic activity. Figitumumab selectively binds to IGF1R, preventing insulin-like growth factor type 1 (IGF1) from binding to the receptor and subsequent receptor autophosphorylation. Inhibition of IGF1R autophosphorylation may result in a reduction in receptor expression on tumor cells that express IGF1R, a reduction in the anti-apoptotic effect of IGF, and inhibition of tumor growth. IGF1R is a receptor tyrosine kinase expressed on most tumor cells and is involved in mitogenesis, angiogenesis, and tumor cell survival.
  • Filanesib - A synthetic, small molecule targeting the kinesin spindle protein (KSP) with potential antineoplastic activity. Filanesib specifically inhibits KSP (kinesin-5 or Eg5), resulting in activation of the spindle assembly checkpoint, induction of cell cycle arrest during the mitotic phase, and consequently cell death in tumor cells that are actively dividing. Because KSP is not involved in postmitotic processes, such as neuronal transport, this agent does not cause the peripheral neuropathy that is often associated with tubulin-targeting agents. KSP is an ATP-dependent microtubule motor protein that is essential for the formation of bipolar spindles and the proper segregation of sister chromatids during mitosis.
  • Filgotinib - An orally bioavailable inhibitor of the tyrosine kinase Janus kinase 1 (JAK1), with potential anti-inflammatory and immunomodulating activities. Upon oral administration, filgotinib specifically targets, binds to, and inhibits the phosphorylation of JAK1, which interferes with JAK/STAT (signal transducer and activator of transcription)-dependent signaling. As JAK1 mediates signaling of many pro-inflammatory cytokines, JAK1 inhibition prevents cytokine signaling and activity in many inflammatory and immune-mediated processes and leads to a decrease in inflammation and activation of certain immune cells. JAK1 plays a key role in the signaling and activity of many cytokines and growth factors and is often dysregulated in a variety of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, as well as some malignancies.
  • Fimaporfin a - The A isomer of fimaporfin, a synthetic light-activated compound, with potential photosensitizing activity. Upon administration, fimaporfin A incorporates into the cell's endosome and lysosome membranes. Subsequently, cytotoxic agents are administered and accumulate in endosomal and lysosomal compartments; upon local activation by light, fimaporfin A produces reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as singlet oxygen, damaging endo/lysosomal membranes and accumulated cytotoxic agents are released into the tumor cell cytosol. This photochemical internalization (PCI) method can enhance the efficacy and selectivity of cytotoxic agents.
  • Fimepinostat - An orally bioavailable inhibitor of both phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) class I and pan histone deacetylase (HDAC) enzymes, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon oral administration, fimepinostat inhibits the activity of both PI3K class I isoforms and HDAC, thereby preventing the activation of the PI3K-AKT-mTOR signal transduction pathway that is often overactivated in many cancer cell types. This may prevent growth of PI3K and/or HDAC-expressing tumor cells. CUDC-907 shows an increased inhibition of tumor cell growth and induction of apoptosis when compared to inhibitors that target either PI3K or HDAC.
  • Firtecan pegol - A polyethylene glycol (PEG) conjugate of 7-ethyl-10-hydroxycamptothecin with potential antineoplastic activity. After hydrolysis in vivo, 7-ethyl-10-hydroxycamptothecin (SN38), an active metabolite of irinotecan, is released from firtecan pegol; 7-ethyl-10-hydroxycamptothecin selectively stabilizes topoisomerase I-DNA covalent complexes, resulting in single-stranded and double-stranded DNA breaks, the inhibition of DNA replication, and the induction of apoptosis. This agent is designed to deliver the active metabolite to tumor cells without the need for conversion as is the case with irinotecan. Compared to unPEGylated 7-ethyl-10-hydroxycamptothecin, PEGylation improves solubility and allows for parental delivery, and may result in a longer half-life and higher exposure for tumor cells.
  • Fish oil/glycerol/egg lecithin-based emulsion - An injectable, nutritional lipid emulsion composed of 10% fish oil and high amounts of the fish oil-derived polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Additionally, the fish oil/glycerol/egg lecithin-based emulsion contains, myristic acid, palmitic acid, palmitoleic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, linolenic acid, octadecatetraenoic acid, eicosaenoic acid, arachidonic acid, docosaenoic acid, and docosapentaenoic acid. This agent supplies essential fatty acids that can be incorporated into cell membranes. The fatty acids may decrease the production of certain pro-inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin 1 (IL-1), IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF). In addition to fish oil, this lipid emulsion contains egg phospholipids to maintain membrane integrity; glycerol to provide energy through glycolysis; and the antioxidant alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E).
  • Fisogatinib - An orally bioavailable inhibitor of human fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR4), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon oral administration, fisogatinib specifically binds to and blocks the binding of the ligand FGF19 to FGFR4. This prevents the activation of FGFR4, inhibits FGFR4-mediated signaling and leads to an inhibition of tumor cell proliferation in FGFR4-overexpressing cells. FGFR4 is a receptor tyrosine kinase and is involved in tumor cell proliferation, differentiation, angiogenesis, and survival. FGF19 is overexpressed by certain tumor cell types.
  • Flanvotumab - A monoclonal antibody directed against the melanosomal membrane protein gp75 (or Tyrosinase-Related Protein 1 (TRP1)) with potential immunostimulatory and antineoplastic activities. Anti-gp75 monoclonal antibody IMC-20D7S targets and binds to gp75. This may lead to the induction of cytotoxic T cell immune and antibody-mediated immune responses against melanoma cells expressing gp75. gp75, a pigmentation-associated antigen, is expressed in melanosomes of human melanocytes and melanomas.
  • Flaxseed - Seed isolated from one of several species of the plant genus Linum. Flaxseed-derived foods, lignans, and essential fatty acids such as alpha-linolenic acid, possess anti-inflammatory, lipid-lowering, antioxidant, and antineoplastic properties.
  • Flotetuzumab - An anti-CD123/anti-CD3 bispecific humanized monoclonal antibody with potential immunostimulatory and antineoplastic activities. Flotetuzumab possesses two antigen-recognition and binding sites, one for the CD3 complex, a group of T-cell surface glycoproteins that complex with the T-cell receptor (TCR), and one for CD123, a tumor-associated antigen (TAA) overexpressed on the surface of certain tumor cells. Upon administration of flotetuzumab, this bispecific antibody simultaneously binds to both CD3-expressing T-cells and CD123-expressing cancer cells, thereby crosslinking CD123-expressing tumor cells and cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTLs). This may result in potent CTL-mediated cell lysis of CD123-expressing tumor cells. CD123, the interleukin-3 receptor alpha chain, is overexpressed in a variety of hematological malignancies; its expression is low or absent in normal hematopoietic progenitors and stem cells.
  • Floxuridine - A fluorinated pyrimidine monophosphate analogue of 5-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine-5'-phosphate (FUDR-MP) with antineoplastic activity. As an antimetabolite, floxuridine inhibits thymidylate synthase, resulting in disruption of DNA synthesis and cytotoxicity. This agent is also metabolized to fluorouracil and other metabolites that can be incorporated into RNA and inhibit the utilization of preformed uracil in RNA synthesis.
  • Flt3 inhibitor ff-10101 succinate - The succinate salt form of FF-10101, a FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3; CD135; STK1; FLK2) inhibitor, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration of FLT3 inhibitor FF-10101 succinate (FF-10101-01), FF-10101 irreversibly binds to and inhibits the activity of FLT3. This inhibits the proliferation of FLT3-expressing cancer cells. FLT3, a class III receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK), is overexpressed or mutated in most B lineage neoplasms and in acute myeloid leukemias.
  • Flt3 inhibitor hm43239 - A selective, reversible type I inhibitor of FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3; CD135; STK1; FLK2) with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration of FLT3 inhibitor HM43239, it reversibly binds to and inhibits the activity of FLT3. This inhibits the proliferation of FLT3-expressing cancer cells. FLT3, a class III receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK), is overexpressed or mutated in most B-lineage neoplasms and in acute myeloid leukemias.
  • Flt3 inhibitor ski-g-801 - An orally bioavailable inhibitor of both wild type and mutant forms of FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3; CD135; STK1; FLK2), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, FLT3 inhibitor SKI-G-801 binds to and inhibits the activity of FLT3, including FLT3-ITD (internal tandem duplications), FLT3-D835Y as well as other mutants. This inhibits uncontrolled FLT3 signaling and results in the inhibition of proliferation in tumor cells overexpressing FLT3. FLT3, a class III receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK), is overexpressed or mutated in most B lineage neoplasms and in acute myeloid leukemias, and plays a key role in tumor cell proliferation. In addition, SKI-G-801 also inhibits, to a lesser degree, the receptor tyrosine kinases AXL (UFO), Mer, Ret, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 (VEGFR1), Fms, fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFR) 1 and 3, and the serine/threonine kinases Aurora B and C.
  • Flt3 ligand/anti-ctla-4 antibody/il-12 engineered oncolytic vaccinia virus rival-01 - An oncolytic vaccinia virus (VV; VACV) genetically engineered to express an Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 (Flt3) ligand, an antibody directed against the human T-cell-expressed receptor cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) and the human pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-12 (IL-12), with potential immunomodulating and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration of the Flt3 ligand/anti-CTLA-4 antibody/IL-12 engineered oncolytic VV RIVAL-01, the virus preferentially targets, infects and replicates in tumor cells, causing oncolysis. In turn, the lysed tumor cells release various tumor-associated antigens (TAAs), which induce an immune response against the tumor cells. In addition, the Flt3 ligand, the anti-ctla-4 antibody and IL-12 are expressed by the VV in the cancer cells and may activate the immune system within the tumor microenvironment (TME), thereby stimulating both innate and adaptive immune responses. The anti-CTLA-4 antibody targets and binds to CTLA-4 expressed on T-cells and inhibits the CTLA-4-mediated downregulation of T-cell activation, which promotes T-cell activation. Flt3 ligand binds to the Flt3 tyrosine kinase receptor and promotes Flt3 signaling which plays an important role in expanding the population of antigen-presenting dendritic cells (DCs). IL-12 activates natural killer cells (NKs), induces the secretion of interferon-gamma and promotes CD8 cytotoxic T-cell responses against tumor cells, which may result in immune-mediated tumor cell death and inhibition of tumor cell proliferation.
  • Flt3 tyrosine kinase inhibitor ttt-3002 - An orally bioavailable indolocarbazole derivative and inhibitor of constitutively active mutant forms of FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) with potential antineoplastic activity. Following administration, FLT3 tyrosine kinase inhibitor TTT-3002 binds to and inhibits ligand-dependent dimerization and autophosphorylation of mutant forms of FLT3 with constitutively activating mutations, including FLT3 internal tandem duplication (FLT3/ITD) and the activating point mutation D835Y. Prevention of autophosphorylation inhibits uncontrolled FLT3 signaling and may result in the inhibition of proliferation in tumor cells expressing constitutively active mutant forms of FLT3. The ability of TTT-3002 to inhibit FLT3 proteins with activating point mutations may result in increased efficacy because the activity of these mutants are resistant to other FLT3 kinase inhibitors. FLT3, a tyrosine kinase receptor, plays a role in the regulation of hematopoietic progenitor cell proliferation, and in leukemic cell proliferation and survival. Constitutively activating mutations of FLT3 are the most frequent genetic alterations in acute myeloid leukemia.
  • Flt3/abl/aurora kinase inhibitor kw-2449 - An orally available inhibitor of FMS-related tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3, STK1, or FLK2), the tyrosine kinase ABL, and aurora kinases, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, FLT3/ABL/Aurora kinase inhibitor KW-2449 specifically binds to and inhibits both wild-type and mutated forms of FLT3, ABL and aurora kinases, which both interferes with the activation of signal transduction pathways mediated by these kinases and reduces the proliferation of susceptible cancer cells. FLT3 and ABL kinases are upregulated in certain tumor cells and play important roles in tumor cell proliferation and metastasis. Aurora kinases, serine-threonine kinases overexpressed by a wide variety of cancer cell types, play essential roles in mitotic checkpoint control.
  • Flt3/cdk4/6 inhibitor flx925 - An orally available inhibitor of FMS-related tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3, STK1, or FLK2) and the cyclin-dependent kinases 4 (CDK4) and 6 (CDK6), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, FLT3/CDK4/6 inhibitor FLX925 specifically binds to and inhibits FLT3, which interferes with the activation of FLT3-mediated signal transduction pathways and reduces cell proliferation in cancer cells that overexpress FLT3. In addition FLX925 inhibits CDK4 and 6 and prevents the phosphorylation of retinoblastoma (Rb) protein in early G1. Inhibition of Rb phosphorylation prevents CDK-mediated G1-S phase transition, which causes G1 phase cell cycle arrest, suppresses DNA synthesis and inhibits cancer cell growth. FLT3, a class III tyrosine kinase receptor, is overexpressed in a variety of cancers. Overexpression of CDK4/6, which is seen in certain types of cancer, causes cell cycle deregulation.
  • Flt3/fgfr dual kinase inhibitor max-40279 - An orally bioavailable inhibitor of the fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) and FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3; CD135; STK1; FLK2), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon oral administration of FLT3/FGFR dual kinase inhibitor MAX-40279, this agent binds to and inhibits both FGFR and FLT3, including FLT3 mutant forms, which results in the inhibition of FGFR/FLT3-mediated signal transduction pathways. This inhibits proliferation in FGFR/FLT3-overexpressing tumor cells. FGFR, a family of receptor tyrosine kinases, is upregulated in many tumor cell types. FLT3, a class III receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK), is overexpressed or mutated in most B-lineage neoplasms and in acute myeloid leukemias. They both play key roles in cellular proliferation and survival.
  • Flt3/kit kinase inhibitor akn-028 - An orally bioavailable protein tyrosine kinase inhibitor for FMS-related tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3; STK1) and stem cell factor receptor (SCFR; KIT), with potential antineoplastic activity. FLT3/KIT kinase inhibitor AKN-028 binds to and inhibits both the wild-type and mutated forms of FLT3 and SCFR. This may result in an inhibition of tumor cell proliferation in cancer cell types that overexpress these receptor tyrosine kinases.
  • Flt3/kit/csf1r inhibitor nms-03592088 - An orally bioavailable inhibitor of the receptor tyrosine kinases FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3; CD135; STK1; FLK2), the mast/stem cell factor receptor c-Kit (SCFR; KIT) and colony stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R; CSF-1R; C-FMS; CD115; M-CSFR), with potential antineoplastic and immunomodulating activities Upon administration, FLT3/KIT/CSF1R inhibitor NMS-03592088 binds to and inhibits the activity of FLT3, KIT and CSF1R. This prevents FLT3, KIT and CSF1R-mediated signaling and results in the inhibition of proliferation in tumor cells overexpressing FLT3, KIT and CSF1R. In addition, NMS-03592088 binds to CSF1R expressed on monocytes, macrophages, and osteoclasts and inhibits the binding of the CSF1R ligands colony-stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1) and interleukin-34 (IL-34), to CSF1R. This prevents CSF1R activation and CSF1R-mediated signaling in these cells. This blocks the production of inflammatory mediators by macrophages and monocytes and reduces inflammation. By blocking the recruitment to the tumor microenvironment and activity of CSF1R-dependent tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), NMS-03592088 inhibits the immunomodulating activity by macrophages and enhances T-cell infiltration and antitumor T-cell immune responses, which inhibits the proliferation of tumor cells. FLT3, a class III receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK), is overexpressed or mutated in most B lineage neoplasms and in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), and plays a key role in tumor cell proliferation. c-Kit, a transmembrane protein and receptor tyrosine kinase, is overexpressed in solid tumors and hematological malignancies; it plays a key role in the regulation of cell differentiation and proliferation. CSF1R, also known as macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor (M-CSFR) and CD115 (cluster of differentiation 115), is a cell-surface receptor for its ligand colony stimulating factor 1 (CSF1) and plays major roles in tumor cell proliferation and metastasis.
  • Flt3/mertk inhibitor mrx-2843 - An orally bioavailable inhibitor of two receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), FMS-like tyrosine kinase-3 (Flt3; CD135; fetal liver kinase-2; Flk2) and tyrosine-protein kinase Mer (MerTK; proto-oncogene c-Mer; Mer), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, MRX-2843 targets and binds to both Flt3 and MerTK. This prevents ligand-dependent phosphorylation and activation of Flt3 and MerTK, which inhibits the activation of their downstream signaling pathways. This induces apoptosis and inhibits proliferation of Flt3- and/or MerTK-overexpressing tumor cells. Flt3 and MerTK, are overexpressed in certain tumor cell types and play key roles in tumor cell proliferation and survival.
  • Flu matrix peptide p58-66 - A short chain synthetic antigenic peptide (GILGFVFTL) derived from the influenza virus A matrix protein and presented by HLA-A2 major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules. Flu matrix peptide p58-66 stimulates the lytic functions of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), which may result in the eradication of virus-infected or malignant tumor cells.
  • Fludarabine - A fluorinated nucleotide antimetabolite analog of the antiviral agent vidarabine (ara-A) with antineoplastic activity. Administered parenterally as a phosphate salt, fludarabine phosphate is rapidly dephosphorylated to 2-fluoro-ara-A and then phosphorylated intracellularly by deoxycytidine kinase to the active triphosphate, 2-fluoro-ara-ATP. This metabolite may inhibit DNA polymerase alpha, ribonucleotide reductase and DNA primase, thereby interrupting DNA synthesis and inhibiting tumor cell growth.
  • Fludarabine phosphate - The phosphate salt of a fluorinated nucleotide antimetabolite analog of the antiviral agent vidarabine (ara-A) with antineoplastic activity. Fludarabine phosphate is rapidly dephosphorylated to 2-fluoro-ara-A and then phosphorylated intracellularly by deoxycytidine kinase to the active triphosphate, 2-fluoro-ara-ATP. This metabolite may inhibit DNA polymerase alpha, ribonucleotide reductase and DNA primase, thereby interrupting DNA synthesis and inhibiting tumor cell growth.
  • Flumatinib - An orally bioavailable tyrosine kinase inhibitor flumatinib, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, flumatinib inhibits the wild-type forms of Bcr-Abl, platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) and mast/stem cell growth factor receptor (SCFR; c-Kit) and forms of these proteins with certain point mutations. This results in the inhibition of both Bcr-Abl-, PDGFR- and c-Kit-mediated signal transduction pathways, and the proliferation of tumor cells in which these kinases are overexpressed. Bcr-Abl fusion protein is an abnormal, constitutively active enzyme expressed in Philadelphia chromosome positive chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) or acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). PDGFR, upregulated in many tumor cell types, is a receptor tyrosine kinase essential to cell migration and the development of the microvasculature. c-kit, a receptor tyrosine kinase mutated and constitutively activated in certain tumors, plays a key role in tumor cell survival, proliferation, and differentiation.
  • Flumatinib mesylate - The orally bioavailable, mesylate salt form of the tyrosine kinase inhibitor flumatinib, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, flumatinib inhibits the wild-type forms of Bcr-Abl, platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) and mast/stem cell growth factor receptor (SCFR; c-Kit) and forms of these proteins with certain point mutations. This results in the inhibition of both Bcr-Abl-, PDGFR- and c-Kit-mediated signal transduction pathways, and the proliferation of tumor cells in which these kinases are overexpressed. Bcr-Abl fusion protein is an abnormal, constitutively active enzyme expressed in Philadelphia chromosome positive chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) or acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). PDGFR, upregulated in many tumor cell types, is a receptor tyrosine kinase essential to cell migration and the development of the microvasculature. c-kit, a receptor tyrosine kinase mutated and constitutively activated in certain tumors, plays a key role in tumor cell survival, proliferation, and differentiation.
  • Fluorine f 18 psma-1007 - A radioconjugate containing the human prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA)-targeting ligand, PSMA-1007, labeled with the radioisotope fluorine F 18, with potential imaging activity using positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT). Upon administration of fluorine F 18 PSMA-1007, the PSMA-1007 moiety targets and binds to PSMA-expressing tumor cells. This allows for visualization of PSMA-expressing cells upon imaging. PSMA, a tumor-associated antigen (TAA) and type II transmembrane protein, is expressed on the membrane of prostatic epithelial cells and strongly overexpressed in prostate cancer (PCa) cells, with its level rising with increasing tumor differentiation and in hormone-refractory cancers.
  • Fluorine f 18 rhpsma-7.3 - A radiohybrid prostate specific membrane antigen (rhPSMA) ligand, rhPSMA-7.3, labeled with the radioisotope fluorine F 18, with potential imaging activity using positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) or positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI). Upon administration of fluorine F 18 rhPSMA-7.3, the rhPSMA-7.3 moiety targets and binds to PSMA-expressing tumor cells. This allows for visualization of PSMA-expressing cells upon imaging. PSMA, a tumor-associated antigen (TAA) and type II transmembrane protein, is expressed on the membrane of prostatic epithelial cells and strongly overexpressed in prostate cancer (PCa) cells, with its level rising with increasing tumor differentiation and in hormone-refractory cancers.
  • Fluorodopan - An alkylating agent with potential antineoplastic activity. Fluorodopan alkylates DNA at the N7 position of guanine. Alkylating agents exert cytotoxic and, in some cases, chemotherapeutic effects by transferring alkyl groups to DNA, thereby damaging DNA and interfering with DNA replication and cell division.
  • Fluoropyrimidine - Any fluoropyrimidine-based agent with potential antineoplastic activity. As an antimetabolite, a fluoropyrimidine interferes with pyrimidine utilization and incorporation into DNA and RNA.
  • Fluorouracil - An antimetabolite fluoropyrimidine analog of the nucleoside pyrimidine with antineoplastic activity. Fluorouracil and its metabolites possess a number of different mechanisms of action. In vivo, fluoruracil is converted to the active metabolite 5-fluoroxyuridine monophosphate (F-UMP); replacing uracil, F-UMP incorporates into RNA and inhibits RNA processing, thereby inhibiting cell growth. Another active metabolite, 5-5-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine-5'-O-monophosphate (F-dUMP), inhibits thymidylate synthase, resulting in the depletion of thymidine triphosphate (TTP), one of the four nucleotide triphosphates used in the in vivo synthesis of DNA. Other fluorouracil metabolites incorporate into both RNA and DNA; incorporation into RNA results in major effects on both RNA processing and functions.
  • Fluorouracil implant - An implant containing a sustained release particle of fluorouracil, an antimetabolite fluoropyrimidine analog of the nucleoside pyrimidine, with antineoplastic activity. Upon implantation and subsequent release, fluorouracil is converted into the active metabolite 5-fluoroxyuridine monophosphate that competes with the pyrimidine uracil during RNA synthesis while another active metabolite, 5-5-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine-5'-O-monophosphate, inhibits thymidylate synthase and thus DNA synthesis.
  • Fluorouracil-e therapeutic implant - An injectable collagen matrix gel containing the antimetabolite fluorouracil and the sympathicomimetic agent epinephrine with potential antineoplastic activity. After intratumoral injection, fluorouracil is converted into the active metabolite 5-fluoroxyuridine monophosphate that competes with uracil during RNA synthesis while another active metabolite, 5-5-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine-5'-O-monophosphate, inhibits thymidylate synthase and, so, DNA synthesis. Epinephrine, a potent vasoconstrictor, is added to the gel to enhance penetration of fluorouracil into tumor tissue and reduce dispersion to surrounding tissues, thus enhancing the local concentration of fluorouracil. Compared to systemic administration, the intratumoral injection of fluorouracil combined with epinephrine may increase fluorouracil's chemotherapeutic efficacy while minimizing systemic toxicity.
  • Fluoxymesterone - A halogenated derivative of 17-alpha-methyltestosterone. Similar to testosterone, fluoxymesterone binds to and activates specific nuclear receptors, resulting in an increase in protein anabolism, a decrease in amino acid catabolism, and retention of nitrogen, potassium, and phosphorus. This agent also may competitively inhibit prolactin receptors and estrogen receptors, thereby inhibiting the growth of hormone-dependent tumor lines. Fluoxymesterone is approximately five times more potent than methyltestosterone.
  • Flutamide - A toluidine derivative and a nonsteroidal antiandrogen that is structurally related to bicalutamide and nilutamide. Flutamide and its more potent active metabolite 2-hydroxyflutamide competitively block dihydrotestosterone binding at androgen receptors, forming inactive complexes which cannot translocate into the cell nucleus. Formation of inactive receptors inhibits androgen-dependent DNA and protein synthesis, resulting in tumor cell growth arrest or transient tumor regression.
  • Fluvastatin - A synthetic lipid-lowering agent with antilipidemic and potential antineoplastic properties. Fluvastatin competitively inhibits hepatic 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase, which catalyzes the conversion of HMG-CoA to mevalonate, a key step in cholesterol synthesis. This agent lowers plasma cholesterol and lipoprotein levels, and modulates immune responses through the suppression of MHC II (major histocompatibility complex II) on interferon gamma-stimulated antigen-presenting cells such as human vascular endothelial cells. Due to its anti-inflammatory effects mediated by alterations of lipid metabolism, fluvastatin may possess chemopreventive and therapeutic antineoplastic properties.
  • Fluvastatin sodium - The sodium salt of a synthetic lipid-lowering agent with potential antineoplastic activity. Fluvastatin competitively inhibits hepatic 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase, the enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of HMG-CoA to mevalonate, a key step in cholesterol synthesis. This agent lowers plasma cholesterol and lipoprotein levels, and modulates immune responses through the suppression of MHC II (major histocompatibility complex II) on interferon gamma-stimulated, antigen-presenting cells such as human vascular endothelial cells. Through the inhibition of mevalonate synthesis, statins, like fluvastatin, have been shown to inhibit the production of dolichol, geranylpyrophosphate (GPP) and farnesylpyrophosphate (FPP) and the isoprenylation of the intracellular G-proteins Ras and Rho, which may result in antiangiogenic, apoptotic, and antimetastatic effects in susceptible tumor cell populations.
  • Fluzoparib - An orally available inhibitor of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) types 1 and 2, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon oral administration, fluzoparib inhibits PARP 1 and 2 activity, which inhibits PARP-mediated repair of damaged DNA via the base excision repair (BER) pathway, enhances the accumulation of DNA strand breaks, promotes genomic instability, and leads to an induction of apoptosis. The PARP family of proteins catalyze post-translational ADP-ribosylation of nuclear proteins, which then transduce signals to recruit other proteins to repair damaged DNA. PARP inhibition may enhance the cytotoxicity of DNA-damaging agents and may reverse tumor cell chemoresistance and radioresistance.
  • Fms/trk tyrosine kinase inhibitor plx7486 tosylate - The tosylate salt form of PLX7486, a selective inhibitor of the receptor tyrosine kinases colony-stimulating factor-1 receptor (CSF1R; fms) and neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor types 1, 2 and 3 (TrkA, TrkB, and TrkC, respectively) with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, PLX7486 binds to and inhibits the activity of these tyrosine kinases. This inhibits Fms and Trk-mediated signaling transduction pathways that are upregulated in certain cancer cell types. This may eventually halt tumor cell proliferation in Fms and TrkA, TrkB, and/or TrkC-overexpressing tumor cells. Fms and TrkA, TrkB, and TrkC are receptor tyrosine kinases that are upregulated or mutated in a variety of tumors and promote tumor cell proliferation and survival.
  • Folate binding protein e39 peptide vaccine - A cancer vaccine comprised of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) A2 restricted folate binding protein (FBP) epitope E39 (amino acids 191 to 199), with potential immunostimulatory and antineoplastic activity. Upon intradermal injection, FBP E39 peptide vaccine may induce a specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against FBP-expressing tumor cell types. FBP is a membrane-bound, tumor-associated antigen highly overexpressed in various tumor cell types, such as in breast, ovarian and endometrial cancers; E 39 is a strong immunogenic peptide.
  • Folate binding protein j65 peptide vaccine - A cancer vaccine comprised of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A2-restricted folate binding protein (FBP) epitope J65 (9 amino acids; EIWTFSTKV), with potential immunostimulatory and antineoplastic activities. Upon intradermal injection, FBP J65 peptide vaccine may induce a specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against J65 FBP-expressing tumor cell types. FBP is a membrane-bound, tumor-associated antigen overexpressed in various tumor types, including breast, ovarian and endometrial cancers. J65 is a strongly immunogenic peptide.
  • Folate receptor targeted epothilone bms753493 - A folate receptor-targeting antimitotic agent with potential antineoplastic activity. Folate receptor-targeted epothilone BMS753493 contains an epothilone moiety linked to a single folate molecule. Mediated through the folate moiety, this agent delivers the antimitotic epothilone component into cells expressing folic acid receptors, frequently upregulated in many types of tumor cells. After ligand-receptor internalization, the epothilone moiety induces microtubule polymerization and stabilizes microtubules against depolymerization, resulting in the inhibition of mitosis and cellular proliferation.
  • Folate receptor-targeted tubulysin conjugate ec1456 - An injectable targeted small molecule drug conjugate (SMDC) consisting of folate (vitamin B9) covalently linked to the potent mitotic poison and cytotoxic agent, tubulysin B hydrazide (Tub-B-H) with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, the folate moiety of folate receptor-targeted tubulysin conjugate EC1456 preferentially binds to tumor cells expressing folate receptors (FR). After binding to FR, the agent is internalized by tumor cells and the Tub-B-H moiety inhibits the polymerization of tubulin into microtubules. This may lead to both cell cycle arrest and tumor cell apoptosis. FR, the membrane-bound, high-affinity receptor for folate, is overexpressed on a wide range of primary and metastatic human cancers.
  • Folate receptor-targeted vinca alkaloid ec0489 - A folate receptor-targeting cytotoxic drug conjugate consisting of a folate vitamin analogue linked to a vinca alkaloid microtubule destabilizing agent with potential antineoplastic activity. Mediated through its folate moiety, folate receptor-targeted vinca alkaloid EC0489 delivers the cytotoxic vinca alkaloid moiety directly to cells expressing folic acid receptors, frequently upregulated in many types of tumor cells. After ligand-receptor internalization, the vinca alkaloid moiety binds to tubulin and disrupts microtubule assembly-disassembly dynamics, resulting in cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. The relative tumor cell specificity of this agent reduces the toxicity profile of its vinca alkaloid moiety.
  • Folate receptor-targeted vinca alkaloid/mitomycin c ec0225 - A folate receptor-targeting cytotoxic agent with potential antineoplastic activity. Folate receptor-targeted vinca alkaloid/mitomycin C EC0225 contains two potent cytotoxic agents, a vinca alkaloid and mitomycin C, linked to a single folate molecule. Mediated through the folate moiety, this agent delivers the cytotoxic agents directly into cells expressing folic acid receptors, frequently upregulated in many types of tumor cells. After ligand-receptor internalization, the vinca alkaloid moiety binds to tubulin and disrupts microtubule assembly-disassembly dynamics, resulting in cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Mitomycin C alkylates DNA, producing DNA cross-links and inhibiting DNA replication. The relative tumor cell specificity of EC0225 reduces the toxicity profiles of its cytotoxic agent moieties.
  • Folate-fitc - A conjugate consisting of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) conjugated with folate with potential antineoplastic activity. Folate-FITC binds to folate receptors, which are overexpressed on the surfaces of many cancer cells including kidney and ovarian cancer cells. Once bound to the cancer cell through the folate moiety of the conjugate, circulating anti-fluorescein antibodies may recognize and bind to the FITC moiety, resulting in antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity.
  • Folitixorin - A folate-based biomodulator with potential antineoplastic activity. 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate (MTHF) stabilizes the covalent binding of the fluorouracil metabolite 5-5-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine-5'-O-monophosphate (FdUMP) to its target enzyme, thymidylate synthase, which results in inhibition of thymidylate synthase, depletion of thymidine triphosphate (TTP), a necessary constituent of DNA, and tumor cell death. Unlike leucovorin, MTHF, as the active form of folate, does not require metabolic activation and may increase the chemotherapeutic effects of fluorouracil with lower toxicity.
  • Foretinib - An orally bioavailable small molecule with potential antineoplastic activity. Foretinib binds to and selectively inhibits hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) receptor c-MET and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2), which may result in the inhibition of tumor angiogenesis, tumor cell proliferation and metastasis. The proto-oncogene c-MET has been found to be over-expressed in a variety of cancers. VEGFR2 is found on endothelial and hematopoietic cells and mediates the development of the vasculature and hematopoietic cells through VEGF signaling.
  • Foritinib succinate - The succinate salt form of foritinib, an orally bioavailable inhibitor of the receptor tyrosine kinases anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) and C-ros oncogene 1 (ROS1), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon oral administration, foritinib targets, binds to and inhibits the activity of ALK and ROS1, which leads to the disruption of ALK- and ROS1-mediated signaling and the inhibition of cell growth in ALK- and ROS1-expressing tumor cells. In addition, foritinib is able to cross the blood brain barrier. ALK and ROS1, overexpressed or mutated in many tumor cell types, play key roles in tumor cell proliferation, survival, invasion and metastasis.
  • Formestane - A synthetic steroidal substance with antineoplastic activity. Formestane binds irreversibly to and inhibits the enzyme aromatase, thereby blocking the conversion of cholesterol to pregnenolone and the peripheral aromatization of androgenic precursors into estrogens.
  • Forodesine hydrochloride - The hydrochloride salt of the synthetic high-affinity transition-state analogue forodesine. Forodesine binds preferentially to and inhibits purine nucleotide phosphorylase (PNP), resulting in the accumulation of deoxyguanosine triphosphate and the subsequent inhibition of the enzyme ribonucleoside diphosphate reductase and DNA synthesis. This agent selectively causes apoptosis in stimulated or malignant T-lymphocytes. A transition state analogue is a substrate designed to mimic the properties or the geometry of the transition state of reaction.
  • Fosbretabulin - A water-soluble prodrug derived from the African bush willow (Combretum caffrum) with antineoplastic activity. Fosbretabulin is dephosphorylated to its active metabolite, combretastatin A4, which binds to tubulin and inhibits microtubule polymerization, resulting in mitotic arrest and apoptosis in endothelial cells. As apoptotic endothelial cells detach from their substrata, tumor blood vessels collapse; the acute disruption of tumor blood flow may result in tumor necrosis.
  • Fosbretabulin disodium - The disodium salt of a water-soluble phosphate derivative of a natural stilbenoid phenol derived from the African bush willow (Combretum caffrum) with potential vascular disrupting and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, the prodrug fosbretabulin is dephosphorylated to its active metabolite, the microtubule-depolymerizing agent combretastatin A4, which binds to tubulin dimers and prevents microtubule polymerization, resulting in mitotic arrest and apoptosis in endothelial cells. In addition, this agent disrupts the engagement of the endothelial cell-specific junctional molecule vascular endothelial-cadherin (VE-cadherin) and so the activity of the VE-cadherin/beta-catenin/Akt signaling pathway, which may result in the inhibition of endothelial cell migration and capillary tube formation. As a result of fosbretabulin's dual mechanism of action, the tumor vasculature collapses, resulting in reduced tumor blood flow and ischemic necrosis of tumor tissue.
  • Fosbretabulin tromethamine - The tromethamine salt form of prodrug fosbretabulin, a water-soluble phosphate derivative of a stilbenoid phenol derived from the African bush willow (Combretum caffrum) with antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, fosbretabulin is dephosphorylated to its active metabolite, combretastatin A4, which targets and binds to tubulin dimers and prevents microtubule polymerization, thereby resulting in mitotic arrest and apoptosis in endothelial cells. As apoptotic endothelial cells detach from their substrata, tumor blood vessels collapse; the acute disruption of tumor blood flow may result in tumor necrosis.
  • Fosgemcitabine palabenamide - A pyrimidine analogue and a proprietary prodrug based on an aryloxy phosphoramidate derivative of gemcitabine with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon intravenous administration and cellular uptake, fosgemcitabine palabenamide is converted into the active metabolites difluorodeoxycytidine di- and triphosphate (dFdCDP, dFdCTP). dFdCDP inhibits ribonucleotide reductase, thereby decreasing the deoxynucleotide pool available for DNA replication; dFdCTP is incorporated into DNA, resulting in premature termination of DNA replication and eventually induction of apoptosis. With the phosphoramidate moiety on the gemcitabine monophosphate group, NUC-1031 has improved properties over its parent molecule: 1) is more lipophilic and accumulates in cancer cells by passive diffusion and does not require a nucleoside transporter, 2) as the agent is delivered in the monophosphate form, the first phosphorylation step by deoxycytidine kinase is not required, 3) this agent is not susceptible to deactivation by cytidine deaminase cleavage of the monophosphorylated form. Altogether, this may help overcome resistance to gemcitabine.
  • Fosifloxuridine nafalbenamide - A phosphoramidate-based prodrug of the monophosphate (MP) form of 5-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine (FUdR; FUDR), the active metabolite of fluorouracil (5-FU), an antimetabolite fluoropyrimidine analog of the pyrimidine nucleoside, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration of the nucleotide analog prodrug fosifloxuridine nafalbenamide, fosifloxuridine nafalbenamide is readily taken up by tumor cells. In the tumor cell, the phosphoramidate moiety is removed and fosifloxuridine nafalbenamide is converted to its active form FUDR-MP. In turn, FUDR-MP binds to and inhibits thymidylate synthase (TS), resulting in the depletion of thymidine triphosphate (TTP) and thus DNA synthesis. With the phosphoramidate moiety attached to FUDR-MP, fosifloxuridine nafalbenamide, compared to 5-FU, is more lipophilic and accumulates in cancer cells by passive diffusion and does not require a nucleoside transporter, thereby generating higher intracellular concentrations. In addition, compared to 5-FU, once inside the cell FUDR-MP does not need to be phosphorylated and is already in its active form. Unlike 5-FU, fosifloxuridine nafalbenamide does not get deactivated or converted into toxic metabolites by dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) and thymidine phosphorylase (TP), which leads to both a longer half-life and less toxicity.
  • Foslinanib - An orally bioavailable agent with potential antineoplastic and anti-vasculogenic mimicry activities. Upon oral administration, foslinanib targets and inhibits the formation of vasculogenic mimicry (VM; vascular mimicry). By destroying the VM channels and network, cancer cells are devoid of perfusion leading to an induction of cancer cell apoptosis and inhibition of cancer cell proliferation. VM is associated with tumor metastasis.
  • Foslinanib disodium - The disodium salt form of foslinanib, an orally bioavailable agent with potential antineoplastic and anti-vasculogenic mimicry activities. Upon oral administration, foslinanib targets and inhibits the formation of vasculogenic mimicry (VM; vascular mimicry). By destroying the VM channels and network, cancer cells are devoid of perfusion leading to an induction of cancer cell apoptosis and inhibition of cancer cell proliferation. VM is associated with tumor metastasis.
  • Fosquidone - A water-soluble pentacyclic pyrolloquinone analogue of mitoquidone with potential antineoplastic activity. Currently, the mechanism of action of fosquidone is unknown. In vitro studies indicate that this agent does not bind to DNA or inhibit topoisomerases.
  • Fostriecin - An anti-tumor antibiotic isolated from the bacterium Streptomyces pulveraceus. Fostriecin inhibits topoisomerase II catalytic activity, resulting in impaired DNA and RNA synthesis in various malignant cell types. This agent also inhibits serine/threonine protein phosphatase type 2A in some tumor cell types, thereby interfering with cellular proliferation and differentiation.
  • Fotemustine - A chloroethylating nitrosourea with antineoplastic activity. Fotemustine alkylates guanine by forming chloroethyl adducts at the 6 position of guanine, resulting in N1-guanine and N3-cytosine cross linkages, inhibition of DNA synthesis, cell cycle arrest, and finally apoptosis. This agent is lipophilic and crosses the blood-brain barrier.
  • Fotretamine - A pentaethyleneimine derivative with antineoplastic alkylating activity. Fotretamine causes chromosomal breaks in lymphocytes which contributes to its immunosuppressive activity.
  • Fowlpox virus vaccine vector - A recombinant fowlpox virus-based vaccine vector designed to express various tumor-associated peptide antigens. Strong CD8 cytotoxic T cell responses may be induced after prolonged immunization with fowlpox virus vaccines and have been associated with tumor regression. Fowlpox virus is an attractive vector because its genome is easy to manipulate and it does not multiply in human tissues. (NCI05)
  • Fowlpox-ny-eso-1 vaccine - A cancer vaccine consisting of a recombinant fowlpox virus vector encoding an immunogenic peptide derived from the cancer-testis antigen NY-ESO-1, an antigen found in normal testis and various tumors, including bladder, breast, hepatocellular, melanoma, and prostate cancers. Vaccination with NY-ESO-1 peptide vaccine may stimulate the host immune system to mount a humoral and cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response against tumor cells expressing NY-ESO-1 antigen, resulting in tumor cell lysis. (NCI05)
  • Fpv vaccine cv301 - A cancer vaccine consisting of a recombinant fowlpox viral (FPV) vector encoding both the two human tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and mucin-1 (MUC-1), and TRICOM, which is comprised of the three human immune-enhancing co-stimulatory molecules B7-1, ICAM-1 and LFA-3, with potential immunostimulatory and antineoplastic activities. Upon subcutaneous administration following the administration of a proprietary modified vaccinia Ankara developed by Bavarian Nordic-based prime vaccine MVA-BN-CV301, the FPV vaccine CV301, which is used as a booster vaccine, activates a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against CEA- and MUC-1-expressing tumor cells. In addition, the CV301-dependent anti-tumor CTL response upregulates the expression of programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1); therefore, when FPV-CV301 is combined with a programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) immune checkpoint inhibitor, the antitumor effect may be increased. The TAAs CEA and MUC-1 are overexpressed in a variety of cancers.
  • Fpv-brachyury-tricom vaccine - A cancer vaccine consisting of a recombinant fowlpox viral (FPV) vector encoding the human transcription factor and tumor-associated antigen (TAA) brachyury, and a triad of T-cell co-stimulatory molecules (TRICOM), which is comprised of the three human immune-enhancing co-stimulatory molecules B7-1, ICAM-1 and LFA-3, with potential immunostimulatory and antineoplastic activities. Upon subcutaneous administration occurring after the administration of a proprietary modified vaccinia Ankara developed by Bavarian Nordic-based prime vaccine (MVA-BN-brachyury), the booster vaccine FPV-brachyury vaccine potentiates a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response against brachyury-expressing tumor cells. The expression of brachyury, a member of the T-box family of transcription factors that is overexpressed in numerous cancer cell types, is correlated with increased epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), cancer resistance, cancer progression and metastasis. TRICOM enhances antigen-specific T-cell activation.
  • French maritime pine bark extract - A nutritional supplement containing an extract obtained from the French maritime pine bark Pinus pinaster, with potential immunomodulating and antioxidant activities. The French maritime pine bark extract contains high amounts of the phytochemicals proanthocyanidins. Proanthocyanidins are able to scavenge free radicals, and therefore may inhibit cellular damage. This extract may also ameliorate the symptoms of lymphedema and improve blood flow. It might also stimulate the immune system and have antioxidant effects.
  • Fresolimumab - A pan-specific, recombinant, fully human monoclonal antibody directed against human transforming growth factor (TGF) -beta 1, 2 and 3 with potential antineoplastic activity. Fresolimumab binds to and inhibits the activity of all isoforms of TGF-beta, which may result in the inhibition of tumor cell growth, angiogenesis, and migration. TGF-beta, a cytokine often over-expressed in various malignancies, may play an important role in promoting the growth, progression, and migration of tumor cells.
  • Fruit and vegetable extract - Extracts from plants, such as fruits and vegetables, that contain fiber, vitamins, minerals, and other natural substances with antioxidant, lipid-lowering, and antiproliferative properties. Used in chemoprevention therapy, these extracts may prevent the development or recurrence of cancer.
  • Fruquintinib - An orally available, small molecule inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGFRs), with potential anti-angiogenic and antineoplastic activities. Upon oral administration, fruquintinib inhibits VEGF-induced phosphorylation of VEGFRs 1, 2, and 3 which may result in the inhibition of migration, proliferation and survival of endothelial cells, microvessel formation, the inhibition of tumor cell proliferation, and tumor cell death. Expression of VEGFRs may be upregulated in a variety of tumor cell types.
  • Fulvestrant - A synthetic estrogen receptor antagonist. Unlike tamoxifen (which has partial agonist effects) and the aromatase inhibitors (which reduce the estrogen available to tumor cells), fulvestrant binds competitively to estrogen receptors in breast cancer cells, resulting in estrogen receptor deformation and decreased estrogen binding. In vitro studies indicate that fulvestrant reversibly inhibits the growth of tamoxifen-resistant, estrogen-sensitive, human breast cancer cell lines.
  • Fumagillin-derived polymer conjugate xmt-1107 - A polymeric prodrug consisting of the fumagillol-derived small molecule XMT-1191 tethered to the hydrophilic, biodegradable70 kDa polymer poly[1-hydroxymethylethylene hydroxymethylformal] (PHF) with potential antiangiogenic and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, fumagillin-derived polymer conjugate XMT-1107 releases XMT-1191, which may inhibit angiogenesis through the irreversible inhibition of the methionine aminopeptidase 2 (METAP2); although the exact mechanism of action has yet to be fully elucidated, this agent appears to induce cell cycle arrest in endothelial cells, inhibiting their proliferation and migration. Compared to an unconjugated fumagillin analog, XMT-1107 exhibits improved solubility and an extended half life due to its PHF backbone. METAP2, a member of the methionyl aminopeptidase family, binds two cobalt or manganese ions and protects the alpha subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (EIF2) from inhibitory phosphorylation by removing the amino-terminal methionine residue from nascent protein; this aminopeptidase may be overexpressed in a variety of tumor cell types.
  • Fursultiamine - A nutritional supplement and vitamin B1 derivative, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon oral administration, fursultiamine inhibits the expressions of octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (OCT-4), SRY (sex determining region Y)-box 2 (SOX-2), and Nanog homeobox (NANOG) in cancer stem cells (CSCs). This may inhibit the proliferation of CSCs thereby preventing tumor cell growth. In addition, fursultiamine inhibits the expression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters subfamily B member 1 (ABCB1) and subfamily G member 2 (ABCG2) in cancer CSCs, which may abrogate resistance to chemo- and radiotherapy in CSCs. CSCs promote tumor initiation, progression and metastasis; they play a key role in cancer recurrence and resistance to chemotherapy and radiation.
  • Futibatinib - An orally bioavailable inhibitor of the fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) with potential antineoplastic activity. Futibatinib selectively and irreversibly binds to and inhibits FGFR, which may result in the inhibition of both the FGFR-mediated signal transduction pathway and tumor cell proliferation, and increased cell death in FGFR-overexpressing tumor cells. FGFR is a receptor tyrosine kinase essential to tumor cell proliferation, differentiation and survival and its expression is upregulated in many tumor cell types.
  • Futuximab - A recombinant, chimeric monoclonal antibody directed against the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR; ErbB1; HER1), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, futuximab targets and binds to an epitope located in the extracellular domain (ECD) of EGFR, which causes internalization and degradation of EGFR, including the mutated EGFR variant III (EGFRvIII). This prevents EGFR-mediated signaling, thereby inhibiting EGFR-dependent tumor cell proliferation. EGFR, a receptor tyrosine kinase, is overexpressed on the cell surfaces of various solid tumor cell types.
  • Futuximab/modotuximab mixture - A mixture of two recombinant IgG1 antibodies directed against different epitopes in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) extracellular domain III, with potential antineoplastic activity. Anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody mixture Sym004 binds to the extracellular domain of EGFR, thereby preventing ligand binding. This may prevent activation and subsequent dimerization of the receptor; the decrease in receptor activation may result in an inhibition of downstream ERK and JNK signaling pathways and thus inhibition of EGFR-dependent tumor cell proliferation and metastasis. In addition, binding of Sym004 to EGFRs causes EGFR internalization and degradation. EGFR, a receptor tyrosine kinase, often is overexpressed on the cell surfaces of various solid tumor cell types.

Alphabetic list of antineoplastic agents - 0-9 - A1 - A2 - A3 - A4 - A5 -A6 - B - C - D - E - F - G - H - I - JK - L - M - NO - PQ - R - S - T - UVW - XYZ

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